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U.S. Forces In Syria Tackle A More Complex — And Possibly Dangerous — Mission : NPR
U.S. suspicion points to the Syrian government militias, who operated just a half hour away. The mortars show some sophistication. At least one of the components was made with a 3-D printer.
Mar15  ForeignFighters  USG  SDF  Assad  DeirEzZor  UAV 
yesterday
Damascus limits cash in a bid to strengthen banks and control over the economy - Syria Direct
On February 1, the government introduced rice, tea, and sugar to the “smart card” system, offering the three key commodities at subsidized prices in rationed quantities. By regulating and centrally distributing basic commodities, the expansion of the “smart card” system aims to limit the circulation of cash, and therefore, reduce foreign currency transactions and price manipulation. 
banks  Mar15  economy  dispossession 
2 days ago
SYRIA IN CONTEXT Weekly Briefing - 12/2020 - Syria in Context
Notably, high-risk groups for COVID-19––prisoners suffering from incurable diseases and those over 70 years of age as of the date of the decree––are to be freed. According to the decree, sentences for some crimes have been reduced, with death penalties to be replaced by life sentences with hard labour, while those serving life sentences now asked to serve 20 years with hard labour. Juvenile detainees could see their sentences cut in half. 

Thousands of political prisoners, forcibly disappeared, and those tried in counter terror or military courts, are not covered by this amnesty. It is unlikely that the decree will make a substantive difference to the prison population and will not impact the political situation regarding detentions.
Amnesty  Mar15  dissident  COVID 
2 days ago
Photo essay: Damascenes suffer as Coronavirus takes its toll economically - Syria Direct
The "affluent neighborhoods of Damascus have complied with the home-quarantines more than the poor, informal settlements," according to the social science researcher.  This is mainly due to the "flow of information, the [level] of education, and the fact that the rich follow the news, contrary to the poor," she added. Further, "the rich have more to lose, while the poor have nothing to lose."

In something of cruel irony, while calls are being made to stay home, entire families are sleeping on the streets," he said, adding that LYD does not publish pictures of those families out of respect.
COVID  Mar15  poverty  Damascus 
2 days ago
Syria’s Growing Economic Woes: Lebanon’s Crisis, the Caesar Act and Now the Coronavirus – Arab Reform Initiative
Not only has the dollar become increasingly expensive to buy; the Lebanese banking sector can no longer process trade payments for Syrian importers. The deposits held in Lebanese banks by Syrian businesses are blocked, and the companies they set up in Lebanon to contract with foreign suppliers have become useless.

Wheat imports were the first to be affected by this new situation. At the end of 2019 and beginning of 2020, the government issued three tenders to bid for the import of around 600,000 tons of wheat but failed to sign any purchase contract because all the main wheat importers, who are business figures close to the regime, have their bank accounts in Lebanon.1 The risk is not negligible: a shortage of wheat, and by extension of bread - a major food staple - threatens the food security of large segments of the Syrian population.

Beyond essential consumer goods, which are increasingly imported because of the widescale destruction of the economy, the import of raw materials and other production inputs is also affected. Shortages of these will not only have an impact on the production processes and the availability of goods in the market but will also negatively affect the jobs market.

Overall economic demand, which is already low, will weaken further. Almost all business sectors will be affected, particularly retail trade, transport and tourism; and the absence of tourists will also close one of the rare sources of foreign currency revenues. Meanwhile, the limited government resources will have to be reallocated to the health sector and to mitigating the impact of the pandemic rather than to other essential services.
Mar15  economy  COVID  sanctions  UAE  Russia  Lebanon  SYP 
2 days ago
Why coronavirus could hit Iran harder than US sanctions | Financial Times
The republic produces enough food for its 80m population and exports to neighbours. Iranian companies account for about 70 per cent of the country’s pharmaceutical needs, with the remainder — either finished medicines or inputs — imported. Neither sector is sanctioned, but the difficulty of conducting financial transactions, with few banks willing to touch anything connected with Iran, has led to a shortage of some specialist medicines, such as cancer drugs — and now equipment to fight coronavirus. 


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https://www.ft.com/content/ba417ace-6474-11ea-b3f3-fe4680ea68b5

“If it was not for Mr Trump . . . Iranian industry would not have had the growth it has,” Mr Arjomandi says. 

Yet, he does not attempt to sugarcoat the situation. “While many businesses grow, people’s living standards have been shrinking,” he says. “Even my workers, who are benefiting, they have concerns about health, security and rents. Will landlords increase rents? If their children are sick, will they have access to medicine?”
sanctions  Iran  industry  COVID  smuggling  oil  trade 
5 days ago
Feb 25 دوما: قائمة جديدة لمطلوبي التجنيد، و25 ألف ليرة تُنجي من الفيش الأمني
وأكَّدت المصادر أن عناصر الحاجز المذكور، فرضوا مبالغ مالية تتراوح بين 15 إلى 25 ألف ليرة سورية، مقابل تسهيل عمليات عبور المارة دون إخضاعهم للفيش الأمن.
recruitment  SAA  Damascus  PostRecon  corruption 
6 days ago
الخبز.. ما قبل البطاقة الذكية بقليل | اقتصاد مال و اعمال السوريين
وأوضحت أنها أعدت لوائح اسمية لتحديد الاحتياجات والكميات بشكل صحيح، دون تقديم أية تفاصيل، إلا أن مستهلكين أشاروا إلى أن الوزارة خصصت لكل ثلاثة أفراد من العائلة ربطة خبز من سبعة أرغفة في اليوم، لافتين إلى أن هناك يومياً، صراع بين الناس وهؤلاء المعتمدين، إذ يرفض المعتمد إعطاء العائلة المكونة من خمسة أفراد ربطتي خبز، ويقوم بسحب رغيفين من الربطة الثانية، بينما يكتفي بإعطاء العائلة المكونة من سبعة أفراد ربطتي خبز فقط.
food  bread  Mar15  subsidies 
6 days ago
المدن - الميليشيات الإيرانية تطرد الفرقة الرابعة من الميادين Mar 11, 2020
وأوضح مصدر محلي ل"المدن"، أن إحدى الميليشيات العشائرية التابعة للحرس الثوري اﻹيراني، والتي يقودها المدعو أكرم خضر اﻷحمد، طالبت عناصر الفرقة الرابعة بإخلاء حاجز الكورنيش ليل الاثنين، اﻷمر الذي رفضه اﻷخيرون؛ ما أدى لاندلاع اشتباك بين الجانبين، أسفر عن مقتل المدني علي الكديد، وجرح اثنين آخرين.

وسبق لوجهاء عشائريين أن اشتكوا من ممارسات عناصر الفرقة على الحواجز التي أحاطوا بها المدينة منذ سيطرتهم عليها أواخر 2017، ليفرضوا منذ منتصف العام الماضي إتاوات على البضائع والمواد الغذائية الداخلة إليها؛ مما أدى إلى ارتفاع أسعارها في ظل حالة من تردي اﻷوضاع المعيشية يعاني منها سكان المنطقة.

وأكد المصدر انتهاء اﻻشتباكات بسيطرة الميليشيا على الحاجز وطرد عناصر الفرقة منه، فيما أفادت مصادر محلية بأن عناصر الفرقة الرابعة انسحبوا من عموم المدينة، وأن قافلة "حجاج إيرانيين" دخلتها الثلاثاء.
SAA  IranianProxy  DeirEzZor  internal_struggle  taxes  warlords 
6 days ago
Bump in the road for first Russian-Turkish patrol on the M4 - COAR, Mar 16, 2020
Damascus: On 10 March, local media reported that the regional command of the Syrian Baath Party had annulled the results of recently completed branch elections and called for a reconfiguration of the party structure (see: Syria Update 2 March). The party leadership has claimed that it will abide by the results of internal elections, yet conflicting and incomplete justifications have been given for the unexpected shakeup. Media sources report that the decision to restructure the party comes in response to the large volume of complaints made over the elections’ results, although the exact nature of the complaints remains unclear. However, local media sources have reported that Russia raised a red flag over results in districts in Rural Damascus and Syria-Lebanon border areas, where candidates closely affiliated with Iran and Hezbollah reportedly fared well in the polls. Reportedly, the restructuring will allow for individuals close to Russia to balance out Iran’s perceived influence within the party.
Baath  Mar15  elections 
6 days ago
SYRIA IN CONTEXT Weekly Briefing - 09/2020 - Syria in Context Mar 4, 2020
A new internet access and pricing policy went into practice on March 1 in government-controlled areas of Syria and is creating waves, with many heavy users fearing it will increase costs to those who need and use the internet the most at a time of increased economic difficulty. In short, the new policy will see users’ speeds throttled when they reach certain levels of data consumption and will need to purchase top-ups at higher prices to continue using internet services that month. 
Internet  taxes  Mar15 
7 days ago
SYRIA IN CONTEXT Weekly Briefing - 08/2020 - Syria in Context Fev 26, 2020
Qaboun: In a fairly unprecedented move, the Qaboun industrialist association has made a public comment and statements about their disappointment at the government’s plans for redeveloping Qaboun. In a long post, the group––who are primarily loyalist businessmen––outlined their concerns about the project, and in particular their concern at having had their responses through the official system denied. 700 business owners submitted comments through the consultation process last year, highlighting that they did not believe their buildings and factories were damaged to the extent the government did and requesting that they remain in the Qaboun industrial zone rather than being moved elsewhere as planned. During consultations in December, they were told that the plans for the area are residential and touristic and that the new usage of the site was based on an assessment of the damage to their buildings. The businessmen requested to be able to continue to run their businesses from undamaged, or minimally damaged, buildings while the long process of design and building of the new developments took place, and the government agreed to provide a further assessment of the condition of each structure in order to facilitate this. The industrialists now claim that the government exaggerated the damage to the buildings in order to continue with their plan to push them out. They also disagree with the government’s assessment that there are tunnels running all through the area, which has been their pretext for demolishing buildings across Syria ahead of redevelopment. The statement went so far as to claim that the only beneficiary of the new development is Damascus Al-Cham Holdings and the governorate itself. The future of Qaboun is important as the objections to the government’s plans are from wealthy loyalists who have commented on the plans en masse. If they are not able to create change, it speaks to a trend that can be expected across all of Syria’s development plans. The official plans for the area are not yet public, despite the deadline for releasing them has passed. 
Damascus  reconstruction  dispossession  Mar15 
7 days ago
SYRIA IN CONTEXT Weekly Briefing - 11/2020 - March 17, 2020
One of the sanctioned individuals, Saqr Rustom, who was sanctioned for being the head of the local branch of the National Defence Force in Homs, and is “responsible for its participation in the brutal repression of the civilian population in Syria. [... He] is responsible for multiple war-profiteering schemes and is, therefore, benefiting from and supporting the Syrian regime.” He is also “associated with designated person Bassam Hassan, his uncle, with whom he established the Damas Real Estate Development and Investment LLC in order to invest in real estate projects.” However, Syria in Context can also reveal that Rustom was the founder and chairperson of the board of the Al-Shaheed foundation, who has been an implementing partner of UNICEF during at least the years 2017, 2019, and into 2020. 
UN  UNICEF  Mar15  warlords  IDP  EU 
7 days ago
Sharing the Burden: Revisiting the EU-Turkey Migration Deal | Crisis Group
Although human rights organisations faulted it for insufficiently protecting refugees, the 2016 deal achieved one of its key objectives, decreasing the flow of irregular migrants from Turkey into Greece by 97 per cent. As part of the deal, €6 billion of EU funding for the needs of Syrian refugees in Turkey has been put to good use, including education for over 600,000 Syrian school-age children. As of the end of February 2020, €4.7 billion had been contracted and €3.2 billion disbursed to projects managed by UN agencies, local and international non-governmental organisations, and Turkish ministries. In the single largest humanitarian aid program ever funded by the EU, the Emergency Social Safety Net supplies cash assistance to some 1.7 million Syrians. But some projects, including in education, are coming to an end soon. Ankara has complained that the EU was too slow to release funds and that too much of the money went to the overhead expenses of international organisations with too little going to refugees themselves.
Turkey  EU  refugees 
14 days ago
مجددًا الحكومة السورية تستهدف السوريين بـ"بطاقتها الذكية"
 يذكر أن عدة أماكن شهدت توافد الأشخاص ليلًا قبل فتح أي مركز أو مؤسسة، ستوزع صنف مفقود من الأسواق في النهار، حتى وصل الأمر إلى اصطحابهم إلى مأكولات وأغطية للنوم أمام هذه المراكز .
Mar15  subsidies  food 
16 days ago
بعد منعها لأشهر.. "قسد" تستأنف تصدير المحروقات إلى ريف حلب الشمالي | اقتصاد مال و اعمال السوريين
وأضاف المصدر الذي فضل عدم ذكر اسمه لـ"اقتصاد"، قائلاً إنّ "التجّار كانوا قد احتكروا وبمشاركة بعض فصائل (الجيش الوطني) كمياتٍ كبيرة من مادة المازوت المكررة ضمن حراقات المنطقة، لكنهم أُجبروا على إعادة طرحها مجدداً في الأسواق المحليّة خشيةً من تعرضهم لأي خسائر محتملة إذا ما تمّ استئناف عملية استيراد الفيول الخام من مناطق (قسد) إلى المنطقة".

وأكدّ المصدر على أنّ تلك الفصائل قامت في الأشهر القليلة الماضية بتهريب شحنات شبه منتظمة من المازوت المكرر في مناطق "قسد" إلى مناطق "درع الفرات" و"غصن الزيتون"، حيث بلغ سعر البرميل الواحد منه حوالي 120 دولار أمريكي.
Mar15  energy  smuggling  SDF  TFSA 
16 days ago
UPDATE 1-Syria fails to exchange its durum for Russian bread-making wheat - Reuters, Sep 26, 2019
The U.N. report estimated wheat production for the 2019 season at 2.2 million tonnes, up from the 29-year low of 1.2 million tonnes last year.

But the figure still falls far below the 4 million tonnes Syria was capable of producing prior to the war.
Mar15  agriculture  Russia  economy  trade  wheat  food 
17 days ago
Фрагментация ближневосточной политики России - RIDDLE, Mar 2, 2020
Другими словами, диверсификация российского подхода к Ближнему Востоку является свидетельством осторожности Кремля, вытекающей из его же неуверенности в проводимой политике. Однако в условиях отсутствия сменяемости власти в арсенале Кремля постепенно остается все меньше возможностей для переосмысления и существенного изменения собственной политики и ранее принятых решений. В результате одни реакционные решения цементируются другими не менее (если не более) реакционными. И если в краткосрочной перспективе уязвимость данной стратегии не слишком критична, то со временем российские власти все больше будут ощущать себя заложниками собственных же решений. Диверсификация ответственности за реализуемую на Ближнем Востоке политику отчасти решает эту проблему. Но это помогает преодолеть симптомы, нежели справиться с причинами их появления.

https://www.ridl.io/en/the-fragmentation-of-russia-s-middle-east-policies/
Russia  foreign_policy  decision_making  Mar15 
18 days ago
Erdogan and Putin push pause on Idleb - COAR
Various locations: Over the past week, new food products were added to the Smart Card subsidy system, now rebranded “electronic card” or e-card, in an effort to combat rising dissatisfaction over the system’s inefficiency. On 4 March, in an announcement by the state-owned Syrian Trade Establishment (STE), sunflower oil was added to the list of food products sold at discounted prices through the e-card system, with further intentions to add maté tea and an assortment of canned foods. Additionally, the quantities of tea and sugar allocated via the system have been bumped up, with the quota now being sold at floating market prices. 

Relatedly, for the second time in less than a year, the Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Protection increased petrol prices, both subsidized and unsubsidized. According to the ministry, a price rise of 25 pounds will be introduced to all petrol products, including subsidized petrol-octane 90, unsubsidized petrol-octane 90 and unsubsidized octane 95. Notably, since May 2019, vehicle owners were allocated 100 liters of petrol per month at the subsidized rates.
fuel  agriculture  Mar15  economy  subsidies  SmartCard 
19 days ago
Your Tanks Cannot Hide | RUSI
Turkey’s MAM-L and MAM-C munitions are not ideally suited for knocking out main battle tanks (MBTs),
weapons  Mar15  Turkey  SAA  intelligence 
19 days ago
الأسد: 'القضية الكوردية' عبارة عن عنوان وهمي كاذب| رووداو.نيت
بالنسبة لما يسمونه أحياناً “القضية الكردية”، لا يوجد شيء اسمه القضية الكردية في سورية، لسبب بسيط.. هناك أكراد يعيشون في سورية تاريخياً، ولكن تلك المجموعات التي قدمت إلى الشمال أتت خلال القرن الماضي فقط بسبب القمع التركي لها واستضفناهم في سورية، وأتى الأكراد والأرمن ومجموعات مختلفة إلى سورية.. ولم تكن هناك مشكلة. لا توجد مشكلة سورية – أرمنية مثلاً، وهناك تنوع كبير في سورية.. لا توجد لدينا مشكلة معهم، فلماذا تكون المشكلة مع الأكراد؟! المشكلة هي مع المجموعات التي بدأت تطرح طروحات انفصالية منذ عدة عقود.. بشكل أساسي في بداية الثمانينات. ولكن عندما قامت الدولة التركية في مراحل مختلفة بقمع وقتل الأكراد في تركيا، نحن وقفنا معهم، لم نقف ضد قضيتهم إذا كانوا يسمونها قضية.

في سوريا أخذوا جنسية. وهم لم يكونوا سوريين بالأساس. فإذاً كنا دائماً إيجابيين تجاه الموضوع الكردي. إذاً ما تسمى “القضية الكوردية” هي عبارة عن عنوان غير صحيح، عبارة عن عنوان وهمي كاذب.

المشكلة في الوقت الراهن هي التعامل مع الأمريكي. الأمريكي محتل.. احتل أراضينا، والأمريكي لص يسرق النفط السوري. لا يمكن أن تكون في الوسط بين من يحمي القانون وبين من يخالف القانون. لا يمكن أن تكون مع الشرطي بالوقت نفسه مع اللص.. إما أن تكون مع الشرطي أو مع اللص. هذا كلام مستحيل. فلا يمكن أن نصل لنتائج في أي حوار معهم لو التقينا آلاف المرات، إلا عندما يحددون موقفاً واضحاً، وهو موقف وطني، أن تكون ضد الأمريكي، ضد الاحتلال وضد التركي لأنك أيضاً ضد الاحتلال.
Kurds  KurdishRights  Mar15  Assad  diplomacy 
23 days ago
Turkish losses rise in dangerous escalation over Syria's Idlib
The Donald Trump administration faces significant barriers in responding to the situation in Idlib, US officials say. Speaking at a closed-door event in Washington on Thursday, Richard Outzen, a senior State Department advisor on Syria, said that the US lacks the legal authority to ground Assad’s air force or to shoot down Syrian warplanes, attendees told Al-Monitor. 
Mar15  Turkey  State_Department  ForeignFighters  foreign_aid 
4 weeks ago
“Act now or face catastrophic consequences,” Syrian organisations warn Turkey, the US, the EU and the UN in advance of UNSC meeting on Idlib
A snap poll conducted by the Syrian Association for Citizens Dignity with 150 people who have fled the latest onslaught on Idlib has shown that 90.6% of those polled would not consider returning to Assad-held areas or entering reconciliation agreements under Russian guarantees. The poll was conducted in the border area — Atma village, Albab City, Afreen, Adana, Sarmada and I’zaz City — with people who fled Idlib City, Saraqeb, Ma’rat al-Numan, Ma’rat Shashma, kafruma, Mardebsa, Sarmeen, Talmanas, Khan al-Asaal, Orem, Jabal al-Zawiee and Marestshoreen.
Mar15  IDPs  poll  Idlib 
4 weeks ago
In Syria's Idlib province, a humanitarian crisis and terror for children - The Washington Post
Dozens of children have been sheltering for weeks with their families in two caves in Idlib’s western countryside. When the families arrived, they had to excavate mounds of soil and rock to make the caves livable.

The caves are barely that. For weeks, there has been no heat. The moisture has given everyone chest infections.
children  Mar15  Idlib  mental_health 
4 weeks ago
أميركا تبلور استراتيجية لـ «عزل» سوريا وعرقلة إعمارها | الشرق الأوسط
Excellent piece by
@ibrahimhamidi
laying out U.S. policy in Syria:
1. Idlib: US is providing diplomatic & intelligence support to Turkey. Nothing else.
2. Economic pressure on Assad is at the heart of US policy. Remaining in SDF areas denies the regime access to oil/gas profits.
U.S. expects the economic pressure on the regime to increase, w/ the implementation of the Caesar Act & further deterioration of Lebanon's ailing economy.
3. The direct Russian-US negotiations track over Syria (publicly acknowledged by Jeffrey 3 weeks ago) isn't producing results
Therefore, the U.S. plans to keep the Assad regime isolated for years and starve it of reconstruction funding, expecting "a change that will take years [to materialize], unless some surprising Syrian [development] occurs or a Russian-US understanding."
important  reconstruction  Mar15  leak  sanctions  SDF  oil  Assad  Russia 
4 weeks ago
سكان في دمشق يرون «الانتصار» في توفير «لقمة العيش» | الشرق الأوسط
مدير المؤسسة السورية للتجارة التابعة للحكومة خليل إبراهيم قال قبل أيام، إن موجة «البرد» هي ما تسببت في زيادة استهلاك الموطنين للخبز. لكن موظفة في مؤسسة حكومية تقول: «يبدو أن المسؤول العتيد يخجل من القول إن الناس باتت معدمة نهائياً، والخبز الحافي صار قوتها اليومي بعد أن أصبحت الأسر عاجزة عن تأمين تكاليف الطبخ».
عجوز في العقد السادس لم يستطع إخفاء غيظه جراء فشله في الحصول على ربطتي خبز من أحد الأفران في ريف العاصمة الشمالي بعد انتظاره لساعات، ويقول بصوت عالٍ رغم وجود عناصر من الأمن وسط طوابير المنتظرين بحجة تنظيم الدور: «ما يحصل هو إذلال للناس».

أحد العناصر الذي فهم أن العجوز يغمز إلى كميات خبز كبيرة يتم أخذها من خارج الدور وتباع على الأرصفة بأضعاف مضاعفة عن سعرها الحكومي لصالح متنفذين من عناصر الأمن والميليشيات الموالية للحكومة، رد عليه بصوت مرتفع: «كله بسبب العقوبات، لكن الانتصار الكبير قادم».
food  Damascus  Mar15  SYP  poverty 
4 weeks ago
واشنطنُ..ندوةٌ حولَ سوريا تطالبُ الدولَ الغربيةَ بالتدخّلِ لوقفِ الأزمةِ بإدلبَ
واشنطنُ..ندوةٌ حولَ سوريا تطالبُ الدولَ الغربيةَ بالتدخّلِ لوقفِ الأزمةِ بإدلبَ
mine 
4 weeks ago
Erdoğan says he will decide his Idlib stance after call with Putin - Turkey News
Erdoğan also said Turkey was continuing work setting up housing for Syrian migrants in a 30-35 kilometers-long "safe zone" in Syria along the border with Turkey.
Mar15  Turkey  Idlib  Erdogan 
4 weeks ago
SDF avoids fight with Trump over budget cut - al-Monitor
Congress cut $100 million from that figure in an appropriations reduction in December after Trump signed the Defense Department’s annual authorization that requested a higher figure. It wasn’t immediately clear why the Pentagon had decided to trim the military aid, though the agency slashed funding for the SDF by $200 million from the previous year in its budget for fiscal year 2020.
SDF  budget  Mar15  congress  DoD 
5 weeks ago
The Jihadist Factor in Syria’s Idlib: A Conversation with Abu Muhammad al-Jolani | Crisis Group
We have been going systematically after ISIS cells in Idlib and this is why we haven’t seen a single ISIS attack in Idlib in the past six months. We have also contained Hurras al-Din, with whom we have a convoluted relationship. We had them sign a commitment not to use Syria as a launching pad for external jihad and to recognise the Salvation Government [the local government set up in Idlib by HTS; see below] and its courts [in other words, not to create its own Sharia courts]. So far, they have observed these commitments. With regard to what you describe as hardline voices within HTS, we have shown time and again that whenever we reach a decision about something, everyone follows the chain of command. As for those who don’t, they can easily part ways with us.
Mar15  JabhatAl-Nusra  ISIS  Idlib  localGovt 
5 weeks ago
Turkey edges towards direct conflict with Russian-backed Syria - Reuters
An opposition military source told Reuters that 15,000 Turkish soldiers were now in northwest Syria after numerous convoys had poured into the territory in recent days.
Mar15  Turkey  ForeignFighters  Idlib 
5 weeks ago
بالفيديو || مقاتل من قوات النظام السوري عائداً من إدلب يتسوّل أجرة طريقه إلى درعا - وكالة ستيب الإخبارية
وبحسب ناشطي درعا، فإنّ المقاتل الذي ظهر في الفيديو من أبناء درعا المنضمّين لقوات النظام السوري، حيث صوّر المقطع في منطقة الفحّامة بدمشق.
Mar15  DAraa  SAA  poverty  hidden 
5 weeks ago
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