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Notes about the control codes present in VT220, VT240, VT3x0, VT420, and later DEC terminals
Notes about the control codes present in VT220, VT240, VT3x0, VT420, and later
DEC terminals. These models all implement supersets of the VT100's features.

-====-====-====-====-====-====-====-====-====-====-====-

By special request, here are the controls for
"Visual Character and Line Attributes" in DEC terminals.

The sequence CSI Ps;Ps;Ps m (or 7-bit ESC [ Ps;Ps;Ps m)
allow visual attributes to be set for some characters.
The VT100 and/or VT102 could perform only a few attributes;
models beginning with the VT300 series could do more.

The values of "Ps" follow:

Ps Attribute Mode
---- ------------------ ------
0 all attributes off all
1 bold all
4 underline all
5 blinking all
7 negative image all
8 invisible VT300+
22 bold off VT300+
24 underline off VT300+
25 blinking off VT300+
27 negative image off VT300+
28 invisible off VT300+

Line attributes were set as follows:

Sequence Attribute Mnemonic Special
-------- --------------------------------- -------- ------------
ESC # 5 single-width, single-height line DECSWL
ESC # 6 double-width, single-height line DECDWL

ESC # 3 double-width, double-height line DECDHL (top half)
ESC # 4 double-width, double-height line DECDHL (bottom half)

Please observe that the VT320 is *not* a color terminal. It has only
a monochrome screen. The VT340 is a color terminal, but does not obey
the ISO-6249/ECMA-48 color controls (it can do ReGIS graphics colors,
as can the VT241).

As far as I know, the only DEC terminal to implement and actually be
able to display ISO-6249/ECMA-48 color controls is the VT525 (which
was actually made for DEC by Boundless).

Of course, many contemporary "VT320-emulator" software products do
implement ISO-6249/ECMA-48 color, as an enhancement. (This has led
to incorrect folklore that a real VT320 was a color terminal.)

These color controls are the 30-37 foreground, 40-47 background
arguments to the SGR control sequence.

...RSS

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Newsgroups: comp.terminals
Path: cs.utk.edu!emory!europa.eng.gtefsd.com!howland.reston.ans.net!EU.net
!uknet!bradford.ac.uk!M.T.Shipley
Message-ID: <1994May3.083827.1469@bradford.ac.uk>
Lines: 57
Organization: University of Bradford, UK
References: <2pqn0d$njb@urmel.informatik.rwth-aachen.de>
Date: Tue, 3 May 1994 08:38:27 GMT
From: M.T.Shipley@bradford.ac.uk (MT SHIPLEY)
Subject: Re: Unknown VT220 Escape Sequences

Thomas Gellekum (thomas@ghpc8.ihf.rwth-aachen.de) wrote:
:
: Moin moin,

: The TPU-editor on VMS uses some escape sequences for VT220 that aren't
: explained in the programmers manual. They tend to garble output in my
: VT220 Emulator here. Does anyone know what they are supposed to do?

: CSI 1;2'z
: CSI 0'z

DECELR - DEC Enable Locator Reports

CSI Ps ; Pu ' z

Ps
0 locator disabled (default)
1 locator reports enabled
2 one shot

Pu --- specifies coordinate units
0 default to character cells
1 device physical pixels
2 character cells

: CSI 1;3'{

DECSLE - Select Locator Events

CSI P...P ' {

P...P one or more selective parameters:

0 Respond only to explicit host requests
1 Report button down transitions
2 Do not report button down transitions
3 Report button up transitions
4 Do not report button up transitions


: Is there an authoritative list of possible responses to a primary DA
: request? The manual gives just examples, not a complete list.

: Please reply by e-mail, I don't normally read this group. I'll post a
: summary if there's interest.

Opps, reply for news, so you better read this :-)

Martin

: Thomas Gellekum, thomas@ghpc8.ihf.rwth-aachen.de

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

There are two distinct ways to issue a reset command to a VT220 terminal.

Mnemonic Command Sequence Explanation
-------- ------------------- ------------------ -----------------------------

DECSTR Soft terminal reset Escape [ ! p sets terminal to power-up
default states

RIS Hard terminal reset Escape c replaces all terminal set-up
parameters with NVR values or
power-up default values if
NVR values do not exist.

("VT220 Programmer Pocket Guide" EK-VT220-HR-001, page 33)

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
terminal  console  commandline  cli  shell  unix  vt100  reference 
7 days ago by dusko
Clear! (clear your terminal screen) | Linux.org
The Ctrl-l shortcut only works as a shortcut for the "clear" command if you have readline {see *} set to use the default emacs input option. But it doesn't work if you set the vi input mode - at least not when in edit mode.

{* NOTE: readline is a utility that is used by bash and other shells to get input from the user.}

I use the following line in my .bashrc, which puts readline into vi input mode:
Code:

set -o vi

In the vi input mode, the Ctrl+l keybind is only available when in 'command' mode. So you have to hit <esc> and then Ctrl-l. Which is not really very helpful. It would also be handy to have it available in 'insert' mode too.

The good news is - you can easily add a keybind for Ctrl-l for 'insert' mode by adding the following line to your .bashrc:
Code:

bind -m vi-insert "\C-l":clear-screen

Alternatively, instead of editing .bashrc - you could create or edit .inputrc, which is a config file used by readline:

set editing-mode vi
$if mode=vi

# Set up a Ctrl+l key-bind for vi's insert-mode
set keymap vi insert
Control-l: clear-screen

# Set up a Ctrl+l key-bind for command mode
# Note: This key-bind is already defined in vi mode
# I've put it here as an example of how to create a
# vi command-mode shortcut
set keymap vi command
Control-l: clear-screen

$endif

Either method works. I edited .bashrc because it involved less typing and because I pretty much use bash exclusively.

But if you tend to switch between using different shells.
e.g. Bash, zsh, ksh, csh etc.
Then putting the settings into .inputrc will apply those settings to ANY shell that uses readline. In other words - no matter what shell you are using, your keybinds/settings for readline will always be the same.
Whereas .bashrc only applies to bash.

There are many different bits of functionality and options available in readline. So if there are any key-binds/shortcuts to functionality that you feel you are missing in either vi or emacs mode, you can easily set up a new keyboard shortcut - as I have done for clear-screen in the vi insert mode.
xterm  terminal  x11  xorg  shell  console  cli  unix  reference  traditionalvi  vi 
12 days ago by dusko
terminal - Using printf with escape sequences? - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange
Do you know that printf does not support hex backslash escapes? Your code is not portable as it relies on non-POSIX features.
xterm  terminal  cli  unix  reference 
13 days ago by dusko
ANSI Codes and Colorized Terminals
In terms of digital representation ANSI and ASCII are different sets of characters, ASCII using only 7 bits for representing a character and ANSI using 8 bits.
ansi  ascii  reference  xterm  terminal  shell  console  cli  unix 
13 days ago by dusko
Text File formats – ASCII Delimited Text – Not CSV or TAB delimited text
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unit_separator and
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delimiter#ASCII_Delimited_Text

In summary ASCII Delimited Text is using the last 4 control characters (28-31) for their purpose as field and record delimiters and not using CSV (Comma Separated Values)
csv  tsv  ascii  data  programming  plaintext  text  terminal  cli  reference 
15 days ago by dusko
Things Every Hacker Once Knew | Lobsters
feoh (Jan 27, 2017)
(https://lobste.rs/s/qph9hd/things_every_hacker_once_knew#c_ysbnmg)

Now this article I can get behind! While I often find Mr. Raymond’s opinion pieces objectionable and occasionally out and out wrong, but in my view his work really shines when he strives to educate, and this article is a great example.

I wish there were a bit more depth on UUCP, but overall - great article. Thanks for posting it.

. . .

Dutch feoh (Jan 27, 2017)
(https://lobste.rs/s/qph9hd/things_every_hacker_once_knew#c_kxffor)

My sentiments exactly. I stopped visiting his sites a few years ago; the signal to bombast ratio was just too low for me. If it weren’t for postings on aggregators, I’d miss great articles like this.

. . .

Screwtape (Jan 27, 2017)
(https://lobste.rs/s/qph9hd/things_every_hacker_once_knew#c_e5jnti)

A TTY-related fact that wasn’t mentioned in the article:

To control text-formatting on an ANSI-compatible terminal (or emulator), you can send it terminal control sequences like \e[1m to enable bold or whatever. Paper-based terminals didn’t have control-sequences like that, but people still figured out ways to do formatting. For example, if you printed a letter, then sent backspace (Ctrl-H, octet 0x08) and printed the same letter again, it would be printed with twice as much ink, making it look “bold”. If you printed a letter, then sent backspace and an underscore, it would look underlined.

The original Unix typesetting software took full advantage of this trick. If you told it to output a document (say, a manpage) to your terminal (as opposed to the expensive typesetting machine in the corner), it would use the BS trick to approximate the intended formatting.

This worked great, up until the invention of video display terminals, where the backspace trick just replaced the original text, instead of adding to it. So people wrote software to translate the backspace-trick into ANSI control codes... software like less(1).
unix  terminal  shell  console  commandline  cli  ascii  ansi  it  computing  history  reference  rs232serialport 
15 days ago by dusko
What we still use ASCII CR for today (on Unix)
This description may sound like CR is no longer used on Unix, except as part of being carefully compatible with old protocols like SMTP and newer ones like HTTP. This is misleading, because CR is still in active use on Unix today.

Posted on January 28, 2017.
smtp  mailserver  sendmail  unix  ascii  http  reference 
15 days ago by dusko
Convert maildir to mbox
So how did I convert the maildir to mbox? I used formail which is provided by procmail.

for i in maildir/cur/*;do formail -I "Status: RO" <"$i" >>mbox;done
for i in maildir/new/*;do formail -I Status: <"$i" >>mbox;done

You will want to do that for each maildir (don’t forget the .Subfolder directories). And remember each “folder” or maildir would be a different mbox file. So if you wanted to save sent mail as well …

for i in maildir/.Sent/cur*;do formail -I "Status: RO" <"$i" >>sent;done
for i in maildir/.Sent/new/*;do formail -I Status: <"$i" >>sent;done
mailserver  email  reference  howto  terminal  cli  shell  unix  script  sysadmin 
18 days ago by dusko
Rosetta Code - Similar Sites
Rosetta Code isn't the only project which aims to document tasks in multiple languages. Other projects do exist. Here's a list. Feel free to update and add to it.
unix  shell  script  sysadmin  c  programming  reference 
18 days ago by dusko
tmux - Making vim use the alternate screen - Super User
Confirm this as follows (remember that ^[ must be entered as a control character, e.g. Ctrl-v followed by Escape):

less /etc/hosts # should use alternate screen (desired)

less -X /etc/hosts # should leave it's output on screen (undesired)

echo -n "^[[?1049h"; less -X /etc/hosts; echo -n "^[[?1049l"
# should use alternate screen (desired)

If that last command gives the desired behaviour with less. Try the same approach with vim:

echo -n "^[[?1049h"; vim /etc/hosts; echo -n "^[[?1049l"
# should use alternate screen (desired)
xterm  terminal  tmux  screen  vim  vi  cli  x11  xorg  unix  script  reference  howto 
18 days ago by dusko
C - The C Programming Language - EDM/2 Magazine
The programming language C is a weakly typed imperative language in the CPL (http://www.edm2.com/index.php/CPL) branch of the Algol (http://www.edm2.com/index.php/Algol) family of programming languages. It's the one of the more popular programming language after Java (http://www.edm2.com/index.php/Java) and that alongside its widespread use as a systems language has meant that most C development systems available have seen a lot of maintenance and are therefore in a relatively good standing when it comes to support for modern CPU architectures and systems vis a vis some other languages.
c  programming  reference 
20 days ago by dusko
Terminal Guide
How do modern terminals actually work in detail?

Still incomplete and likely to have some parts incorrectly reverse engineered.

Pages:

Basics
Printing
Scrolling Region
Control Characters and Escape Sequences
Modes
Attributes
Mouse

This website will likely always be a work in progress, as terminals evolve.

Contributions are welcome.

Keep in mind this project documents actual terminal behavior, even if that behavior seems contra intuitive or wrong.
xterm  terminal  x11  xorg  unix  tutorial  reference 
23 days ago by dusko
Announcing ncurses 6.2
The distribution includes the library and support utilities, including

captoinfo, a termcap conversion tool
clear, utility for clearing the screen
infocmp, the terminfo decompiler
tabs, set tabs on a terminal
tic, the terminfo compiler
toe, list (table of) terminfo entries
tput, utility for retrieving terminal capabilities in shell scripts
tset, to initialize the terminal
xterm  x11  xorg  terminal  reference  shell  script 
23 days ago by dusko
terminfo missing?
Posted on Feb 1, 2010

FreeBSD uses termcap, not terminfo.
freebsd  xterm  x11  xorg  terminal  unix  tips  reference 
23 days ago by dusko
termcap vs terminfo
On Sat, Jun 05, 2004, sigsegv at mail.ru wrote:
>I've noticed that the base system does not have terminfo, but instead
>comes with termcap. Apparently BSD always had termcap and System V had
>terminfo. I don't want to start a religious war as to which one is
>better, but only want to ask if anyone has experienced problems when
>porting ncurses applications from BSD to System V and vice versa, and
>what could be done to minimise such problems.

First, you can install ncurses on FreeBSD so that's not a problem.

It's been many years since I first worked with termcap on a Tandy Model
16/6000 running Xenix. I still have a couple of the early O'Reilly ``A
Nutshell Handbook: Reading and Writing Termcap Entries'' by John Strang
Copyright 1985 and Strang's ``Programming with Curses'' published at the
same time.

Terminfo came along a bit later from Bell Labs, and offered some extended
functionallity as well as some restriction not found in termcap.

Technically, they're both terminal capability databases. The termcap data
file is simple ascii with two character attribute fields, and historically
has been limited to a maximum size of 1024 characters for any terminal
entry. Termcap is extensible in that there aren't any hard-coded
attributes so the programmer can make up whatever suits the application.
Terminfo doesn't restrict the attribute names to two characters, is
compiled into a binary file for each terminal, and has never had the size
limit of termcap. One of the downsides of terminfo is that the attributes
aren't as flexible as those of termcap so the programmer can't arbitrarily
define new ones as needed. Before the advent of ncurses and other open
source terminfo implementations, this could be a serious problem.

My bottom line is that termcap is simpler to use for projects such as
printer descriptions where all I want is a simple way to define attributes,
and I can retrieve them using the standard termcap libraries in C or perl.
I've been using in a printer interface system for almost 20 years now where
I use termcap files to define printer capabilities for run-time conversion
depending on the type of printer.

When I'm working with real terminals, I'm more likely to be using ncurses
with terminfo since the work is largely done for me.
freebsd  xterm  terminal  unix  tips  reference  x11  xorg 
23 days ago by dusko
linux - Using the "alternate screen" in a bash script - Stack Overflow
For C console application:

ncurses

Wikipedia:

ncurses (new curses) is a programming library that provides an API which allows the programmer to write text-based user interfaces in a terminal-independent manner.

less uses this library.

A hello world program from here, to compile it in gcc, flag -lncurses is needed.

#include <ncurses.h>

int main()
{
initscr(); /* Start curses mode */
printw("Hello World !!!"); /* Print Hello World */
refresh(); /* Print it on to the real screen */
getch(); /* Wait for user input */
endwin(); /* End curses mode */

return 0;
}
xterm  terminal  unix  bsd  linux  x11  xorg  cli  reference 
23 days ago by dusko
How to make Less indicate location in percentage - Stack Overflow
man -P 'less -s -M +Gg' man

This can be effected permanently by putting

export MANPAGER='less -s -M +Gg'

in one of your shell configuration files (above syntax is for Bash and ZSH). Now, for example, man man displays the percentage as you wanted!
Warning

You should not put the +Gg in the LESS variable! For example, doing

export LESS='-M +Gg'

will cause problems when reading very large files. For example,

yes | LESS='-M +Gg' less

does not work very well.
unix  commandline  cli  terminal  shell  reference  tips 
24 days ago by dusko
Introduction to C Shell Programming
klaatu.canisius.edu/ONLINESTUFF/UNIX/shellprogramming.html
csh  tcsh  shell  script  programming  unix  sysadmin  reference 
24 days ago by dusko
True Colour (16 million colours) support in various terminal applications and terminals · GitHub
Terminal Colors

There exists common confusion about terminal colors. This is what we have right now:

Plain ASCII
ANSI escape codes: 16 color codes with bold/italic and background
256 color palette: 216 colors + 16 ANSI + 24 gray (colors are 24-bit)
24-bit true color: "888" colors (aka 16 milion)

...

Terminals that parse ANSI color sequences, but approximate them to 256 palette

xterm (but doing it wrong: "it uses nearest color in RGB color space, with a usual false assumption about orthogonal axes")
terminal  xterm  shell  cli  colour  reference  ansi  ascii 
24 days ago by dusko
ANSI Escape Codes
ANSI Escape Sequences

Standard escape codes are prefixed with Escape:

Ctrl-Key: ^[
Octal: \033
Unicode: \u001b
Hexadecimal: \x1b
Decimal: 27

Followed by the command, usually delimited by opening square bracket ([) and optionally followed by arguments and the command itself.

Arguments are delimeted by semi colon (;).
ansi  ascii  commandline  cli  shell  terminal  xterm  x11  xorg  reference 
24 days ago by dusko
Backup script with tar | The FreeBSD Forums
...

Depending on the filesystem I think you should also seriously look into dump(8) and restore(8). There are some serious advantages over using those two instead of a tarball.

For example (the main reason I personal favor it): support for incremental backups as well as interactive restores. When I need a file from a dump dump (some pun intended ;)) I merely use restore with the -i parameter. I then use the normal commands I'm used to for navigating through a Unix filesystem (cd, ls, etc.) and when I found the file I need I tag it and start the restore.

That beats having to think about using tar correctly to dig up one specific file (or a directory, or..).

Maybe food for thought?

Obviously: this only works when you're using UFS. When using ZFS then you shouldn't be using tar in the first place in my opinion, because there are much better (and more efficient) ways than this.

...

There are some, not so obvious, caveats when using ZFS's send/receive. The most important one is not being able to restore the files to non-ZFS fileystems (at least not without using a ZFS intermediate). The same could be said for dump/restore (it only works on UFS). In this respect a tar(1) archive is more general and can be unpacked on most, if not all, systems. As with pretty much all things UNIX, there's more than one way to skin a cat.
backup  shell  script  tar  freebsd  zfs  reference  cli  unix 
25 days ago by dusko
vim tips.txt at master - GitHub -- Switching screens in an xterm *xterm-screens* *xterm-save-screen*
=============================================================================
Switching screens in an xterm *xterm-screens* *xterm-save-screen*

(From comp.editors, by Juergen Weigert, in reply to a question)

:> Another question is that after exiting vim, the screen is left as it
:> was, i.e. the contents of the file I was viewing (editing) was left on
:> the screen. The output from my previous like "ls" were lost,
:> ie. no longer in the scrolling buffer. I know that there is a way to
:> restore the screen after exiting vim or other vi like editors,
:> I just don't know how. Helps are appreciated. Thanks.
:
:I imagine someone else can answer this. I assume though that vim and vi do
:the same thing as each other for a given xterm setup.

They not necessarily do the same thing, as this may be a termcap vs.
terminfo problem. You should be aware that there are two databases for
describing attributes of a particular type of terminal: termcap and
terminfo. This can cause differences when the entries differ AND when of
the programs in question one uses terminfo and the other uses termcap
(also see |+terminfo|).

In your particular problem, you are looking for the control sequences
^[[?47h and ^[[?47l. These switch between xterms alternate and main screen
buffer. As a quick workaround a command sequence like >
echo -n "^[[?47h"; vim ... ; echo -n "^[[?47l"
may do what you want. (My notation ^[ means the ESC character, further down
you'll see that the databases use \E instead).

On startup, vim echoes the value of the termcap variable ti (terminfo:
smcup) to the terminal. When exiting, it echoes te (terminfo: rmcup). Thus
these two variables are the correct place where the above mentioned control
sequences should go.

Compare your xterm termcap entry (found in /etc/termcap) with your xterm
terminfo entry (retrieved with "infocmp -C xterm"). Both should contain
entries similar to: >
:te=\E[2J\E[?47l\E8:ti=\E7\E[?47h:

PS: If you find any difference, someone (your sysadmin?) should better check
the complete termcap and terminfo database for consistency.

NOTE 1: If you recompile Vim with FEAT_XTERM_SAVE defined in feature.h, the
builtin xterm will include the mentioned "te" and "ti" entries.

NOTE 2: If you want to disable the screen switching, and you don't want to
change your termcap, you can add these lines to your .vimrc: >
:set t_ti= t_te=
xterm  terminal  shell  x11  xorg  tips  reference 
25 days ago by dusko
Xterm 'alt screen' behavior - Google Groups
It's all designed to work together; if you are using the termcap-only version of titeInhibit, it does indeed not work well, since titeInhibit cannot modify the terminfo to get rid of the ^[[2J.
xterm  terminal  cli  x11  xorg  reference  tips 
25 days ago by dusko
How to clear the screen after exit vim - Stack Overflow
(From comp.editors, by Juergen Weigert, in reply to a question)

:> Another question is that after exiting vim, the screen is left as it :> was, i.e. the contents of the file I was viewing (editing) was left on :> the screen. The output from my previous like "ls" were lost, :> ie. no longer in the scrolling buffer. I know that there is a way to :> restore the screen after exiting vim or other vi like editors, :> I just don't know how. Helps are appreciated. Thanks. : :I imagine someone else can answer this. I assume though that vim and vi do :the same thing as each other for a given xterm setup.

They not necessarily do the same thing, as this may be a termcap vs. terminfo problem. You should be aware that there are two databases for describing attributes of a particular type of terminal: termcap and terminfo. This can cause differences when the entries differ AND when of the programs in question one uses terminfo and the other uses termcap (also see +terminfo).

In your particular problem, you are looking for the control sequences ^[[?47h and ^[[?47l. These switch between xterms alternate and main screen buffer. As a quick workaround a command sequence like
echo -n "^[[?47h"; vim ... ; echo -n "^[[?47l"
may do what you want.

(My notation ^[ means the ESC character, further down you'll see that the databases use \E instead).
xterm  x11  xorg  vi  traditionalvi  vim  commandline  cli  terminal  tips  reference 
26 days ago by dusko
Why doesn't the screen clear when running vi? - XTerm FAQ
This refers to the __"alternate screen"__ feature, which has been used in its __termcap__ file since 1988. On various systems, this feature may have been removed, although it has always been in the xterm sources.
xterm  x11  xorg  traditionalvi  vi  commandline  cli  terminal  tips  reference 
26 days ago by dusko
Solved - The characters of the exited terminal program are still displayed on the screen. | The FreeBSD Forums
You need to change the terminal type to obtaine that effect. Have a look at the /usr/share/misc/termcap data base, search for xterm, you will find there besides other xterm terminals xterm-r6-clear and xterm-r5-clear. Those have the capability to ""clear the screen" after vi, more/less, etc." There are other xterm terminals claiming the same, but those two are the only ones I had success with.

You can set individually the users TERM environment variable, or change the terminal type in /etc/ttys to one of the above mentioned. Setting as environment variable has immediate effect (when set in the shells config file after a log out, log in). When is set in /etc/ttys a reboot or shutdown now followed by exit is necessary, also make sure no other TERM variable in the users shell configuration is set, otherwise it will supersede the setting in /etc/ttys.
terminal  commandline  cli  vi  traditionalvi  freebsd  unix  tips  reference 
26 days ago by dusko
Escape sequences with "echo -e" in different shells - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange
There's no such thing as a "Linux shell".

There's for instance the echo builtin of the /bin/sh shell as provided by the dash package on Debian (an operating system that can have Linux or FreeBSD as its kernel).

...

Note that at any time and in almost any shell, you can figure out which "echo" will be called by typing type echo or which echo. It's usually a shell builtin. So it depends on which "echo" is installed and on which shell you're using.

...

which echo should not be used, it likely won't tell you if you are using a builtin because which is usually an external binary. type is good, though.

...

Well spotted, though on my main shell (zsh), it's a builtin (as revealed by type which or which which). ;)
shell  sh  script  terminal  ascii  unix  reference  linux  bsd 
29 days ago by dusko
Less Known pkg(8) Features | 𝚟𝚎𝚛𝚖𝚊𝚍𝚎𝚗
pkg query "%t %n-%v" \
| sort -n \
| while read timestamp pkgname
do
echo "$(date -r $timestamp) $pkgname"
done | ( head; echo; tail )
freebsd  bsd  unix  shell  script  reference 
4 weeks ago by dusko
Terminal codes (ANSI/VT100) - introduction [Bash Hackers Wiki]
These features require that certain capabilities exist in your termcap/terminfo. While xterm and most of its clones (rxvt, urxvt, etc) will support the instructions, your operating system may not include references to them in its default xterm profile. (FreeBSD, in particular, falls into this category.) If `tput smcup` appears to do nothing for you, and you don't want to modify your system termcap/terminfo data, and you KNOW that you are using a compatible xterm application, the following may work for you:

echo -e '\033[?47h' # save screen
echo -e '\033[?47l' # restore screen
shell  script  cli  terminal  ansi  unix  reference  vt100  freebsd  ascii 
4 weeks ago by dusko
Terminal codes (ANSI/VT100)
These features require that certain capabilities exist in your termcap/terminfo. While xterm and most of its clones (rxvt, urxvt, etc) will support the instructions, your operating system may not include references to them in its default xterm profile.

*** (FreeBSD, in particular, falls into this category.) ***

If tput smcup appears to do nothing for you, and you don't want to modify your system termcap/terminfo data, and you KNOW that you are using a compatible xterm application, the following may be work for you:

echo -e '\033[?47h' # save screen
echo -e '\033[?47l' # restore screen
terminal  shell  ansi  vt100  commandline  cli  unix  reference  bsd  linux  freebsd 
4 weeks ago by dusko
automating-linux-unix-system-admin -- Source code for Automating Linux and Unix System Administration book
automating-linux-unix-system-admin -- Source code for 'Automating Linux and Unix System Administration' by Nathan Campi and Kirk Bauer.
shell  script  cli  terminal  sysadmin  automation  ssh  configurationmanagement  unix  bsd  linux  reference  perl  programming 
4 weeks ago by dusko
SMTP Authentication - Sophos Email Appliance
If you want to grant your end users the ability to send email through the appliance from an external network, you can enable SMTP authentication. With SMTP authentication configured, authenticated users are treated as if they were sending mail from inside the network, and the same outbound policy rules apply.
sendmail  mailserver  spam  smtp  authentication  reference 
4 weeks ago by dusko
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