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charlesarthur : cpu   6

Intel CPU shortages to worsen in 2Q19, says Digitimes Research • Digitimes
Jim Hsiao:
<p>Shortages of Intel's CPUs are expected to worsen in the second quarter compared to the first as demand for Chromebooks, which are mostly equipped with Intel's entry-level processors, enters the high period, according to Digitimes Research.

Digitimes Research expects Intel CPUs' supply gap to shrink to 2-3% in the first quarter with Core i3 taking over Core i5 as the series hit hardest by shortages.

The shortages started in August 2018 with major brands including Hewlett-Packard (HP), Dell and Lenovo all experiencing supply gaps of over 5% at their worst moment.

Although most market watchers originally believed that the shortages would gradually ease after vendors completed their inventory preparations for the year-end holidays, the supply gap in the fourth quarter of 2018 still stayed at the same level as that in the third as HP launched a second wave of CPU inventory buildup during the last quarter of the year, prompting other vendors to follow suit.

Taiwan-based vendors were underprepared and saw their supply gaps expand from a single digit percentage previously to over 10% in the fourth quarter.</p>


A "supply gap" implies that the (PC) vendor can't raise prices to reduce demand to match the supply. But if all the big names are suffering, why don't they want to raise prices?
pc  intel  cpu  shortage 
6 weeks ago by charlesarthur
Apple's move to ARM-based Macs creates uncertainty • Axios
Ina Fried:
<p>What we're hearing: Although the company has yet to say so publicly, developers and Intel officials have privately told Axios they expect such a move as soon as next year.

• Bloomberg offered a bit more specificity on things in a <a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-02-20/apple-is-said-to-target-combining-iphone-ipad-mac-apps-by-2021">report</a> on Wednesday, saying that the first ARM-based Macs could come in 2020, with plans to offer developers a way to write a single app that can run across iPhones, iPads and Macs by 2021.<br />• The first hints of the effort came last year when Apple offered a sneak peek at its plan to make it easier for developers to bring iPad apps to the Mac.

Why it matters: The move could give developers a way to reach a bigger market with a single app, although the transition could be bumpy. For Intel, of course, it would mean the loss of a significant customer, albeit probably not a huge hit to its bottom line.

Our thought bubble:<br />• If anything, the Bloomberg timeline suggests that Intel might actually have more Mac business in 2020 than some had been expecting.<br />• The key question is not the timeline but just how smoothly Apple is able to make the shift. For developers, it will likely mean an awkward period of time supporting new and classic Macs as well as new and old-style Mac apps.</p>


That sounds backward. You'd offer devs the way to have cross-platform apps first, so they can write for it. Then you introduce ARM Macs, on which the ARM-first code will run a lot faster. Unless the cross-compilation to Intel is too hard.. except we know it isn't, because there are already four Marzipan apps.

So I'd expect the app framework this year, ARM Macs next year.
intel  arm  cpu  apple 
8 weeks ago by charlesarthur
Apple's iPad Pro A12X nearly matches top-end x86 CPUs in GeekBench • ExtremeTech
Joel Hruska:
<p>There are persistent rumors that Apple will start swapping Intel CPUs for its own silicon in 2020. From there, it’s easy to connect the dots and think that this is evidence of Intel’s own performance collapse, the end of x86, etc. Digging deeper into results often gives a more nuanced picture of what’s going on and where the limits and problems are. For example: One potential reason these results favor Apple is that Apple is still building its laptops with DDR3-2133, while its iPads use LPDDR4 at higher clocks. In theory, a laptop with DDR4-2400 instead of DDR3-2133 would perform a bit better in these tests.

If Apple wants to truly take the general-purpose CPU performance crown away from Intel by 2020 and replace x86 silicon with its own ARM chips, it’s going to have to either improve those areas of performance where it still lags far behind its competitor or say goodbye to the community of Mac users that rely on superior performance in those types of mathematical operations. That’s going to cost the company power and die area at some level. This is by no means an insurmountable problem — it’s more-or-less exactly what Intel did when it transformed its Pentium M Dothan core (2003) into Nehalem (2008). Dothan was a great CPU with some multimedia processing weak spots compared with its predecessors. Over time, Intel fixed those weaknesses and added new capabilities, setting the stage for a brand-new architecture to debut a decade ago.

The other major issue Apple will have to continue to work on is the suitability of iOS as a serious work platform. iPad Pro reviews have always praised the tablet for its build quality and performance. The question of whether you can use it as a replacement for a traditional laptop (including a Mac laptop) has always come down to software support and ease-of-use.</p>
apple  cpu  intel 
november 2018 by charlesarthur
Hacker finds hidden 'God mode' on old x86 CPUs • Tom's Hardware
Paul Wagenseil:
<p>The backdoor completely breaks the protection-ring model of operating-system security, in which the OS kernel runs in ring 0, device drivers run in rings 1 and 2, and user applications and interfaces ("userland") run in ring 3, furthest from the kernel and with the least privileges. To put it simply, Domas' God Mode takes you from the outermost to the innermost ring in four bytes.

"We have direct ring 3 to ring 0 hardware privilege escalation," Domas said. "This has never been done."

That's because of the hidden RISC chip, which lives so far down on the bare metal that Domas half-joked that it ought to be thought of as a new, deeper ring of privilege, following the theory that hypervisors and chip-management systems can be considered ring -1 or ring -2.

"This is really ring -4," he said. "It's a secret, co-located core buried alongside the x86 chip. It has unrestricted access to the x86."

The good news is that, as far as Domas knows, this backdoor exists only on VIA C3 Nehemiah chips made in 2003 and used in embedded systems and thin clients. The bad news is that it's entirely possible that such hidden backdoors exist on many other chipsets.

"These black boxes that we're trusting are things that we have no way to look into," he said. "These backdoors probably exist elsewhere."</p>


It's almost certain, isn't it? If it's not the software or the firmware or the hardware, it's the software/firmware/hardware that <em>controls</em> the hardware.
security  hacking  intel  cpu  backdoor  hardware 
august 2018 by charlesarthur
How Meltdown and Spectre were independently discovered by four research teams at once • WIRED
Andy Greenberg:
<p>The Graz team's discovery, an attack that would come to be known as Meltdown, proved a critical crack in one of computing's most basic safeguards. And perhaps most troubling of all, the feature they had exploited was introduced into Intel chips in the mid-1990s. The attack had somehow remained possible, without any apparent public discovery, for decades.

Yet when Intel responded to the trio's warning—after a long week of silence—the company gave them a surprising response. Though Intel was indeed working on a fix, the Graz team wasn't the first to tell the chip giant about the vulnerability. In fact, two other research teams had beaten them to it. Counting another, related technique that would come to be known as Spectre, Intel told the researchers they were actually the fourth to report the new class of attack, all within a period of just months.

"As far as I can tell it’s a crazy coincidence," says Paul Kocher, a well-known security researcher and one of the two people who independently reported the distinct but related Spectre attack to chipmakers. "The two threads have no commonality," he adds. "There’s no reason someone couldn’t have found this years ago instead of today."</p>


I'd imagine there were people in security agencies who found this a while ago, and liked it. The coincidental discovery? There are tons of people everywhere who are trying to find security glitches and hacks.
security  cpu  sceptre  meltdown  hacking 
january 2018 by charlesarthur
When does your OS run? >> Gustavo Duarte
Here’s a question: in the time it takes you to read this sentence, has your OS been running? Or was it only your browser? Or were they perhaps both idle, just waiting for you to do something already?

These questions are simple but they cut through the essence of how software works. To answer them accurately we need a good mental model of OS behavior, which in turn informs performance, security, and troubleshooting decisions. We’ll build such a model in this post series using Linux as the primary OS, with guest appearances by OS X and Windows. I’ll link to the Linux kernel sources for those who want to delve deeper.

The fundamental axiom here is that at any given moment, exactly one task is active on a CPU.


A good introduction for just what your computer is up to when you aren't looking. Or are looking. Educational value: high.
os  cpu 
december 2014 by charlesarthur

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