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aries1988 : ww2   79

被遗忘的冷战铁幕:苏台德
匈牙利的马扎尔人把自己塑造成来自中亚草原的民族。每一个匈牙利教师都在向学生描绘着马扎尔人的迁徙史和他们的故乡。当学生被这种浪漫的乡愁所打动,他们当中的很多人真的踏上了走向亚洲的道路,比如布达佩斯的犹太人斯泰因,他一直走到了敦煌。

1938年曾在慕尼黑被迫向希特勒妥协的捷克总统爱德华·贝奈斯决心从根本上解决捷克斯洛伐克的民族问题,他的选择就是《贝奈斯法》。根据二战后的《贝奈斯法》,捷克斯洛伐克共和国把国内第二大民族的德意志人全部没收财产、驱逐出境。两百多万德意志人被赶出捷克来到德国后,捷克真的成了一个民族国家。也正是在他们离去的背影里,铁幕无声地降下。横亘在这些被驱逐者和故乡之间的就是这条被遗忘的“冷战的静谧边界”。

捷克和德国之间的这条边界北到瓦尔德萨森、南到帕绍。在很多时候,这条边界看起来和东西德国之间、东西柏林之间的分界线没什么两样。

对一个美国知识分子来说,即使是在中欧这样的多民族地区,民族国家依然被看作是最理想的选择。希特勒固然令人厌恶,但他们也不反对《贝奈斯法》,况且《贝奈斯法》还是以“反纳粹”这个名义下制定出来的。

即使西方的经济起飞让他们当中的很多人改善了自己的处境,但故乡依然是难以忘却的。“在柏林看不到一座像家乡的山”,他们开着汽车或租用大巴回到这条遍布山峦和森林的边界,目的只是看一看自己的家。他们甚至靠捐款在边界的西侧修建了眺望塔,那里站得更高,像是登上了蒂伦高耸的山峰。

在这条边界上,铁幕战胜了他们,等待着他们的只能是忘记自己的过往,也最终被别人遗忘。
ww2  nation  state  ethnic  deutschland  coldwar  nostalgia  population  czech  book 
4 weeks ago by aries1988
Ghosts of D-Day: The Civilian Casualties of the Battle of Normandy – BLARB
Most Germans had actually left Caen by June 6, a fact the Allies knew, prompting one British historian to call the bombing of Caen “close to a war crime;” there are also indications that some planes flew too high to hit their targets accurately. But my mother’s family was deeply grateful for the Allies. Living in Caen, they had suffered for four years under a regime of daily humiliations and threats, of near-starvation rations. None of the survivors I knew referred to the deaths of their loved ones as a crime. Caen was bombed in order to isolate the Germans by destroying lines of communication. To call that a war crime is to fall into the same black-and-white thinking that leads us to avoid mentioning civilian deaths in the first place.
ww2  normandie  death  war  tragedy  story  family 
5 weeks ago by aries1988
多面“强人”:佛朗哥与法西斯的合作、利用与背叛

传统右派的领袖洛夫莱斯跟法西斯存在巨大的理念分歧,他虽然敬佩希特勒的能力,却不敬佩希特勒的人格,因为纳粹党意识形态建构于尼采的“超人哲学”,违背耶稣的教义。佛朗哥是虔诚的基督徒,当希特勒进攻天主教的波兰时,他非常诧异。德国的种族主义在西班牙也水土不服,雅利安人日耳曼是世界第一优等民族,这让拉丁系的西班牙无法接受,反犹风潮在西班牙也不盛行。
book  espagna  ww2  fascism 
7 weeks ago by aries1988
平成:日本第一位新式天皇的谢幕|大象公会

二战期间,日本让荷兰丧失了荷属东印度殖民地,拘捕十余万荷兰平民,结果战后荷兰社会长期对日本保持敌对情绪,1971年昭和天皇访欧途径荷兰期间,有大量愤怒民众高举「战犯」标语,要求审判天皇,甚至向迎宾车队投掷鸡蛋和保温瓶,酿成严重的外交风波。

2019年1月2日,明仁天皇出席了平成时代的最后一次「一般参贺」,向前来庆贺的国民致以新年问候,笔者也在现场。
与想象不同,现场除去十几名穿着国旗样式服装的日本右翼外,很少有人高喊「天皇陛下万岁」,更多人说的是「你好」、「这么多年辛苦了」、「谢谢您」、「祝身体健康」等问候语。
japan  emperor  ww2  netherlands  anecdote 
12 weeks ago by aries1988
A Certain Idea of France | Peter Hitchens

Charles de Gaulle’s life would perhaps have been better lived in the seventeenth or eighteenth century, in times when personal courage, mystical imagination, chivalry, and religious fervor were more welcome than they are now. In this world of the United Nations, risk assessment, lawyers, Geneva Conventions, television and superpowers, there is not really enough room for such a man to swing his sword, just as there is no room for old-fashioned great powers in the shadow of superpowers. Had he not been so magnificent, he would have been ridiculous. He looked, more than anything else, like a camel, not least because of the superior expression on his face suggesting that he alone knew the secret One Hundredth Name of God, which camels are supposed to know.

It is a strange fact that the potentially attractive political combination of liberty, domestic socialism, well-armed patriotism, and social conservatism seldom exists in the advanced countries of the West.

François ­Mitterrand, his old rival, undid almost all of de Gaulle’s work. He wholly rejected the general’s belief in an enduring, sovereign France. ­Mitterrand had been decorated by Pétain’s collaborationist Vichy government, and like many intelligent Frenchmen, saw 1940 as a moment of truth that France could not thereafter ignore. It fell to people like him to implement Hector Dexter’s vision of a Europe whose common cultural bond was Coca-Cola, and ­McDonald’s, too.
leader  president  france  français  history  ww2  europe  eu  fail  politics  bio  american  anti 
march 2019 by aries1988
The good war? - History Extra
Peter Hitchens challenges a number of popular beliefs about the Second World War
ww2  myth  historian  history  deutschland  uk  leader  opinion 
november 2018 by aries1988
A new museum captures Austria’s ambivalence about its past - The story of a horse
Most Austrians saw Austria as an aberration, cut off from its wheat in the east, its port on the Adriatic and the industry of Bohemia; the Allies denied their wish to join a “greater Germany”.

“We see ourselves as a forum for debate,” says Monika Sommer, the director. “We are quite comfortable with showing that there isn’t always one view on history.” She hopes that exhibits like the Waldheim-Pferd will prove to be “friction points” that galvanise discussion. There are bound to be controversies, she acknowledges. The museum’s aim is to provide a stage on which to air them, perhaps even to forge a new consensus.
austria  ww2  victim  history  narrative  museum  travel 
november 2018 by aries1988
内亚海洋与帝国秩序(三):秩序洼地
沒有西方的技術的話,大清早已滅亡了。如果沒有西方技術的輸出的話,中共在九十年代末期也早已滅亡了。

東亞在孔子時代是有自身的秩序的,但在秦代以後,變成了一個喪失了秩序生產力的一個被動的物質

中國處在什麼樣的地位。它是由兩套機制維持的:第一套機制就是世界資本主義的秩序,吸收了沿海地區的中國人加入他們的代工環節;第二套機制就是吏治國家的汲取機器,它從這個代工環節中間收了大量的稅款,對它進行二次再分配,用來維持官僚和軍隊機器

在舊的十九世紀,以大英帝國為首的殖民主義秩序解體以後,我剛才講過的這三種秩序,美國的威爾遜主義的秩序、蘇聯的共產國際的秩序和日本的泛亞主義秩序,為了爭奪真命天子的職位,在遠東發起了一場龍爭虎鬥的戰役,戰鬥的結果就是我們看到的中國近代史。
china  ww2  history 
september 2018 by aries1988
霍夫施塔特:美国自由主义的主要诠释者
“对我来说,迪克是学者型知识分子的典范,我试着向他学习……他工作很努力,想写出好书,但他完全没有那种经常被称为美国人成功源泉的烦人的咄咄逼人姿态。他谦虚、善良,但最重要的是,他不把自己强加于别人之上,而这似乎是知识分子特有的毛病。霍夫施塔特树立了一个可能具有道德教育意义的榜样。即使他在沉默时也能给人带来助益。”
usa  intelligentsia  ww2  book  liberalism 
july 2018 by aries1988
Hearing Poland’s Ghosts

The enormity of these events, combined with the suppression of basic truths about them, meant that their legacies were preserved covertly by their various inheritors, all with their own adamant loyalties and wrenching recollections, and that Poland in the postwar period became a place of often conflicting and fervently defended forms of collective memory.

a declaration that Polish history should be as much a part of the European historical imagination as, say, French or German history has been for educated citizens of the advanced world.

What had almost entirely vanished from collective memory was the fact that before World War II, Jewish and non-Jewish communities had coexisted in Poland for ten centuries, in a relationship that included phases of tension and benign indifference, of spiritual separateness and mutually advantageous commerce, of ideological anti-Semitism and what might be called multiculturalism avant la lettre.

more than 154,000 people, most of them civilians, lost their lives

His well-informed answer is given in a tone of almost trembling emotion, difficult to imagine among adolescent visitors to, say, the Imperial War Museum in London.

to insert the experiences of Poland and east-central Europe into Europe’s and the world’s historical memory.

As for the future of Poland’s cultural institutions, Kerski says that much depends on what might be called the civic courage of individuals in opposing repressive policies, as well as on the credibility of the European Union.
jew  poland  museum  history  today  ww2  memory  instapaper_favs  debate 
march 2018 by aries1988
Surrounded by Jew-Haters
In the early years of Nazi conquests in Eastern Europe the ravening enthusiasm for pogroms among the indigenous populations of countries such as Poland, Lithuania, and Estonia startled even the SS. However, the detestation of Jews among all levels of Romanian society, particularly intellectuals, was unrelenting.

Sebastian survived the war largely because from early on the Romanian regime shrewdly saw that Germany would be defeated and switched its policy toward the Jews in hopes of placating the victorious Allies. His survival was cut short, however, in a way that is both tragic and banal. The final note in the Journal reads: On 29 May 1945, Mihail Sebastian was hit and killed by a truck in downtown Bucharest.
writer  story  intelligentsia  romania  ww2  jew  genocide  history 
march 2018 by aries1988
The Impossible Task of Remembering the Nanking Massacre

To return to my grandfather’s China now is to wade through a morass of collective memory. After the war, in response to the rise of Communism, America and Britain began to embrace post-war, pacifist Japan. To officials in the newly formed People’s Republic of China, Japan’s destruction of their beloved land was less relevant than the Nationalists’ colossal failure to protect it. My parents first learned about the war through films in which the Nationalists, who had borne the brunt of the fighting, simply ran away, leaving brave Communist guerrilla fighters and rural villagers to drive off cruel Japanese soldiers. In 1972, Tokyo signed a joint communiqué with Beijing that absolved Japan of all war reparations in exchange for recognizing Taiwan as an “inalienable” territory of China.

Though government officials call this a defense and disaster-prevention drill, Yaya considers it a more direct reminder: On September 18, 1931, Japan staged a bombing of a railway in then-Manchuria that instigated a 14-year long invasion. Remember it like this.
nanjing  ww2  family  memory 
december 2017 by aries1988
BBC Radio 4 - In Our Time, Picasso's Guernica
Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the events behind and impact of Picasso's iconic work.
basque  nazi  history  espagna  art  ww2  civil  war 
november 2017 by aries1988
I Have a Message for You
To escape Auschwitz, she left her father to die. Decades later, she got a message from him.
video  ww2  holocaust  story  miracle  parents 
october 2017 by aries1988
Judith Kerr on refugees, Hitler and ‘The Tiger Who Came To Tea’

We loved the change, the interest of different places, and learning a language. I think the language is a huge thing because something that appears impossible, suddenly you find you’ve done it. I loved the brevity of French after the endless sentences in German. In 1935, two years after arriving in Paris speaking no French, she and her brother finished top in French in the final exams, she writes.
children  book  writing  writer  uk  ww2  nazi  kid  memory  refugee  france 
october 2017 by aries1988
Norbert Elias se confronte à l’Allemagne

Les Allemands. Evolution de l’habitus et luttes de pouvoir aux XIXe et XXe siècles (Studien über die Deutschen. Machtkämpfe und Habitusentwicklung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert), de Norbert Elias, traduit de l’allemand par Marc de Launay et Marc Joly, Seuil, « La librairie du XXIe siècle », 592 p., 35 €.

Le rêve du « Reich millénaire », l’idéal aristocratique de supériorité étendu à la masse des Allemands à travers la notion de « race », la peur du déclin et la valorisation corrélative de la force ont correspondu à l’« habitus » (ce qui dans l’individu exprime le rapport historiquement déterminé à son Etat) de bien des Allemands du temps : en effet, dans une Allemagne longtemps divisée en une multitude de petites entités, l’Etat impérial n’avait cessé de s’affaiblir depuis le Moyen Age ; et alors qu’au même moment la France et l’Angleterre se constituaient en monarchies de plus en plus puissantes et centralisées, pour les Allemands les rêves d’empire paraissaient plus fragiles.

Selon Norbert Elias, Nietzsche incarne au plus près, avant Hitler, cette peur allemande de la décomposition qui mène à la haine du faible et à l’exaltation du fort. Une autre facette de la haine de soi.
history  deutschland  deutsch  civ  ww2  ww1  society  zeitgeist  nation  philosophy  germany 
may 2017 by aries1988
Aux origines du Front national
Où l'on voit que Mme Le Pen tire autant de force de l'histoire de France que de l'état du monde...
history  france  ww2  revolution 
may 2017 by aries1988
外刊扫描|“战争认识”:日本人迟迟不愿正视历史?
1931年的满洲事变、1937年的日中战争以及1941年的太平洋战争,在中国往往被看成一个整体来作评判。而在日本,它们之间的界限被明确、刻意地区分开来。1937年开始的日中战争被看成亚洲内部战争,在亚洲战场上同欧美展开的是人种战争,与苏联则是意识形态之争,除此之外还有自存自卫、亚洲解放等等各种各样的解释。在对日本本国国民的舆论调查中,认为太平洋战争是侵略战争的占52%,认为资源匮乏而不得已向他国采取军事行动,为了生存而战的占45%,认为太平洋战争美日双方都有责任的占56%。

日德之间存在着主体选择的差异。日本认为,德国在纳粹统治时期,当时的国民对政策决定的积极赞同和强烈支持不同,日本在发动战争时,大部分的国民在当时环境下只有顺从,却要承担起战争时期不断的空袭以及原子弹攻击这样的后果。普通的日本民众无法接受,受害者意识油然而生。对于德国来说,纳粹以及支持纳粹上台的德国民众理应承担战争全责,而日本真正应该承担责任的是旧日本军,特别是陆军。

教科书塑造了普通大众最基本的历史认识。教科书中所书写的历史,也往往被当做常识。在学校教育中,每每涉及到各自国家的历史,同时也意味着他要肩负着传达政治正确的重任。各国的历史教科书分别记述了各自不同的历史观,若非亲身处在全球商业和社交聚会中,面对不同文化的冲击,否则自身很难会发现这一点。

1949年后的中国继承了民国时期对抗战的评价话语,长时间受到革命史观的熏陶。而临海的日本,关于这场战争的历史认识随着战后思想的改变而不断变换。这种历史认识的差异成为中日两国民众频频产生误解的主因。
japanese  ww2  opinion  comparison  american  history  textbook  school  deutschland  china  conflict  question 
november 2016 by aries1988
The history man: how Saul Friedländer told his own story

But when he began working on Nazi anti-Semitism in the early 1960s, little had been written on it, and it was not regarded as an entirely respectable subject either in West Germany or in Israel. Where Memory Leads offers a close-to-the-ground view of the debates, scholarly and less scholarly, that erupted in both countries from the Auschwitz trials of 1963-65 to the so-called Historians’ Battle of the late 1980s. It is a powerful reminder of just how much intellectual labour was required in West Germany to get the country to where it is today, the most historically self-aware democracy in the world. But engaging with Nazism was no simple matter for Israeli historians either, especially after 1967. The founders of the new state wanted to turn their back on a European past of victimhood and celebrate the virile heroes of the war of independence. They did at first not take kindly to Friedländer’s insistence that this too was part of the country’s past, and it took time before the political elite became as comfortable as it is today invoking the memory of the Holocaust.
holocaust  intelligentsia  book  thinking  isreal  jewish  question  deutschland  ww2  leader  germany 
november 2016 by aries1988
High Hitler: how Nazi drug abuse steered the course of history

The invasion of France was made possible by the drugs. Rommel and all those tank commanders were high

That same day, I asked him about the trains going to the camps. He told me that he saw one in the winter coming from the west, and that he said to himself: these are Russian POWs. But since it came from the west, and he heard children, and it was a cattle train, he kind of realised something weird was happening.
ww2  nazi  history  drug  war 
october 2016 by aries1988
Lost at Sea on the Brink of the Second World War - The New Yorker
When Berta Doff met Ben Cohn, in 1936, she was twenty-one years old, tall and confident, with the diction of an elocution instructor, which in fact she was.…
instapaper_favs  victim  war  ww2  sea  children  ancestor 
may 2016 by aries1988
Obama’s Visit Raises Ghosts of Hiroshima
By DAVID E. SANGER

In Japan, I don’t think there has been much real evolution, at least among the right wing and the amnesiacs who deny Japan’s destructive war in Asia and insist they were the victims, said Richard Samuels, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who has written some of the most insightful works on Japan’s military, and the pre- and postwar cultures that surrounded it. For them, Obama’s visit will be a chance to reiterate that they were right.
opinion  victim  japanese  ww2 
may 2016 by aries1988
外刊扫描|20世纪上半叶,在满洲生活的日本人
有这样一群人,他们曾和你我一样平凡,平凡到传统史学的宏大叙事中不会有他们的位置。然而,他们的日本人身份,让他们常常被国人贴上“侵略者”的标签而遭到排斥。他们淹没在宏大叙事之海,隐藏于种种结构性问题之下,丧失了表述自己的能力。他们将要遭受或已经遭受E.P.汤普森所谓的“后世子孙不屑一顾”(the enormous condescension of posterity)的命运。

这些人就是20世纪上半叶在满洲生活的普通的日本人。

被20世纪的时代洪流裹挟的他们,在那片原本不属于他们的土地上上演了一幕幕人间悲喜剧。他们的经验、价值、观念、思想、行动和欲望是怎样的?他们怎样认识自己的身份?他们和中国人的相处又发生了怎样的纠葛?
reportage  japanese  manchuria  ww2  chinese  history 
may 2016 by aries1988
Why I love a country that once betrayed me
When he was a child, George Takei and his family were forced into an internment camp for Japanese-Americans, as a “security" measure during World War II. 70 years later, Takei looks back at how the camp shaped his surprising, personal definition of patriotism and democracy.
ww2  story  usa  japanese 
april 2016 by aries1988
Atomic Bomb Victims Stand Alone
TOKYO — This newspaper’s recent obituary for Theodore Van Kirk, the last living crew member of the Enola Gay — the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on…
essay  ww2  japan  death  victim 
march 2016 by aries1988
« On peut parler d’une montée du militarisme en Chine »
La paix avec le Japon a été signée le 2 septembre sur le Missouri et le lendemain, le gouvernement nationaliste de Nankin avait décrété trois jours fériés. Le général Hsu Yung-chang représentait la République de Chine sur le Missouri, au côté de représentants d’autres pays. En tout cas, le Parti communiste chinois (PCC) n’y était pas représenté. Le 3 septembre était le début de la paix pour la Chine, donc un jour de réjouissances. Faire un défilé militaire ce jour-là est assez malsain, c’est profiter d’une occasion pour montrer qu’on est puissant.
opinion  2015  parade  chinese  ww2 
september 2015 by aries1988
Hiroshima
Of a hundred and fifty doctors in the city, sixty-five were already dead and most of the rest were wounded. Of 1,780 nurses, 1,654 were dead or too badly hurt to work. In the biggest hospital, that of the Red Cross, only six doctors out of thirty were able to function, and only ten nurses out of more than two hundred.

Hiroshima ... had been an inviting target—mainly because it had been one of the most important military-command and communications centers in Japan, and would have become the Imperial headquarters had the islands been invaded and Tokyo been captured.

As for the use of the bomb, she would say, “It was war and we had to expect it.” And then she would add, “Shikata ga nai,” a Japanese expression as common as, and corresponding to, the Russian word “nichevo”: “It can’t be helped. Oh, well. Too bad.” Dr. Fujii said approximately the same thing about the use of the bomb to Father Kleinsorge one evening, in German: “Da ist nichts zu machen. There’s nothing to be done about it.”
reportage  ww2  japan  japanese  disaster  religion  death  history  instapaper_favs 
august 2015 by aries1988
En Belgique, un passé collabo qui ne passe pas
Le gouvernement que M. Michel voulait présenter comme celui du renouveau a donc été rapidement enseveli dans un débat vieux de soixante-dix ans, d’autant plus tendu que, au-delà des échanges d’injures, il ne s’appuie que sur des données toujours partielles : les archives de l’Etat relatives à la collaboration sont toujours inaccessibles.
history  benelux  ww2 
november 2014 by aries1988
战后零年 – 桃花坞
"绝不重演"的决心让二战之后的世界格局发生了重大改变:以色列的建立是为了让欧洲的几百万犹太难民有一个自己的国家;日本和平宪法的确立是为了不让军国主义重新兴起;欧盟的组成是为了保持欧洲国家之间不再兵戎相见;联合国的建立是为了维护世界新秩序。但是生活在1945年的人们,大概也不会想到在和平到来之后,亚洲的许多地方还要经历几年的内战,东西方冷战即将开始,朝鲜战争将在几年后爆发,而德国人将会经历50多年的分裂局面。
book  ww2  story  reconciliation  war  people  life 
june 2014 by aries1988
Twitter / chinaww2: Japanese children perform parade ...
RT : 日本军国主义真不是盖的 RT : Japanese children perform parade at start of war with .
WW2  China  Japan 
may 2014 by aries1988
南京大屠杀的背后 | 简书
卢沟桥事变以后,国民政府决定在上海开辟第二战场,此举目的在于引起国际社会注意,并希望借由国际压力迫使日本停止对华北的进攻。

8月21日,在斯大林的坚持下,中国与苏联签定《互不侵犯条约》,两国和解。然后蒋中正致电斯大林:“中国今为民族生存与国际义务已竭尽其最后、最大之力量矣,且已不得已退守南京,惟待友邦苏俄实力之应援,甚望先生当机立断,仗义兴师。”请求苏联出兵援助大陆,但斯大林一直拖延到12月5日回电称:“……需在九国公约国同意共同对付日本,且经两个月后的最高苏维埃会议批准,才可出兵。”拒绝蒋介石的求援。

1938年1月11日,蒋中正在开封会议做出检讨:“我作为全军统帅第一个有罪过,我们对不起已死的官兵和同胞,对不起国家,尤其对不起自已的良心。”
history  ww2  from:rss 
march 2014 by aries1988
In Portugal, a Protector of a People Is Honored - NYTimes.com
“You hear about people who argued that they couldn’t help because it was wartime and they had their own family to worry about, but here was a man with a career, a wife and an incredible amount of children who certainly did do something for others,” Ms. Hartog said.
from:kindle  choice  portugal  ww2 
july 2013 by aries1988
“被遗忘的战争” - 荐读 - FT中文网
http://www.instapaper.com/read/400467816
在二战中丧生的中国人可能达到1500万,接近英美两国二战死亡总数的20倍。然而几十年来,作为执政党的中国共产党员很少提及这次战争。毕竟,这不是专属于他们的战争。国民党领导人蒋介石当时是中国的主要指挥官。米特写道,中共当时是蒋介石的“小伙伴”。实际上,按照米特的说法,毛泽东是个相对次要的人物,当时他躲在延安的穷乡僻壤里,静观战局变化。中共的部队偶尔会与日军作战,不过在抗战期间,他们还不时与国民党军打起来。

1949年,毛泽东打赢了中国内战并把蒋介石赶到了台湾,此后他并不愿过多谈及手下败将国民党军在抗战中的壮举。正是出于这个原因,在毛泽东统治时代,日本人对国民党治下的重庆进行的长期轰炸(相当于中国版的伦敦闪击战(the London Blitz))仅仅被那些曾经历过的人们默默地记在心里。

毛泽东时代过后,中共大张旗鼓地重提抗日战争的话题,在很大程度上是因为需要新的意识形态来取代共产主义。在1989年天安门事件之后,这一需求变得非常迫切。米特在书中告诉我,独裁统治下“可以做到两件事。其一是把经济治理得极其出色,另一件事就是让人们体会到民族自豪感。民族主义是一种极有影响力的手段。”南斯拉夫与中国的情况相类似,斯洛博丹•米洛舍维奇(Slobodan Milosevic)也用民族主义取代了共产主义。
report  ww2  china 
july 2013 by aries1988
How Shanghai Saved the Jews
I don’t generally hold Chinese museums in high regard (though there are some exceptions, such as the Shaanxi Provincial Museum in Xi’an). Many Chinese museums have spectacular artifacts, whether lacquerware or locomotives, but, regardless of language, they are often bad at explanation and storytelling and beholden to the imperatives of The Official Narrative. This is a minor tragedy. The Forbidden City should be one of the great museums of the planet. It’s not. It’s a glorious structure holding a bunch of disconnected and poorly explained stuff. And, no, it’s not because Chiang Kai Shek took a lot of the good stuff to Taiwan (although he did). The story is accurate, insofar as it goes, but as with many Chinese museums the Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum is interesting less for what it includes than for what it elides. For example, it is true that Shanghai accepted the Jewish refugees at a time when the US and UK shamefully didn’t. But that was because Shanghai didn’t require an entry visa, so anyone could (and did) land there. Left unmentioned is that the open borders were the result of Shanghai’s status as foreign treaty port under the infamous Treaty of Nanking (the same one that ceded Hong Kong to the British after the First Opium War – and we know how the Chinese felt about that).
http://www.instapaper.com/read/337691198
museum  china  history  narration  ww2 
november 2012 by aries1988
别拿日本书出气
有两条台北的街道,值得存记。一条叫重庆南路,另一条叫牯岭街。这两个路名,都和抗战有关。1937年“卢沟桥事变”后,蒋介石在庐山牯岭发表了关键的抗战宣告。出乎当时许多人意料,原本迟迟不愿意以军事行动抵抗日本的蒋介石,开战之后却显现了惊人的决心与毅力,将首都迁往重庆,以示周旋到底的决心。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/327486637
japan  ww2  china  reading 
october 2012 by aries1988
Soldaten: On Fighting, Killing and Dying by Sönke Neitzel and Harald Welzer – review | Books | The Observer
Discovered in 2001 by the historian Sönke Neitzel, the transcripts of conversations between German prisoners of war, secretly recorded by the British and American intelligence services, offer a vivid and at times surprising insight into the mentality of the German military.

the decisive factor in making atrocities possible was "a general realignment from a civilian to a wartime frame of reference". For many of the recruits, war was simply the continuation of work by other means.
googlereader  war  ww2  enemy  human  behavior  killing  psychology  soldier  history 
october 2012 by aries1988
柴静:没深夜痛哭过的人,不足以谈人生
柴静:没有深夜痛哭过的人,不足以谈人生。很多事不用问值不值得,只用问,它对你来说,是不是有如珍宝。
story  taiwan  war  conflict  tragedy  home  shandong  heze  death  parents  ww2  son 
august 2012 by aries1988
黄仁宇谈日本
最近几年每逢重要的抗战周年,有如1995年的战事结束五十周年和1997年的卢沟桥事变六十周年,都有朋友邀请参加他们的集会。我都借词推托,原来电话里也难能解释,他们的集会,都有发愤雪耻示威之含义,我如参加,势必表态。朋友们没有想到,在重要的集会表态已不只是私人言论而近于公众之行动。我虽然不反对他们集会的动机,但是既已牵涉上国民外交,应当瞻前顾后,将所有有关因素提出通盘考虑,我的专长在历史,本来应当就所知提供年轻的朋友们参考,但是当中的复杂曲折不可能在群情激昂的集会当头解释得明白。即是今日濡笔临纸,还怕写得不妥当,徒生误解。 http://www.instapaper.com/read/294989882
china  japan  ww2  war  history  today  future 
june 2012 by aries1988
Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 [Repost]
Tony Judt, "Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945"
Publisher: P.ng//n | ISBN: 0143037757 | 2006 | EPUB/MOBI | 960 pages | 2 MB/3 MB
ww2  europe  postwar  history  1945  reading 
march 2012 by aries1988
车过高黎贡,驶向腾冲
云南我来过两次;第一次就是到芒市;第二次是到丽江大理;那次就是因为时间关系;没能去成腾冲。去年和今年曲戈就一直约我来云南过年;可是种种客观;没来成;到了2月底;曲戈再一次来约;说他带一张车;先去版纳再到芒市和腾冲。
yunnan  china  history  ww2  japan  travel 
april 2011 by aries1988
别让评价什么的影响你啊 (评论: 萤火虫之墓)
根据《日本陆海军事典》引用的日本厚生省援护局1956年3月调查数据,从1937年7月7日到1945年8月14日(“芦沟桥事变”到日本宣布无条件投降前),日军战死的185万人中,在中国(不包括东北)战死40.46万人(与上述数据一致),在“满洲”(即中国东北)战死2.65万人,在缅甸战死 16.2万人。 
  也就是说,在八年的侵略战争中: 
  日军在中国战场被击毙40.46万人,约占22%; 
  在中国东北战死2.65万人,主要是1939年在诺门坎冲突中死亡8800人和1945年苏联出兵东北的战果。苏军击毙日军约2万人,占二战中日军死亡总数的1.1%。则八年抗战期间,抗日联军在东北击毙日军只有6000人左右。 
  日军在缅甸战死16.2万人,除去中国远征军击毙日军1万多人外约15万人主要系英军击毙,占8%。 
  在太平洋战场被美军击毙的日军为125万人,占67%。换言之,二战中2/3的日军系被美军击毙,美国毫无疑问是战胜日本的头号主力。 
  根据空袭 海军爸爸 和沉没的军舰。推测是指美日太平洋战争 
  这应该就是萤火虫之墓的背景。 
ww2  japan  numbers 
march 2011 by aries1988

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