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How to Connect a Transistor as a Switch in a Circuit
In this article, we go over how to connect a transistor so that it will function as a switch in a circuit.
A transistor is a component that can play 2 vital roles. It can function as a switch and an amplifier. Many times, it functions as both in a circuit.
Specifically, in this article, we will show how transistors can be used as switches.
electronics  info  resources  tutorial  howto  guide  hardware 
5 days ago by ezequiel
Welcome to Ceph — Ceph Documentation
Ceph uniquely delivers object, block, and file storage in one unified system.
distributed  filesystem  documentation  unix  linux  posix  reference  guide  online  ceph 
11 days ago by ezequiel
How to Migrate Your Google Account to a New One
Whether you’ve outgrown your college era email address and you want a professional one, or you want to change your firstname.maiden account to firstname.marriedname one, we’ve got you covered with a start-to-finish Google migration guide.
google  privacy  cloudcomputing  backup  remote  howto  guide  blogpost  2017 
14 days ago by ezequiel
How to Easily Softmod ANY Fat PS2! | FreeMCBoot & FreeHDBoot Install Tutorial - YouTube
This tutorial has been requested for quite a long time but I waited so long because I was not too keen on the many install methods shown out there. A few recommendations to softmod a PS2 with FreeMCBoot normally include: finding a pre-modded console, using a disc swap trip, using Swap Magic, all of which could be a bit costly or time consuming. With this method all we need is one console and a few tools at our disposal! No swap tricks or discs, no pre-loaded memory card, no reliance on any other system!

This involves installing FreeHDBoot to a hard drive, loading it into the PS2 and using that as our entry point to install FreeMCBoot. That's it! No additional games needed and no need to open up our console!
vg.plat.ps2  modding  hacking  freemcboot  harddisk  windows  windows7  windows8  windows10  configuration  booting  sysadmin  howto  guide  tutorial  video  youtube  gaming  hardwaresupport  hardware  links  2017  opl.ps2  usb  memory 
16 days ago by ezequiel
linux mint - mount: No such file or directory with encrypted recovery - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange
Q: [...] Nothing I’ve tried seems to work and I don’t have the original mounting seed. I’ve also tried sudo ecryptfs-recover-private but my system then just says No such file or directory:

frankenmint@honeybadger /home $ sudo ecryptfs-recover-private
INFO: Searching for encrypted private directories (this might take a while)...
INFO: Found [/home/.ecryptfs/frankenmint/.Private].
Try to recover this directory? [Y/n]: y
INFO: Found your wrapped-passphrase
Do you know your LOGIN passphrase? [Y/n] y
INFO: Enter your LOGIN passphrase...
Passphrase:
Inserted auth tok with sig [979c6cdf80d2e44d] into the user session keyring
mount: No such file or directory
ERROR: Failed to mount private data at [/tmp/ecryptfs.Hy3BV96c].

[...]

A: I found that running sudo bash and then running ecryptfs-recover-private as root (rather than via sudo) worked. Not sure why it should be any different.

Edit:
TL;DR:

# ecryptfs-unwrap-passphrase /mnt/crypt/.ecryptfs/user/.ecryptfs/wrapped- passphrase - | ecryptfs-add-passphrase --fnek -
< Type your login password here >
Inserted auth tok with sig [aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa] into the user session keyring
Inserted auth tok with sig [bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb] into the user session keyring

You will not see a prompt and must type your login password, blind, into the above command. [...]
2016  forumthread  stackexchange  cli  sysadmin  encryption  filesystem  ubuntu  debian  mint  tips  issue  workaround  example  guide  linux  security  mount  ubuntu.xenial  ubuntu.trusty  ubuntu.bionic  ecryptfs 
16 days ago by ezequiel
Suspend - Debian Wiki
This page gathers bits of information about getting software suspend to work in Debian. Because the core system components change rapidly among Debian versions, software suspend works differently on different versions of Debians. This page is divided according to Debian versions from new to old.

For more reading material, see also the links at the bottom of this page about hibernate and suspend.
debian  wikientry  documentation  links  reference  guide  tips  example  sysadmin  powermanagement  configuration  arch  gentoo  gnome  suse  debug  linux  acpi  laptop  security 
21 days ago by ezequiel
How To Get A Global Menu In Xubuntu 16.04 Or Lubuntu 16.04 (Using TopMenu) ~ Web Upd8: Ubuntu / Linux blog
TopMenu (a global menu for MATE, Xfce and LXDE panels) is available in the official Ubuntu 16.04 repositories and it works great in Ubuntu MATE 16.04, but it doesn't work in Xubuntu 16.04 and Lubuntu 16.04 by simply installing the panel applet package.

Here's how to get TopMenu to work in Xubuntu 16.04 and Lubuntu 16.04, using the official packages, with a minor tweak.
screenshots  gtk  gtk2  gtk3  gui  ui  extension  xfce  mate  lxde  desktop  customize  configuration  installation  howto  guide  linux  x11  blogpost  2016  sysadmin  ppa  links  ubuntu  mint  xubuntu  lubuntu 
21 days ago by ezequiel
topmenu-gtk.git - A Gtk+ module and Mate/Xfce panel applets for a global menubar.
Requirements and compatibility:

Currently, TopMenu ships as a panel applet for either Mate 1.8, Xfce >= 4.8 (Gtk+2 versions only), or LXPanel. The Mate applet would be relatively easy to port to Gnome 2.

Gtk+2 is the preferred toolkit, albeit Gtk+3 is partially supported. Plugins are shipped for Qt 4 and some Mozilla apps (Firefox, Thunderbird and Zotero). Note that, except in the Gtk+ 3 case, menu bars will always be rendered using the Gtk+ 2 theme.
screenshots  gtk  gtk2  gtk3  gui  ui  extension  xfce  mate  lxde  desktop  customize  source  configuration  installation  howto  guide  software  opensource  linux  x11 
21 days ago by ezequiel
WNA3100 (N300) Wireless USB Adapter Support | NETGEAR
(me: ndiswrapper has issues when dealing with the windows xp (32 bit) driver on Linux kernel >= 5.0 (mint 19.3 has 5.3.0 as of 2020.03.08))
wifi  driver  windows  windowsxp  windows7  windowsvista  windows8  windows10  hardwaresupport  networking  ndiswrapper  downloads  firmware  documentation  support  reference  manual  guide  issue  workaround  hardware 
22 days ago by ezequiel
internet - Netgear N-300/ WNA3100 USB Adapter for Ubuntu 16.04 - Ask Ubuntu
Q: I am new to Linux and Ubuntu and I am having trouble connecting to the Internet.

I have a netgear WNA3100 USB Adapter and I don't have anything in my additional drivers.

A: You can add Support for the Netgear N-300/ WNA3100 USB Adapter by installing the ndiswrapper and loading the Windows network driver. [...]

(me: ndiswrapper fails to build when using kernel-headers >= 5.0 (on i686), then (even if patched) the 32-bit WinXP driver from NetGear does not work: ndiswrapper causes an "oops" because of the "nx" cpu protection bit; then, after disabling this (see another link saved today), ndiswrapper gives yet another error. Result (so far): failed).
ndiswrapper  issue  howto  guide  tips  example  cli  sysadmin  networking  wifi  2016  ubuntu  configuration  usb  driver  drivers  windows  links  linux  kernelmodule  forumthread  stackexchange 
24 days ago by ezequiel
Installing EFL on Ubuntu
This tutorial describes several ways to install EFL on your system. You will only need to use one of these. Select your chosen method using the index on the right.
enlightenment  libraries  library  windowmanager  install  installation  links  downloads  source  debian  ubuntu  ubuntu.bionic  ubuntu.xenial  ubuntu.trusty  ubuntu.precise  linux  packages  howto  guide  example  cli  sysadmin  x11  wayland  ppa  build 
24 days ago by ezequiel
en:users:documentation:hostapd [Linux Wireless]
hostapd is an IEEE 802.11 AP and IEEE 802.1X/WPA/WPA2/EAP/RADIUS Authenticator. This page is dedicated to the Linux documentation of its implementation and use. Please refer to the hostapd home page for information for other Operating Systems.

To communicate with a kernel driver, hostapd has to use some interface. All new cfg80211 (and mac80211) based drivers that implement AP functionality are supported using the nl80211 interface.
wifi  linux  kernel  kernelmodule  documentation  links  atheros  development  networking  wikientry  reference  example  cli  tools  tool  sysadmin  configuration  tips  guide  security 
27 days ago by ezequiel
linrunner.de: TLP – Linux Advanced Power Management
TLP brings you the benefits of advanced power management for Linux without the need to understand every technical detail. TLP comes with a default configuration already optimized for battery life, so you may just install and forget it. Nevertheless TLP is highly customizable to fulfil your specific requirements.

TLP packages are available for Arch, Debian, Fedora, Gentoo, openSUSE, Ubuntu and further. You're welcome if you want to package TLP for other distributions. Please take a look at the developer documentation.
battery  powermanagement  sysadmin  linux  documentation  reference  tips  example  tool  cli  performance  laptop  hardwaresupport  guide  faq  workaround  source  links  reviews  software  arch  debian  fedora  gentoo  suse  ubuntu  installation  packages 
29 days ago by ezequiel
How-to: Stitch together your own battery power manager - Linux Mint Forums
[...] To recap. What I wanted was to preserve my battery's lifespan as long as possible. Note that I don't mean battery life between charges which can be achieved by dimming the screen, turning off Bluetooth, spinning down the HD, etc., but long term battery lifespan.

I had heard of "Intelligent" power managers, but had not paid much attention since it was always in a Windows context. Lenovo have a Power Manager as part of their Windows pre-installed software package ThinkVantage Technologies [[url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ThinkVantage_Technologies]1[/url]]. Not very useful when you have a strong preference for Linux. [...]
2013  forumthread  laptop  battery  hardwaresupport  mint  linux  sysadmin  configuration  powermanagement  tools  links  howto  guide  kernelmodule 
29 days ago by ezequiel
Get the best out of you battery on linux : linux
[...] I noticed that battery life in Linux (Linux Mint 19.1 Cinnamon in my case) is WAY worse than in windows 10, I use my laptop more often to watch TV shows and movies and to browse the internet.

I have a small battery in my laptop, The battery when I'm using mint can't make it over 2 hours of light usage, while in windows 10 with same light usage the battery can make it over 4-4.5 hours. [...]
forumthread  reddit  powermanagement  optimisation  linux  ubuntu  software  tips  sysadmin  configuration  links  howto  guide  tool  tools  cli  wifi  networking  usb  laptop  battery  cpu  memory  2018  hardwaresupport  mint  desktop 
29 days ago by ezequiel
The Only Raspberry Pi 4 Kodi Tutorial You Will Ever Need
This tutorial (updated for Raspberry Pi 4) has everything you will ever need to know about using Kodi on the Raspberry Pi 4 mini computer.
raspberrypi  tutorial  osmc  libreelec  xbmc  configuration  install  installation  sysadmin  streaming  streamingaudio  howto  guide  screenshots  2020  blogpost  hardwaresupport  mediaplayer 
29 days ago by ezequiel
ThinkWiki - Wiki for IBM/Lenovo ThinkPad users
This is ThinkWiki, the Wiki Web for IBM/Lenovo ThinkPad users. Here you find anything you need to install your favourite Linux distribution on your ThinkPad. Windows users shouldn't run away, there's a lot of useful information for them as well. Some Linux information for Mac users also can be found here.
wiki  articles  info  resources  issue  workaround  configuration  sysadmin  howto  guide  hardwaresupport  battery  bios  firmware  drivers  linux  keyboard  drm  install  installation  ubuntu  debian  hardware  reference  documentation  links  kernelpatches  kernelmodule  support  mailinglist  software  scripts  tools  laptop 
4 weeks ago by ezequiel
Installation and configuration (Linux) · ValdikSS/aceproxy Wiki · GitHub
This article assumes you have Ace Stream installed.

Python 2, gevent, psutil are required dependencies and VLC is an optional (yet highly recommended) dependency. You can install all the dependencies with pip: pip install -r requirements.txt. We use VLC only for streaming purposes, it is not required to watch streams using VLC only. [...]
acestream  proxy  configuration  wikientry  documentation  linux  installation  howto  guide  links  github 
4 weeks ago by ezequiel
Personal API Keys · jdf76/plugin.video.youtube Wiki · GitHub
This page outlines how to create your own set of API keys for use with the YouTube add-on.
google  api  security  youtube  xbmc  extension  configuration  howto  guide  screenshots  wikientry  links  example  tips  sysadmin  github 
4 weeks ago by ezequiel
Preparing Raspberry PI for JTAG Debugging – Sysprogs Tutorials
This tutorial shows how to prepare your Raspberry PI board for debugging with JTAG (we have tested this with Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3). Using JTAG will allow debugging the Linux kernel using hardware like Segger J-Link. As Raspberry PI board does not have a connector with a normal JTAG layout, preparing the board for JTAG debugging involves finding the correct pins and wiring them in the correct order. Follow the steps below for a complete walkthrough:
2018  blogpost  raspberrypi  jtag  debug  howto  guide  electronics  screenshots  software  windows  links  hardwaresupport 
5 weeks ago by ezequiel
Securing CoreOS with iptables | Jimmy Cuadra
[...] One of the issues I ran into was how to secure a CoreOS machine's public network. By default, a fresh CoreOS installation has no firewall rules, allowing all inbound network traffic.

In order to secure a CoreOS machine, I had to learn how to configure the firewall. I use the common iptables utility for this purpose. [...]
2015  blogpost  coreos  iptables  howto  guide  configuration  firewall  sysadmin  networking  linux 
5 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: Extroot configuration
This guide describes how to configure OpenWrt to use a storage device (usb or sata or sdcard or whatever) to expand your root filesystem, to install freely all the packages you need.
openwrt  router  guide  sysadmin  configuration  embedded  howto  cli  example  tips  documentation  tools  packages  linux 
5 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: Quick Start for Adding a USB drive
Many useful OpenWrt utilities and packages rely on external storage to hold data files. This guide describes how to add a single USB stick or drive to your OpenWrt device.
usb  storage  howto  guide  example  tips  cli  sysadmin  documentation  openwrt  router  linux  packages  configuration 
5 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: Installing OpenWrt
The installation of OpenWrt is device specific. These device specific procedures should be found in the wiki. See Table of Hardware for available procedures. If your device is not listed, information in this Howto may be helpful.
openwrt  install  installation  howto  guide  links  embedded  router  cli  sysadmin  documentation 
5 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: Upgrading OpenWrt firmware via LuCI and CLI
An OpenWrt upgrade will replace the entire current OpenWrt installation with a new version. This includes the Linux kernel, the SquashFS partition and the JFFS2 partition.

The common upgrade paths below will automatically preserve much of the OpenWrt OS configuration by saving and then restoring configuration files in specific common locations (including /etc/config). This will preserve things like OpenWrt network settings, WiFi settings, the device hostname, and so on.
firmware  upgrade  howto  guide  tips  links  openwrt  cli  example  sysadmin  networking  hardwaresupport  embedded  router  webapp  linux  documentation 
5 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: Serial Console
Most people get along without a serial console for their device because they're able to flash a working firmware the first time - or are able to apply various recovery methods - and do all their communicating with the device over a network. However, some bootloaders don't have a “really failsafe” network re-flash feature, making a serial console one of the few ways to recover from a “bad flash” or an error in a user's own configuration.
openwrt  serialport  router  tips  info  resources  howto  guide  links  electronics  example  cli  linux  hardwaresupport 
5 weeks ago by ezequiel
How to Install CH340 Drivers - learn.sparkfun.com
In this tutorial, we'll show you how to install CH340 drivers on multiple operating systems if you need. The driver should automatically install on most operating systems. However, there is a wide range of operating systems out there. You may need to install drivers the first time you connect the chip to your computer's USB port or when there are operating system updates.
hardwaresupport  driver  drivers  howto  guide  electronics  linux  windows  macosx  links  software  serialport  usb  kernelmodule  screenshots  images 
5 weeks ago by ezequiel
Automatically Control Your Raspberry Pi Fan and Temperature - howchoo
Since the Raspberry Pi 4 was released, many have noticed that it can get pretty hot, especially when the CPU is under heavy load.
raspberrypi  electronics  howto  guide  python  gpio  images  blogpost  2020  links  hardwaresupport 
5 weeks ago by ezequiel
WireGuard - ArchWiki
WireGuard is an extremely simple yet fast and modern VPN that utilizes state-of-the-art cryptography. It aims to be faster, simpler, leaner, and more useful than IPSec, while avoiding the massive headache. It intends to be considerably more performant than OpenVPN. WireGuard is designed as a general purpose VPN for running on embedded interfaces and super computers alike, fit for many different circumstances. Initially released for the Linux kernel, it plans to be cross-platform and widely deployable.
networking  wireguard  configuration  example  cli  howto  sysadmin  linux  vpn  security  tools  links  wikientry  guide  arch  tips  serverapp  router 
6 weeks ago by ezequiel
Wireguard - Debian Wiki
Wireguard is an extremely simple yet fast and modern VPN that utilizes state-of-the-art cryptography. It can be a useful replacement for IPSec or OpenVPN.
networking  debian  ubuntu  mint  wireguard  configuration  example  cli  howto  sysadmin  linux  vpn  security  tools  links  wikientry  guide 
6 weeks ago by ezequiel
WireGuard in NetworkManager – Thomas Haller's Blog
NetworkManager 1.16 got native support for WireGuard VPN tunnels (NEWS). WireGuard is a novel VPN tunnel protocol and implementation that spawned a lot of interest. Here I will not explain how WireGuard itself works. You can find very good documentation and introduction at wireguard.com.
networking  debian  gnome  ubuntu  mint  2019  blogpost  wireguard  configuration  example  cli  howto  sysadmin  linux  vpn  security  tools  guide 
6 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: WireGuard
WireGuard is an open-source software application and protocol that implements virtual private network (VPN) techniques to create secure point-to-point connections in routed or bridged configurations. It is run as a module inside the Linux kernel and aims for better performance than the IPsec and OpenVPN tunneling protocols. It is designed as a general purpose VPN for running on embedded interfaces and super computers alike, fit for many different circumstances. It uses UDP.
wireguard  vpn  howto  guide  sysadmin  links  openwrt  router 
6 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: SQM (aka Smart Queue Management)
OpenWrt/LEDE has pre-built packages for controlling Bufferbloat - the undesirable latency that arises when the router buffers too much data. OpenWrt calls this SQM, although it's also called active queue management - AQM.
qos  router  openwrt  howto  guide  documentation  sysadmin  configuration  tools  software  cli  example  performance  links 
6 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: Dumb AP / Access Point Only
This document describes how to create an Access Point (AP) that extends a network that already has a router, access control, and DHCP in place. People can connect over wireless or Ethernet to the new AP and then to the existing network. In this configuration, the AP is not routing packets, it does not provide DHCP or other functions. The result is a bridged LAN (no internal subnets) that will work fine for home and small networks.
openwrt  wifi  howto  networking  sysadmin  configuration  example  cli  router  guide  documentation  tips 
6 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: Failsafe Mode, Factory Reset, and Recovery Mode
OpenWrt offers several ways to “start over” with your router.

* Failsafe Mode is useful if you have lost control of your device, and it has become inaccessible, perhaps through a configuration error. It allows you to reboot the router into a basic operating state, retaining all your packages and (most) settings. (see Failsafe Mode)
* Factory Reset erases all your packages and settings, returning the router to its initial state after installing OpenWrt. (see Factory Reset)
* Recovery Mode allows you to install new firmware on a router that has become corrupted. (see Recovery Mode)
openwrt  router  backup  howto  guide  hacking  booting  sysadmin  hardwaresupport  firmware  cli  example  ssh 
6 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: Configure a guest WLAN
Guest WLAN provides internet access to your network members. It also provides firewall security rules to isolate your guest network from the rest. This recipe contains information provided by our forums members and one blogger as shown below: [...]
tutorial  guide  sysadmin  configuration  openwrt  wifi  router  howto  screenshots  tips  example  firewall  networking  security  links  cli  tools 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: Configure a guest WLAN using the LuCI web interface
Guest WLAN provides internet access to your network members. It also provides firewall security rules to isolate your guest network from the rest. This recipe is based on the more comprehensive Guest WLAN page, providing a more user-friendly approach through the LuCI web interface.
tutorial  guide  sysadmin  configuration  openwrt  wifi  router  howto  screenshots  webapp  tips  example  firewall  networking  security  links 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
Sunxi-tools - linux-sunxi.org
Tools for working with Allwinner (sunxi) ARM processors
allwinner.a80  allwinner  tool  tools  wikientry  howto  tips  guide  example  cli  hardwaresupport  rom  debug  spec  arm  linux  debian  fedora  ubuntu  mint 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
Rikomagic MK802 Forums • View topic - Debian on MK80
Hi Everyone. I am looking at strategies to put Debian (jessie, most likely) onto my shiny new MK80. The other Allwinner based devices I have are development boards, and generally have a TTL serial console that provides access to the U-boot shell, and generally kernel boot messages and a tty thereafter
rokumagic.mk80  forumthread  2015  howto  tips  guide  hacking  hardware  hardwaresupport  booting  serialport  allwinner  allwinner.a80 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
Support of Rikomagic Devices - General chit chat - Armbian forum
Q: [...] what do you (Igor) think about supporting e.g. the following devices from Rikomagic with your nicely developped DEBIAN image:

* http://www.rikomagic.com/en/product/showpro_id_59_pid_19.html CPU: RK3288 Quad Core

* http://www.rikomagic.com/en/product/showpro_id_70_pid_22.html CPU: Allwinner A80 Octa Core
rokumagic.mk80  armbian  hardwaresupport  forumthread  links  howto  guide  2015  hacking  allwinner  allwinner.a80 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
InstallingDebianOn/Allwinner - Debian Wiki
Support for boards using the Allwinner "sunxi" (sun4i, sun5i, sun6i, sun7i, sun8i) family of processors, e.g. A10, A13, A31/A31s, A20, A23/A33, etc.
debian  hardwaresupport  install  installation  cli  example  howto  guide  sysadmin  hacking  links  tips  wikientry  linux 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
How to use the Team CoreELEC ceemmc tool - Guides & How-tos - CoreELEC Forums
This tool ceemmc can be used for a safe installation of CoreELEC to internal eMMC storage.
Users have the choice to install CoreELEC on their eMMC in dual or single boot mode.

The boot device priority is:

SD
USB
eMMC

If the system fails on booting from the internal eMMC then the device can still be booted by inserting an SD card or USB flash drive with CoreELEC.
coreelec  memory  usb  booting  howto  guide  sysadmin  hacking  install  installation  hardwaresupport  linux  cli  example 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: TP-Link TL-WA901ND
The TL-WA901ND is a lowcost b/g/n wireless access point, capable of running OpenWrt.
tp-link  hardware  spec  hardwaresupport  openwrt  router  links  networking  wifi  guide  firmware  atheros  downloads  cli  example  sysadmin  hacking  install  installation 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
download files from luci ( use LuCI as file share ) · Issue #846 · openwrt/luci
Q: I've uploaded some files in my OpenWrt root , /etc , /tmp directories.
I want user to be able to download uploaded files from from the above directories.
How can i give a download URL to user, to download that files?
github  openwrt  issue  workaround  tips  example  configuration  webserver  downloads  links  howto  guide  screenshots  router  serverapp  sysadmin  networking  forumthread  2016 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: Netgear DG834G v3
The Netgear DG834G v3 is an AR7-based ADSL router with 802.11g wireless and ADSL2+ support. It has a 4-port switch, and the wireless antenna is connected to an RP-SMA connector at the rear.
router  spec  hardware  hardwaresupport  links  openwrt  networking  wifi  wikientry  howto  guide  images  firmware  hacking  archived.version  electronics 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: The OpenWrt Flash Layout
The embedded devices (routers and such) OpenWrt/LEDE (Linux Embedded Development Environment) has mainly targeted since its inception, use flash memory as the form of non-volatile memory for the persistent storage of the firmware and its configuration.
memory  rom  firmware  wikientry  documentation  openwrt  howto  guide  hardware  hardwaresupport  tips  links  reference  info  resources  embedded  tools  software 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
Old OpenWrt Wiki [Old OpenWrt Wiki]
OpenWrt ​is a highly extensible ​GNU/​Linux ​distribution for embedded devices ​(typically wireless routers). Unlike many other distributions for these routers, OpenWrt ​is built from the ground up to be a full-featured, easily modifiable operating system for your router. In practice, this means that you can have all the features you need with none of the bloat, powered by a Linux kernel ​that's more recent than most other distributions.
oldversion  archived.version  openwrt  wiki  hardwaresupport  router  embedded  howto  guide  tips  example  links  resources 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: 4/32 warning
Every operating system requires

1. Sufficient Flash to accommodate firmware image
2. Sufficient RAM for stable operation

Devices with ≤4MB flash and/or ≤32MB ram will work but they will be very limited (usually they can't install or run additional packages) because they have low RAM and flash space. Consider this when choosing a device to buy, or when deciding to flash OpenWrt on your device because it is listed as supported.
memory  firmware  embedded  openwrt  hardwaresupport  tips  workaround  howto  sysadmin  hardware  guide  router 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: JTAG
JTAG stands for Joint Test Action Group, which is an IEEE work group defining an electrical interface for integrated circuit testing and programming.
jtag  article  wikientry  links  howto  guide  images  electronics  debug  hardware  hardwaresupport  sysadmin  programming  test  spec  tips  openwrt  router  raspberrypi 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: Netgear R8000
Status:
* First supported in 15.05 release
* 15.05 could fail to boot on device with NAND bad blocks (fixed for 15.05.1 release and in trunk)
* Second data partition (79 MiB) not available in OpenWrt
* For a proper performance use:
* radio0 for the higher 5 GHz band (channel 149 or something else, depending on country)
* radio2 for the lower 5 GHz band (channel 48, or something like that and lower)
netgear  router  openwrt  hardwaresupport  howto  install  installation  cli  example  tips  sysadmin  build  firmware  downloads  links  resources  guide  article  info  issue  workaround 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: Quick start guide for OpenWrt/LEDE installation
The following preparation is recommended, before flashing OpenWrt/LEDE firmware:

* Don't rush the installation, take your time. If something seems weird during installation, find answers first before continuing.
* Have your device's precise model name at hand (so you are able to select the correct OpenWrt/LEDE firmware)
* Have your devices's documentation at hand, on how to flash new firmware
* When installing and configuring OpenWrt/LEDE on your Internet router, your Internet-access will obviously be offline for a few minutes. Please ensure that you have all required information offline or have backup Internet access at hand in this time.
openwrt  router  networking  firmware  faq  info  guide  howto  links  articles  resources  tips 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
OpenWrt Project: TP-Link TL-WDR4300
TP-Link TL-WDR4300 has 802.11n Dual Band (concurrent) WiFi and Gigabit Ethernet. Advertised as 750 Mbps it is Dual-Stream (2×2) on the 2.4 GHz Band and Triple-Stream (3×3) on the 5 GHz Band. Same as the TL-WDR4310 Released earlier this year in China.
tp-link  hardwaresupport  firmware  openwrt  opensource  howto  install  installation  guide  article  sysadmin  networking  wifi  links  downloads 
7 weeks ago by ezequiel
SSH Daemon | Customizing the SSH Daemon | CoreOS
Container Linux defaults to running an OpenSSH daemon using systemd socket activation – when a client connects to the port configured for SSH, sshd is started on the fly for that client using a systemd unit derived automatically from a template. In some cases you may want to customize this daemon's authentication methods or other configuration. This guide will show you how to do that at boot time using a Container Linux Config, and after building by modifying the systemd unit file.
systemd  configuration  fileformats  howto  tips  guide  sysadmin  linux  example  coreos  releaserelated  links  documentation  reference  ssh  remote  tcpip 
9 weeks ago by ezequiel
systemd Environment File | systemd with CoreOS
systemd has an Environment directive which sets environment variables for executed processes. It takes a space-separated list of variable assignments. This option may be specified more than once in which case all listed variables will be set. If the same variable is set twice, the later setting will override the earlier setting. If the empty string is assigned to this option, the list of environment variables is reset, all prior assignments have no effect. Environments directives are used in built-in Container Linux systemd units, for example in etcd2 and flannel.
systemd  configuration  fileformats  howto  tips  guide  sysadmin  linux  example  coreos  releaserelated  links  documentation  reference  environment 
9 weeks ago by ezequiel
systemd Drop-In Units | CoreOS Container Linux
There are two methods of overriding default Container Linux settings in unit files: copying the unit file from /usr/lib64/systemd/system to /etc/systemd/system and modifying the chosen settings. Alternatively, one can create a directory named unit.d within /etc/systemd/system and place a drop-in file name.conf there that only changes the specific settings one is interested in. Note that multiple such drop-in files are read if present.
systemd  configuration  fileformats  howto  tips  guide  sysadmin  linux  example  coreos  releaserelated  links  documentation  reference 
9 weeks ago by ezequiel
Customizing Docker | Container Linux Docker | CoreOS
The Docker systemd unit can be customized by overriding the unit that ships with the default Container Linux settings. Common use-cases for doing this are covered below.
2019  documentation  coreos  linux  configuration  example  tips  sysadmin  docker  systemd  remote  howto  guide  tcpip  releaserelated 
9 weeks ago by ezequiel
Detaching and Reattaching Boot Disks  |  Compute Engine Documentation
Previously, boot disks were permanently attached to their VM instances. Now you can detach boot disks from your instance. This feature simplifies the process for repairing boot disks by allowing you to mount them to another instance without deleting your original instance. Additionally, you can replace the boot disks for an instance rather than having to recreate the entire VM instance.

If a VM instance does not have a boot disk, attempting to start the instance generates an error. However, you can still edit other instance properties.
article  documentation  howto  guide  example  tips  webapp  cli  google.cloud  sysadmin  harddisk  storage  links 
9 weeks ago by ezequiel
Configure Docker to use a proxy server | Docker Documentation
If your container needs to use an HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP proxy server, you can configure it in different ways: [...]
docker  proxy  configuration  tips  howto  sysadmin  linux  example  documentation  reference  guide 
9 weeks ago by ezequiel
Optimizing persistent disk performance  |  Compute Engine Documentation  |  Google Cloud
Persistent disks give you the performance described in the disk type chart if the VM drives usage that is sufficient to reach the performance caps. After you size your persistent disk volumes to meet your performance needs, your app and operating system might need some tuning.

In the following sections, we describe a few key elements that can be tuned for better performance and how to apply some of them to specific types of workloads.
google.cloud  cloudcomputing  guide  documentation  links  bestpractice  tips  sysadmin  virtualisation  networking  storage  harddisk  ssd  performance  optimisation  cli  example  linux  unix 
9 weeks ago by ezequiel
Adding or resizing zonal persistent disks  |  Compute Engine Documentation  |  Google Cloud
This page explains how to resize both zonal persistent boot disks and secondary (non-boot) zonal persistent disks. This page also explains how to add and format new zonal persistent disks on your instances.

You can only resize a zonal persistent disk to increase its size. You cannot reduce the size of a zonal persistent disk.

It is a best practice to back up your disks using snapshots to prevent unintended data loss.
google.cloud  cloudcomputing  guide  documentation  links  bestpractice  tips  sysadmin  virtualisation  networking  price  storage  harddisk  example 
9 weeks ago by ezequiel
Encrypt disks with customer-supplied encryption keys  |  Compute Engine Documentation  |  Google Cloud
[...] If you provide your own encryption keys, Compute Engine uses your key to protect the Google-generated keys used to encrypt and decrypt your data. Only users who can provide the correct key can use resources protected by a customer-supplied encryption key.

Google does not store your keys on its servers and cannot access your protected data unless you provide the key. This also means that if you forget or lose your key, there is no way for Google to recover the key or to recover any data encrypted with the lost key. [...]
google.cloud  cloudcomputing  guide  documentation  links  bestpractice  tips  sysadmin  virtualisation  networking  storage  harddisk  security  encryption  privacy  howto 
9 weeks ago by ezequiel
Storage options  |  Compute Engine Documentation  |  Google Cloud
Compute Engine offers several types of storage options for your instances. Each of the following storage options has unique price and performance characteristics:

* Zonal standard persistent disk and zonal SSD persistent disk: Efficient, reliable block storage.
* Regional persistent disk and regional SSD persistent disk: Regional block storage replicated in two zones.
* Local SSD: High performance, transient, local block storage.
* Cloud Storage buckets: Affordable object storage.
* Filestore: High performance file storage for Google Cloud users.

If you are not sure which option to use, the most common solution is to add a persistent disk to your instance.
google.cloud  cloudcomputing  guide  documentation  links  bestpractice  tips  sysadmin  virtualisation  networking  price  storage  harddisk  ssd 
9 weeks ago by ezequiel
The Ultimate Guide to Create Users in Linux / Unix
Creating users in Linux or Unix system is a routine task for system administrators.

Sometimes you may create a single user with default configuration, or create a single user with custom configuration, or create several users at same time using some bulk user creation method.

In this article, let us review how to create Linux users in 4 different methods using useradd, adduser and newusers command with practical examples.
2009  blogpost  sysadmin  linux  unix  tool  tools  example  tips  howto  guide 
10 weeks ago by ezequiel
Create a Linux Swap File | Linuxize
Swap is a space on a disk that is used when the amount of physical RAM memory is full. When a Linux system runs out of RAM, inactive pages are moved from the RAM to the swap space.

Swap space can take the form of either a dedicated swap partition or a swap file. In most cases when running Linux on a virtual machine a swap partition is not present so our only option is to create a swap file.

This tutorial was tested on Linux systems with Ubuntu 18.04 and CentOS 7 but it should work with any other Linux distribution.
2018  blogpost  linux  memory  howto  guide  cli  sysadmin  configuration  tips  example 
10 weeks ago by ezequiel
systemd Drop-In Units | CoreOS Container Linux
There are two methods of overriding default Container Linux settings in unit files: copying the unit file from /usr/lib64/systemd/system to /etc/systemd/system and modifying the chosen settings. Alternatively, one can create a directory named unit.d within /etc/systemd/system and place a drop-in file name.conf there that only changes the specific settings one is interested in. Note that multiple such drop-in files are read if present.
coreos  systemd  configuration  sysadmin  howto  guide  example  linux  booting  links  documentation 
10 weeks ago by ezequiel
SSH Daemon | Customizing the SSH Daemon | CoreOS
Container Linux defaults to running an OpenSSH daemon using systemd socket activation – when a client connects to the port configured for SSH, sshd is started on the fly for that client using a systemd unit derived automatically from a template. In some cases you may want to customize this daemon's authentication methods or other configuration. This guide will show you how to do that at boot time using a Container Linux Config, and after building by modifying the systemd unit file.
coreos  linux  ssh  remote  configuration  sysadmin  example  tips  guide  cli  documentation  links  systemd 
10 weeks ago by ezequiel
Debugging Tools | Linux Debugging Tools | CoreOS
You can use common debugging tools like tcpdump or strace with Toolbox. Using the filesystem of a specified Docker container Toolbox will launch a container with full system privileges including access to system PIDs, network interfaces and other global information. Inside of the toolbox, the machine's filesystem is mounted to /media/root.
coreos  debug  tool  tools  howto  tips  guide  linux  ssh  configuration  remote  example  networking  debugger 
10 weeks ago by ezequiel
Debugging node issues using CoreOS toolbox  |  Container-Optimized OS  |  Google Cloud
You might need to install additional packages or tools on Container-Optimized OS for certain tasks, such as debugging. Although Container-Optimized OS does not include a package manager, you can use the pre-installed CoreOS Toolbox utility to install any additional packages or tools you require. Using /usr/bin/toolbox is the preferred method for installing and running one-off debugging tools.
2019  article  howto  guide  coreos  docker  tool  cli  packages  distro  linux  debug  tips  example  configuration 
10 weeks ago by ezequiel
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