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aries1988 : ww1   23

诸神的黄昏
《春之祭》从文化史的角度给出了一个不同的解释:那场战争本质上是一场对旧秩序的宏大反叛,而这种普遍的内在冲动早已在人们的意识深处燃起。

这是一部德国视角的文化史,不说别的,单是这种从文化角度来看待战争冲突的想法就非常德国。可以说,一战本身就是一场“文化”对“文明”的战争:保守倾向的英法所讲究的是从市民社会发展而来的“文明”(civilization),但在反叛者看来,在戴着谦恭有礼和尊重国际法的虚伪面具下,仍是弱肉强食的丛林规则;而德国所推崇的“文化”(Kultur)则更偏向精神、道德与意志,按斯宾格勒的观点,那是生命进程或历史的基本现象,所有历史的文化象征都暗示着生命的形而上奥秘——这种带有神秘倾向的内在冲动,在英国的“文明人”看来则是非理性的、不守文明规范的。

在很大程度上,它也深受德国历史哲学的影响,带有浓厚的德国文化气息,那种从绘画、舞蹈等艺术类型切入来洞察时代精神变迁的手法,与斯宾格勒《西方的没落》如出一辙,也势必像前者一样饱受争议。不过显然,作者对“德国文化”也有其相对狭隘的界定——例如马克思主义这个同样主张斗争与解放的德国思潮,就并未包括在他的分析之中。对于政治人物那种诸如“维护德国人的感情”、“出于责任和荣誉”之类的说辞,他似乎也并未加以怀疑。从某种程度上说,这本《春之祭》本身的书写就像是沉醉在对复原那段历史的审美体验之中,那与其说是一段历史,不如说是一部歌剧。
ww1  deutsch  zeitgeist  art  book  war  uk  explained  civ  culture 
7 weeks ago by aries1988
What Happens When a Bad-Tempered, Distractible Doofus Runs an Empire? | The New Yorker

About a decade ago, I published “George, Nicholas and Wilhelm: Three Royal Cousins and the Road to World War I,” a book that was, in part, about Kaiser Wilhelm, who is probably best known for being Queen Victoria’s first grandchild and for leading Germany into the First World War. Ever since Donald Trump started campaigning for President, the Kaiser has once again been on my mind—his personal failings, and the global fallout they led to.

Wilhelm’s touchiness, his unpredictability, his need to be acknowledged: these things struck a chord with elements in Germany, which was in a kind of adolescent spasm—quick to perceive slights, excited by the idea of flexing its muscles, filled with a sense of entitlement.
deutschland  history  ww1  leader  personality  disaster  war  book  trump 
november 2018 by aries1988
The end of the First World War - History Extra
As we approach the centenary of the armistice, Gary Sheffield explores the final moments of the conflict that devastated the world for four and a half years
ww1  comparison  deutschland  uk  france  war  why 
november 2018 by aries1988
World War I Relived Day by Day
Sometimes, it led to intriguing surprises, like photographs of dragon dances performed by some of the 140,000 Chinese laborers brought over to France to lend muscle to the Allied war effort.
ww1  experience  online  history  memory  instapaper_favs  daily  now 
november 2018 by aries1988
日本与沙俄之战:一战的东亚版本
为了鼓舞日本国民,从1968年开始,作家司马辽太郎在《产经新闻》发表连载小说《坂上之云》,以明治陆军“骑兵之父”秋山好古、被评为“智谋如涌”的海军参谋秋山真之、创作俳句《法隆寺》的诗人正冈子规为主人公,描绘了从明治维新到日俄战争的30余年历史,希望以一本“乐观主义者的故事”来唤醒日本国民对于重建战后日本的热情。“坂上之云”便比喻 当年的日本人一边追逐着“山坡上的云”一边前进,来自明治时代的昂扬感激励起战后日本人重新建设经济强国。

历史上被称为“第〇次世界大战”的战争有很多,如丘吉尔认为普鲁士同盟与法奥俄同盟之间的七年战争(1756-1763)是最早的世界大战,拿破仑战争(1803-1815)、普鲁士统一战争 (1864-1871)都有过类似称呼。相比之下,日俄战争(1904-1905)得获此名的逻辑更为直接:正如二战爆发由一战结束后的“分赃不均”及过度制裁德国而埋下种子,一战爆发的始源也来自于日俄战争后国际关系的变动。

随着日俄战争走向尾声,沙俄的实力进一步遭到削弱,不得不从中国东北与朝鲜半岛退出,英俄矛盾骤然减小;另一方面德奥同盟的力量愈发强大,法国在北非殖民地面临巨大挑战,只能寻求英国的支持,这也促使英国与法国的盟友——沙俄之间越走越近。

日俄战争本质上是英国与日本、沙俄与法国两大利益集团在远东的一次博弈,战争虽然以日本取胜、沙俄落败,但两大集团却成功形成相互认同,进而以互相认可势力范围、签订协约为基础,成立“协约国”集团。从这个角度讲,第一次世界大战并不是“三国协约”,而是包括日本在内的“四国协约”。

倒退回“三足鼎立”时代,如果没有沙俄与日本之间矛盾升级,欧洲的利益关系很可能出现另一种形态:事实上英德两国在1900年已经达成《扬子江协定》,规定双方在华利益范围;1901年德国甚至提出与英国、日本结为“三国同盟”。如果同盟成立,那么一战的对立形态就不再是“英法俄”对阵“德奥土”,而有可能变成“英德”对阵“俄法”,那无论一战的结果如何,20世纪乃至于现代历史的发展都会完全不同。
1900s  war  japan  russia  diplomacy  explained  ww1  europe  china 
september 2018 by aries1988
Austria and Italy clash over South Tyrol citizenship proposal
Vienna proposes citizenship for residents of region formerly part of Austro-Hungarian empire
italia  austria  war  ww1  today 
december 2017 by aries1988
Norbert Elias se confronte à l’Allemagne

Les Allemands. Evolution de l’habitus et luttes de pouvoir aux XIXe et XXe siècles (Studien über die Deutschen. Machtkämpfe und Habitusentwicklung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert), de Norbert Elias, traduit de l’allemand par Marc de Launay et Marc Joly, Seuil, « La librairie du XXIe siècle », 592 p., 35 €.

Le rêve du « Reich millénaire », l’idéal aristocratique de supériorité étendu à la masse des Allemands à travers la notion de « race », la peur du déclin et la valorisation corrélative de la force ont correspondu à l’« habitus » (ce qui dans l’individu exprime le rapport historiquement déterminé à son Etat) de bien des Allemands du temps : en effet, dans une Allemagne longtemps divisée en une multitude de petites entités, l’Etat impérial n’avait cessé de s’affaiblir depuis le Moyen Age ; et alors qu’au même moment la France et l’Angleterre se constituaient en monarchies de plus en plus puissantes et centralisées, pour les Allemands les rêves d’empire paraissaient plus fragiles.

Selon Norbert Elias, Nietzsche incarne au plus près, avant Hitler, cette peur allemande de la décomposition qui mène à la haine du faible et à l’exaltation du fort. Une autre facette de la haine de soi.
history  deutschland  deutsch  civ  ww2  ww1  society  zeitgeist  nation  philosophy  germany 
may 2017 by aries1988
Could Russia have avoided revolution in 1917?
The very different circumstances of 1917-18 were of decisive importance. In these years, Germany did everything it could to foster the cause of revolution — most famously by engineering Lenin’s return to Russia in the “sealed train”. For a year, while the Great War raged on, the Bolsheviks were able to consolidate their hold on the Russian heartland untroubled by foreign intervention. It was control over the resources and communications of this heartland that was the decisive factor in Bolshevik victory in the civil war.

the visions of a transformed and better world evident in cultural expression as well as in everyday lives. But the problem is that we know what comes next, as Stalinist terror not merely inflicted vast additional suffering on the Soviet peoples but also snuffed out most of the Revolution’s gains as regards cultural expression and female emancipation.
russia  history  revolution  ww1  germany  book  tsar 
february 2017 by aries1988
中国和日本的反差,杜威百年前怎么看? - 纽约时报中文网

但是当时中国的自由知识分子同样有着困惑,杜威在书信中写道,学生们最容易向我问到的问题是‘我们所有关于永久和平和世界主义的希望都在巴黎破碎了,这已经说明,强权就是真理。强国总是为了自己的目的牺牲弱国。那么,难道中国就不应该将军国主义也纳入我们的教育体系吗?’
history  comparison  china  japan  society  ww1  american  intelligentsia 
january 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:終於學懂了聖戰(聖戰之三)
我們不妨大膽地說,恰恰是奧圖曼帝國在它這場最後「聖戰」之後的瓦解,造成了現今世界其中幾種最激烈的政治和意識形態的衝突。往昔,奧圖曼人習慣把它管轄的地方叫做「和平之土」,在其統治之外的世界則是「戰爭之土」。這個劃分看起來非常可笑,因為它控制的地方幾乎全是依靠戰爭征服回來的。不過,這個想法背後卻有一個相當久遠的歷史基礎,可以上溯至古羅馬人所說的「羅馬和平」(Pax Romana),甚至波斯屠魯士大帝所締造的寬容太平,那就是在一個多民族、多文化的帝國之下,所有臣民都不應該為了信仰以及族裔的差別而拔刀相向。果然,奧圖曼崩潰的結局,就是中東和巴爾幹地區此後幾乎從不休止的血腥戰爭。不斷變形又不斷自我分裂的民族認同運動,和幽靈一般不停回歸的宗教認同政治,正是這一切爭端的最大觸媒。

古老帝國遇到了它不曾見過的新對手──民族主義。帝國、宗教,以及民族這三者之間的繁雜角鬥,正是尤金.羅根這部新書最叫人嘆為觀止的地方。
ww1  history  middle-east  turkey 
october 2016 by aries1988
The centenary delusion | The Economist
Today has no equivalent of the rival system of alliances that led so swiftly to escalation in July 1914, as countries marched towards the edge of the cliff like “The Sleepwalkers” (the title of another fine book about the period, by Christopher Clark).
war  asia  future  ww1  analysis  comparison  china  japan 
may 2015 by aries1988
A toxic monarch
Kaiser Wilhelm II: A Concise Life. By John Röhl. Cambridge University Press; 240 pages; $24.99 and £16.99. Buy from Amazon.com, Amazon.co.uk
IT IS hard not to…
history  germany  ww1  leader  book 
october 2014 by aries1988
The Hidden Cities of World War I
“They lived in high rises, they drove cars, they went to work on subways, they went to the movies, and they were bombarded by mass media and messaging just like we are, and it was very sophisticated,” he said. “By finding a hidden world that haunts the present and photographing it — as far as I know, this is the only direct human connection between then and now. And for the vast majority of people who are not interested in World War I, who feel no connection to it, this is a way to make it real and make it relevant.”
With these underground cities protected by landowners who often conceal or put bars over the entrances to deter looters and vandals, Mr. Gusky had to work to gain their trust. He gained access to dozens of sites, despite not speaking French and most of the landowners not speaking English.
Mr. Gusky said the soldiers who lived and died in these places have a message for us. “They’re almost begging us to ask the questions about modern life that we’ve forgotten how to ask,” he said. “How it affects our humanness. And we see on these walls a struggle to remain human in a world that had become inhuman.”
ww1  photo  underground 
september 2014 by aries1988
一战是如何改变中国命运的? - 陈季冰的个人空间 - 财经网名家博客
引子:五四运动 1919年5月3日那天是星期六。傍晚,北京各所学校照例结束一周的教学,宣布第二天放假。此时,突然传来远在巴黎参加和平会议的中国代表团外交努力失败的消息。北京大学学生连夜开会,决定发起组织请愿示威。…
history  ww1  china  explained 
august 2014 by aries1988
遥想一百年前欧洲的那个夏天 - 陈季冰的个人空间 - 财经网名家博客
"统摄20世纪中国人精神世界的,是历史进步论和历史决定论这两种相互紧密关联的观念。未来的人们将会证明,它们是一种意识形态而非科学。奇怪的是,20世纪的人类历史它实际上始于1914年第一次

"一战成为了众多古老的多民族帝国的掘墓人和现代民族国家的助产士。拥有着悠久而显赫历史的奥地利哈布斯堡王朝、沙皇俄国和奥斯曼帝国在战争中灭亡、解体,当时的世界霸权大英帝国的分崩离析也始于这场战争。许多过去闻所未闻的新国家如南斯拉夫、捷克斯洛伐克和伊拉克等出现在现代世界版图上。很大程度上,当今世界上的众多领土纠纷、民族矛盾和宗教冲突都是这些已经死亡的古老帝国躯体上溃烂不愈的伤疤。"

"对作为协约国一员的中国来说,安排战后秩序的巴黎和会美国人是怀着不加掩饰的傲慢和批判态度参加这次和会的所达成的备受各方批评的《凡尔赛和约》(Treaty ofVersailles)竟然将战败国德国在山东半岛的帝国主义权益移交给日本,而非归还战胜国中国!这第一次在中国激起了声势浩大的民族主义浪潮,并催使当时正在一门心思向西方学习的许多中国知识精英在幻想破灭之余放弃了虚伪自私的西式自由主义,转而以俄为师。也许是命运的安排,此时俄国布尔什维克们正在允诺建立的那个平等公正的新世界,瞬间成了征服这些当时的国内先进分子的最佳替代模式。"

"这一天,当战争爆发的消息传到伦敦,特拉法加广场(TrafalgarSquare)上欢声雷动这是一场许多人期待、甚至渴望的战争,虽然当时没有人知道将要打响的现代战争会是什么样子。在整个炎热的8月,英国青年尤其是贵族青年将征兵站围得水泄不通,他们快乐地排着队,准备奔赴战场。在德国,就连著名的自由主义者、作家托马斯曼(ThomasMann)也为此欢呼雀跃:战争!我们感觉到一种净化,一种自由。"

"英国在一战中失去了整整一代人,50万名30岁以下的男子在一战中身亡其中中上层阶级损失尤其严重。1914年从军的剑桥、牛津学生,25岁以下者有半数不幸为国捐躯。这些生来就是为做绅士、当军官、为普通大众树立榜样的年轻人在战场必须身先士卒,自然也就最先倒在敌人的枪林弹雨之下。他们中的幸存者有不少后来成为了美国女作家格特鲁德斯坦因(Gertrude Stein)所说的迷茫的一代(The LostGeneration,这句话是她侨居巴黎时对从意大利前线归来的海明威说的)。"

"但直到整整100后,在隆重纪念这场世界大战时,当初的主要参与国仍不能就战争爆发的原因、战争的性质及责任达成基本共识。作为主要战场,法国可以说是对一战最难以忘怀的国家;但普京治下的俄罗斯却对它漠不关心,定义它是一场将全欧洲老百姓充作炮灰的帝国主义之间的不义之战,俄国民众对更为残酷的二战(某种程度上是一战的延续,是为了偿还一战未了的债)的热心程度要高的多;在英国极力强调战争残酷的同时,德国却并不认为发起战争的自己国家是战争的罪魁祸首;在大西洋另一边,大多数美国人认为,参战各方都应该为这场谁也不想要的灾难分担罪责。"

"回到本文开头时已经提出的,我们必须严谨地看待历史,同时慎重地拿现实与历史作类比。就像历史从来不会重复一样,战争也从来不是不可避免的,认为战争无法避免的观点能够成为导致战争的重要原因。我认为,这是我们应该从100年前的那场战争中汲取的最重要的教训。"
ww1  history 
august 2014 by aries1988
The War to End All Wars? Hardly. But It Did Change Them Forever. - NYTimes.com

Nearly 12,000 soldiers are buried here — some 8,400 of them identified only as A Soldier of the Great War, Known Unto God. Despite the immensity of this space, the soldiers represent only a tiny portion of the 8.5 million or more from both sides who died, and that number a fraction of the 20 million who were severely wounded.

In Europe’s first total war, called the Great War until the second one came along, seven million civilians also died.

It gave independence to nations like Ukraine, Poland and the Baltic countries and created new nations in the Middle East with often arbitrary borders;

a system of rivalries, alliances and anxieties, driven by concerns about the growing weakness of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires and the growing strength of Germany and Russia that was likely to produce a war in any case, even if there was some other casus belli.

The memory of July 1, 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme — when 20,000 British soldiers died, 40,000 were wounded and 60 percent of officers were killed — has marked British consciousness and become a byword for mindless slaughter.

The end of the Cold War was in a sense a return to the end of World War I, restoring sovereignty to the countries of Eastern Europe, one reason they are so eager to defend it now.
ww1  today  history  battle  death  cemetery  soldier  war 
july 2014 by aries1988
In Sarajevo, Divisions That Drove an Assassin Have Only Begun to Heal

In the centenary commemorations in Sarajevo, culminating on Saturday with a concert in the old city hall, peace is the official theme. But the ethnic and nationalist divisions that motivated Princip are anything but history in this part of the world, which was ravaged only two decades ago by bloody sectarian fighting and is even now the scene of dueling efforts to define Princip’s legacy. As Europe diligently promotes an ideology of harmony, broad areas of the continent, the Middle East and elsewhere continue to struggle with versions of the destructive forces unleashed that day.

In 1914, France was, with Russia, the closest ally of Serbia: the newly independent nation that Princip saw as the linchpin of a new order in the Balkans, one that would unite all Balkan Serbs in a “greater Serbia” once the colonial hold of the Austro-Hungarians and the Ottomans had been broken.
europe  ww1  origin  balkan  crisis  ethnic  war 
june 2014 by aries1988
'The Greatest Catastrophe the World Has Seen' by R.J.W. Evans

Piqued in its prestige and fearful of the threat to its status as a great power by subversion fanned from Serbia, the Austro-Hungarian government delivered an ultimatum to its obstreperous little Balkan neighbor, demanding a say in the management of its internal affairs.

Russia stepped in to protect its Serbian clients; the Germans supported their Austrian allies; the French marched to fulfill their treaty obligations to Russia; Great Britain honored its commitment to come to the aid of France. Within five weeks a great war had broken out.
ww1  book  review 
february 2014 by aries1988

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