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jerryking : cultural_values   20

How to Build a Successful Team - Business Guides - The New York Times
By Adam Bryant

Make a Plan
You need a clear and measurable goal for what you want to accomplish.

HIRING WELL ISN'T ENOUGH - Hiring the right people is the most important part of building a strong team, of course, and delegating to give people more autonomy is a powerful motivator.

But managing a team is not that simple. Leaders have to play a far more hands-on role to make sure the group works well together and remains focused on the right priorities.

CREATE A CLEAR MAP - Leaders owe their teams an answer to .....“Where are we going and how are we going to get there?” In other words, what is the goal and how are we going to measure progress along the way? ..... What does success look like? If you were to set up a scoreboard to track success over time, what would it measure?

The trouble often starts when leaders start listing five or seven or 11 priorities. As Jim Collins, the author of the best-selling management books “Good to Great” and “Built to Last,” is fond of saying: “If you have more than three priorities, you don’t have any.”

HAVE A SHARED SCOREBOARD - Another benefit of having a simple plan is that it creates a shared goal that will offset the tendency of people to identify themselves as part of smaller groups. Think of a football team, for example. There are many “tribes” within a team – offense and defense, linemen and receivers, running backs and defensive backs. But because the goal of the team is clear, and there’s an external scoreboard to track progress, there is a greater sense of “us” on the team than the “us and them” dynamic that can often divide colleagues in companies.

“Metrics are actually the way that you can harmonize a large number of people, whether it’s dozens or even thousands,

YOU MAY FEEL LIKE A BROKEN RECORD--Once you have a simple plan... keep reminding your team of the priorities, even if it can feel repetitive. ....“You say something seven times and they haven’t heard you,” he said. “Until they start making jokes about how often you repeat it, they haven’t internalized it.”

Rules of the Road
You’ll need a set of values, behaviors and cultural guardrails so that everybody knows how to work together.

CREATE YOUR TEAM'S CULTURE

All families have values, even if they aren’t discussed explicitly. There are certain behaviors that are encouraged and discouraged — like rules of the road — for how everyone is going to (try to) get along and spend their time. ...As a leader, you can take a laissez-faire approach and hope the team meshes well over time. Or you can look for opportunities to set some shared guidelines for how people will work together.

There are no hard and fast rules for developing the cultural values of a team. In some cases, the founder of a company will issue them to employees. In others, top executives will turn the exercise over to employees to make it a bottom-up effort.

...AND STICK TO IT
teams  howto  lists  specificity  sticktoitiveness  shared_goals  cynicism  Jim_Collins  organizational_culture  values  repetition  priorities  metrics  subordinates  guardrails  the_right_people  cultural_values  tribes 
december 2017 by jerryking
Black Americans Need Bourgeois Norms - WSJ
By Robert L. Woodson
Oct. 11, 2017

This summer, law professors Amy Wax and Larry Alexander caused a stir with an op-ed lamenting the decline of what they called “bourgeois norms.” “All cultures are not equal,” they rightly observed. Those that encourage self-restraint, delayed gratification, marriage and a strong work ethic tend to thrive. Those that tolerate or excuse substance abuse, out-of-wedlock pregnancy and dropping out tend to break down.

Ms. Wax and Mr. Alexander were instantly accused of racism by the growing army of angry academics who police the prevailing narrative of black victimhood. According to this narrative, black progress is determined not by personal choices and individual behavior, but by white supremacy, America’s history of slavery and discrimination, and institutional racism. Touting “bourgeois values” is interpreted as an offense against authentic black culture.......A better life has always been available to those who reject undisciplined and irresponsible behavior, and embrace self-determination and personal responsibility. So-called bourgeois values have always empowered blacks to persevere and overcome bitter oppression. They provided the moral “glue” that held the black community together during the hardest of times.
moral_codes  Amy_Wax  Frederick_Douglass  values  victimhood  African-Americans  self-restraint  delayed_gratification  marriage  work_ethic  personal_responsibility  societal_norms  authenticity  bourgeois  cultural_norms  cultural_values  hard_times 
october 2017 by jerryking
Good Schools Aren’t the Secret to Israel’s High-Tech Boom - WSJ
March 20, 2017

Israel’s shadow education system has three components. The first is our heritage of debate—it’s in the Jewish DNA. For generations Jews have studied the Talmud, our legal codex, in a way vastly different from what goes on in a standard classroom. Instead of listening to a lecture, the meaning of complex texts is debated by students in hevruta—pairs—with a teacher offering occasional guidance.

Unlike quiet Western libraries, the Jewish beit midrash—house of study—is a buzzing beehive of learning. Since the Talmud is one of the most complex legal codes ever gathered, the idea of a verdict is almost irrelevant to those studying. Students engage in debate for the sake of debate. They analyze issues from all directions, finding different solutions. Multiple answers to a single question are common. Like the Talmud itself—which isn’t the written law but a gathering of protocols—the learning process, not the result, is valued.

The second component of our shadow education system is the peer-teaches-peer model of Jewish youth organizations, membership-based groups that we call “movements.” Teenagers work closely with younger children; they lead groups on excursions and hikes, develop informal curricula, and are responsible for those in their care. As an 11th-grade student, I took fifth-graders on an overnight hike in the mountains. Being given responsibilities at a young age helped shape me into who I am today.

The third component is the army.
Israel  ksfs  education  high_schools  schools  Jewish  Talmud  protocols  Judaism  books  religion  coming-of-age  technology  science_&_technology  venture_capital  innovation  human_capital  capitalization  struggles  convictions  tough-mindedness  rigour  discomforts  cultural_values  arduous 
march 2017 by jerryking
America’s hidden crisis: Men not at work - The Globe and Mail
MARGARET WENTE
The Globe and Mail
Published Saturday, Oct. 15, 2016

The United States’ biggest problem ... is more insidious. Millions of able-bodied men have dropped out of society – out of working life, of civic life, of family life. Many of these men belong to the Trumpenproletariat. How to re-engage them may be the biggest domestic challenge the country faces.

Political economist Nicholas Eberstadt calls these men “the unworking,” to distinguish them from people who want work but can’t find it. “America is now home to a vast army of jobless men who are no longer even looking for work,” he writes. “Roughly seven million of them age 25 to 54, the traditional prime of working life.” His new book, Men Without Work: America’s Invisible Crisis, is essential reading for this election cycle. “For every prime-age man who is unemployed today,” he writes, “another three are neither working nor looking for work.” Most of these men are less educated, and many, particularly blacks, have prison records.... in fact, the work rate has been in decline for two generations. What happened during those decades was a massive shift in cultural values.... “To the extent that non-work is contagious, it is likely to grow exponentially rather than at a linear rate.” If current trends continue, he expects that more than one-third of all men in the 25-54 age group will be out of work by mid-century. That is a truly terrifying prospect – as well as fertile soil for toxic populism.

At its root, the collapse of the working class isn’t so much economic as it is social, moral and spiritual. This means that economic remedies will only take us so far. Marriage rates for less-educated men have plunged – and unmarried men are far more likely to opt for unwork. The percentage of babies born to unmarried parents has soared. Working-class whites have largely abandoned church (while church attendance among higher-income whites has stayed relatively high). Family and community networks have dissolved [JCK: the fraying of what David Brooks would call, the "social_fabric"].
Margaret_Wente  unemployment  men  joblessness  working_class  social_classes  social_fabric  Larry_Summers  job_destruction  participation_rates  addictions  opiates  socioeconomic  habits  values  books  unworking  populism  social_crisis  moral_crisis  spiritual_crisis  cultural_values  whites  contagions  exponential 
october 2016 by jerryking
Granger addressed a matter of importance to all Guyanese - Stabroek News
By
Staff Writer
August 12, 2015

Pesident Granger’s position at the forum: “salaried employment is very seductive … You can spend out your whole salary because you know next month you will get another salary. If you are a farmer you need to save money for fertilizer, seed, equipment, if there is a drought or a flood you need savings to tide you over but if you are a policeman and there’s a flood you still get paid. Some people do not like to take risks but …unless you change the economy, unless we create people who are entrepreneurs, manufacturers, we will always be victims of people who make decisions for us.”
Afro-Guyanese  cultural_values  David_Granger  economic_development  Guyana  Guyanese  entrepreneurship  Indo-Guyanese  manufacturers  psyche_of_dependency  risk-taking 
august 2015 by jerryking
No one is prepared to make the obvious connection between our cultural morass and the crime, corruption and violence that plague us - Stabroek News - Georgetown, Guyana
Ryhaan Shah

This exchange of letters has confirmed that it is the culture of the underclass that is now the definitive culture of Guyana and, further, that this culture is so very much admired at all levels of our society that any criticism if its crudities results in condemnation from everyone. We celebrate that culture, delight in it, and, as Skinner does, we rationalize it. Had he not stated it in his letter, who would ever have thought that it is an African Guyanese trait that they big up themselves by presenting themselves as murderers?

The wider issue is that no one is prepared to make the obvious connection that exists between our cultural morass and the crime, corruption and violence, including the violence against women and children that plague our society.

It is commendable that SN columnist Dave Martins finds the societal ills described in Bhattacharya’s book fixable. I have long since given up on any such hope and Mr Skinner’s letter reminds me of why I am so sure of that hopelessness.
letters_to_the_editor  novels  fiction  books  Guyana  cultural_values  Dave_Martins  underclass  Afro-Guyanese  hopelessness 
september 2014 by jerryking
What Drives Success? - NYTimes.com
JAN. 25, 2014 | NYT | By AMY CHUA and JED RUBENFELD.

the strikingly successful groups in America today share three traits that, together, propel success. The first is a superiority complex — a deep-seated belief in their exceptionality. The second appears to be the opposite — insecurity, a feeling that you or what you’ve done is not good enough. The third is impulse control.

Any individual, from any background, can have what we call this Triple Package of traits. But research shows that some groups are instilling them more frequently than others, and that they are enjoying greater success.

It’s odd to think of people feeling simultaneously superior and insecure. Yet it’s precisely this unstable combination that generates drive: a chip on the shoulder, a goading need to prove oneself. Add impulse control — the ability to resist temptation — and the result is people who systematically sacrifice present gratification in pursuit of future attainment.

Ironically, each element of the Triple Package violates a core tenet of contemporary American thinking....The same factors that cause poverty — discrimination, prejudice, shrinking opportunity — can sap from a group the cultural forces that propel success. Once that happens, poverty becomes more entrenched. In these circumstances, it takes much more grit, more drive and perhaps a more exceptional individual to break out.
brainpower  willpower  poverty  movingonup  Amy_Chua  Mormons  ethnic_communities  immigrants  ksfs  self-discipline  perseverance  achievement_gaps  paranoia  Sonia_Sotomayor  overachievers  sacrifice  delayed_gratification  impulse_control  insecurity  exceptionality  superiority_complex  dual-consciousness  cultural_values  hardships 
january 2014 by jerryking
African Guyanese leaders must be much more development oriented
November 20, 2007 | Stabroek News | by Lin-Jay Harry-Voglezon.

Cheddi Jagan said around 1990, that the PNC government was preparing the Afro community to fail. He meant the high concentration of Afro Guyanese in the bloated public service sector which was unsustainable, and the practice of giving them opportunities on the basis of party cards, as a way of up-keeping the government, would backfire on the community. He meant that when the system of things changed the community would be uncompetitive for it would by then have nurtured the wrong ethics, expectations, and attitudes. The psyche of dependency on the state would be so ingrained that it would fail to be as resourceful as it is ought to be and was capable of being........I have argued in the past that the Afro community, owing to its historical conditions of survival, had crystallised a false sense of importance and security under PNC governance. I indicated that it is not a government of black faces, PNC or otherwise that would transform the Afro communities, but transformation in cultural ideas and economic groundings, which could be induced through changed conditions of survival and an improved understanding of self. Of all Afro leaders, Walter Rodney was best trained and equipped to lead that transformation. His death was a tremendous loss.

This additional response to Osafo Modibo’s letters is that the problems at Buxton are fundamentally symptomatic of cultural and economic deficiencies. While Modibo accuses myself and others of being silent on the extremities in that village he fails to acknowledge that the very executors of the excesses are mainly Afro Guyanese. The Afro community should realise that the highest form of emancipation would be when every black child grows up with the doctrine that he must be black, honourable and economically creative. So whether he is poor, rich, or an officer of state he must never pawn his common sense and dignity to others.
letters_to_the_editor  economic_development  Afro-Guyanese  ethnic_communities  entrepreneurship  mindsets  generational_wealth  public_sector  psyche_of_dependency  human_psyche  Cheddi_Jagan  cultural_values  false_sense_of_security  uncompetitive  PNC  Walter_Rodney 
september 2013 by jerryking
Historian David Landes’s theories of ‘superior’ cultures are still polarizing
Sep. 11 2013 | - The Globe and Mail | DOUGLAS MARTIN

David Landes, a distinguished Harvard scholar of economic history, saw tidal movements in the rise of seemingly small things. He suggested that the development of eyeglasses made precision tools possible. Maybe, he said, using chopsticks helped Asian workers gain the manual dexterity needed to make microprocessors....In his 482-page Revolution in Time: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World, published in 1983, Prof. Landes examined the growth of the Industrial Age through the history of timepieces, tracing their origin to medieval European monasteries; monks, he wrote, needed something to tell them when to gather for a regular round of group prayer.... His most influential work, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor (1998), answered the question posed in its title (a play on that of Adam Smith’s classic work) by pointing to the importance of the Protestant work ethic and European attitudes toward science and technology....His dissertation became his first book, Bankers and Pashas: International Finance and Economic Imperialism in Egypt....Reviewing his 2006 book, Dynasties: Fortunes and Misfortunes of the World’s Great Family Businesses, for The Times of London, Christopher Silvester described the writing as pithy, thoughtful and sprightly. The book offers 13 sketches of tycoons, including Henry Ford, John D. Rockefeller and Armand Peugeot.
books  cultural_values  economic_history  family_business  Harvard  historians  industrial_age  manual_dexterity  medieval  moguls  obituaries  precision  scholars  work_ethic 
september 2013 by jerryking
African Guyanese would require an empowering familial-ethnic environment and an enabling political-economic one to be successful in business
August 21, 2013 | Stabroek News | F. Hamley Casep.

Few African Guyanese grow up in an environment in which table conversation is centred around business matters or matters to do with the production and supply of goods and services. Sadly, African Guyanese may be more inclined to discuss the day’s purchases rather than the day’s sales, for the simple reason that African Guyanese economic activity tends more towards consumption rather than production or supply. Generally speaking, African Guyanese do not see themselves as having the means to produce ‒ land, labour or capital ‒ at their disposal, yet see these as prerequisites for venturing into business for themselves. The problem is compounded by the near absence of ethnic role models. In this sense I feel the problem is one of environment as much as education. In fact the two go hand in hand.

Though as Carl Greenidge says, “The education system should be teaching students about the value of business and what is required to be an entrepreneur” and has failed to do so, the system on its own cannot teach people to be risk takers. It is only the immediate environment that can build the level of self-confidence required to make the difference. There is no substitute for growing up in the environment of a family which is not dysfunctional where Uncle Peter is a car dealer, Aunt Sharon owns a supermarket and Cousin Kimberly owns a successful restaurant. These close-to-home realities have a far greater impact on a young person’s realization that they too can become a successful business person.
Afro-Guyanese  letters_to_the_editor  economic_development  entrepreneurship  generational_wealth  consumption  role_models  entrepreneur  risk-taking  factors_of_production  family  cultural_values  consumer_mindset  producer_mindset  rituals  dining 
august 2013 by jerryking
The gathering storm
Jun 18, 2013 | Trinidad Express Newspaper | By Rolph Balgobin.

A darker and more invidious force is also developing in our society bizarrely masked by these surface ripples of discontent. It is a counterculture, which has a vastly different value system to the mainstream. This phenomenon has been treated as a social issue—in fact it is rapidly morphing into a challenge for the economic, political and security systems in our society as well.

There are large and growing parts of this country where the law does not rule. Where the police cannot go, except in force. Being there is like being in another dimension. Time slows, and values are extremely different to the rest of the society. We work for what we have, they take what they want. We take the long view, they think short term. We hope to die old, they are prepared to die young. We value dedication, they value least effort. We contemplate, they proliferate—more young men to kill tomorrow.

This has gone from a criminal fringe to a full culture, which is rising up and challenging the law-abiding society. This is a monster, and it intends to destroy our democracy. The media only reports the murders—it misses the causes.

Our sociologists have only imperfectly described, far less explained, the very serious nature of what is before us. And so the challenge continues to grow while we use race and ethnicity to explain little black boys killing each other. This is a misdiagnosis.
op-ed  Caribbean  thug_code  dysfunction  killings  violence  values  Trinidad_&_Tobago  men  masculinity  Afro-Guyanese  Afro-Caribbeans  sociologists  race  root_cause  ethnicity  counterculture  lawlessness  cultural_values  value_systems 
july 2013 by jerryking
A new challenge for the new Mandelas
Jun. 29 2013 | The Globe and Mail | Doug Saunders.

Most of this improvement is propelled by the continent’s extremely rapid economic growth. Economies and real incomes have grown about 5 per cent annually for most of the past decade, and are now beating China and are projected to grow even faster in the coming years. At least some of this is reaching the people: Three out of four Africans now own a cellphone, a significant possession in poor countries.

All this being said, there is a disturbing lack of more lasting progress on the ground. It has become popular to claim that there are now 300 million “middle-class consumers” in Africa, almost a third of the population. This is not true in any meaningful way.

“Across Africa,” Ghanaian businessman Bright Simons wrote recently in the Harvard Business review, “incomes are rising fastest among those engaged in brokering trade in goods and services across fragmented markets … These people are rarely well-educated, though, and they share none of the cultural traits seen in the West and Asia as prerequisite to middle-class life.” Meanwhile, young and educated Africans are unable to earn anything close to the incomes that would be considered “middle class” elsewhere.

In other words, almost nobody in Africa is actually middle class: most countries are sharply polarized between a very wealthy elite and a poor who, while rising just above the level of hand-to-mouth poverty, are still unable to purchase more than the most rudimentary goods....Africa’s problems are largely self-created. Much of the continent’s new wealth comes from resource extraction (which is twice the size of any other industry). But, with a few important exceptions, governments remain unable or unwilling to keep much of this wealth within their borders or use it to create other, more lasting economies.

Now that Africa is close to solving the old problems of absolute poverty and democratic stability, it needs to overcome the new challenge of creating a real middle class – a challenge that will require another generation of Mandelas.
Doug_Saunders  Africa  middle_class  movingonup  natural_resources  resource_extraction  commodities  cultural_values  leaders  politicians  fragmented_markets 
june 2013 by jerryking
Africa Must Play a Part in Its Own Development - WSJ.com
August 15, 2003 |WSJ | Gralee Parr.

The authors cite Uganda as a modest success story, writing that President Yoweri Museveni is "authoritarian," but "seeks to run a rule-based society, not one run by mercurial fiat." In the book "Out of America: A Black Man Confronts Africa," author Keith Richburg recalls asking Mr. Museveni why Africa hadn't developed. Mr. Museveni ascribed it to "discipline." He added, "I tend to find more discipline among the Ugandan Asians than among the Africans," though he couldn't fully explain why. Cultural differences clearly are key.

Prosperous societies can't exist in a vacuum. As economist Thomas Sowell has shown, the cultural values of a people strongly influence their skills, choices of work and level of success. So the real question for Africans must be, "How can we change our cultural values in order to promote freedom and prosperity?" Unfortunately, until those values do change, Africa will continue to be poor.
letters_to_the_editor  Africa  Uganda  poverty  economists  values  Thomas_Sowell  self-help  economic_development  authoritarian  self-discipline  cultural_values  books  rules-based 
august 2012 by jerryking
Crippled by Their Culture
Thomas Sowell: Crippled by Their Culture
THE GAP

Race doesn't hold back America's "black rednecks." Nor does racism.

The Wall Street Journal
Tuesday, April 26, 2005
Thomas_Sowell  culture  African-Americans  race  rednecks  the_South  authenticity  cultural_values 
november 2011 by jerryking
The Clintons' last hurrah: watching the skunk in the alley
Thorsell, William. The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 16 Feb 2001: .13

The Wall Street Journal is the best-edited newspaper in the world, and its relentless editorial pages are sometimes superlative, too. This week, a Journal editorial disposed of Bill Clinton's shrinking rump of defenders with enviable finality. And last week, the Journal published a potent denunciation of the United States' governing elites -- "the dominant minority" on which the long-term welfare of any great civilization depends. Together, it was like reading a very good second draft of history.

The first of these forays can be explained by partisan predilection, as the Journal's genome contains the protein marker for Republicans in every cell, including the one that defines how you dress. But the editorial page's fervent hostility to Bill and Hillary Clinton goes far beyond the bounds of ideological conviction. It bespeaks moral outrage at the Clintons' damnable ability to act badly and then implicate a majority of Americans in their sins by sustaining public support...The context for all this was forcefully provided one week earlier in a Journal editorial-page essay coldly titled Prole Models. Charles Murray argued that America's governing elites have allowed repugnant lower-class values to become fashionable in society, nay, have adopted them. Citing Arnold Toynbee's cautionary tale in A Study of History,Mr. Murray warned against the rising social status of the Thug Code: "Take what you want, respond violently to anyone who antagonizes you, gloat when you win, despise courtesy as weakness, treat women as receptacles, take pride in cheating, deceiving or exploiting successfully."...The Wall Street Journal is an important instrument of the American establishment, and thus a contradiction to the thesis that U.S. elites have lost their way. Indeed, the political power of the religious right suggests the opposite, to the point that pluralist democracy might become at issue there. But Bill Clinton has ultimately validated the Journal's distinctive moral outrage by his consistently cynical indifference to its strictures.
thug_code  William_Thorsell  Bill_Clinton  Hillary_Clinton  moral_codes  Charles_Murray  underclass  values  social_classes  editors  cultural_values  cautionary_tales 
august 2011 by jerryking
Book Review: "Start-Up Nation" - WSJ.com
NOVEMBER 23, 2009 | Wall Street Journal | by JAMES K.
GLASSMAN. Israel is the world's techno-nation. Civilian
research-and-development expenditures run 4.5% of the gross domestic
product—half-again the level of the U.S., Germany or South Korea—and
venture-capital investment per capita is 2½ times that of the U.S. and
six times that of the United Kingdom. Even in absolute terms, Israel has
only the U.S.—with more than 40 times the population—as a challenger.
One important question that "Start-Up Nation" raises is: Why Israel and
not elsewhere? The authors dispose, a bit too blithely, the argument
from ethnic or religious exceptionalism, dismissing "unitary Jewishness"
or even individual talent as major reasons for Israel's high-tech
success. (George Gilder, in a recent book treating some of the same
matters, "The Israel Test," disagrees: "Israel today concentrates the
genius of the Jews.")
Israel  technology  science_&_technology  venture_capital  cultural_values  innovation  book_reviews  Jewish  human_capital  capitalization 
november 2009 by jerryking
A Tale of Several Cities: What explains why Boston flourishes while Philadelphia flounders?
Friday, October 20, 2006 12:01 A.M. EDT, WSJ op-ed by JULIA VITULLO-MARTIN.

Why isn't Philadelphia Boston? Why does Boston prosper, people and businesses outbidding one another to get in, while Philadelphia languishes, with acres of vacant and underused property announcing the lack of local demand? .......The answers are not to be found in conventional 20th-century analysis, which emphasized the seemingly unsolvable urban crisis: the decline of industrial jobs, the burdens of excessive taxation, the inevitability of racial tensions and the dominance of geography....At least part of the answer stems from their underlying cultures..... In his "Puritan Boston and Quaker Philadelphia" (1979), E. Digby Baltzell argued that Boston Brahmins, with their belief in authority and leadership, embraced a sense of responsibility for civic life, while Philadelphia Gentlemen, with their inward but judgmental Quaker ways were deeply unconcerned about their city's welfare.....cultural analysis -- long out of fashion as too soft (as as opposed to econometrics) or too racist (who is to say that one culture is better than another?) -- is due for a comeback. .....The old answer of urban success was deterministic: taxes and geography.....as the historian Richard Wade has noted for years, against the tide of his field, this theory has its flaws: If the sheer excellence of a harbor truly determined a city's fate, then the greatest city in America would be Upper Sandusky, Ohio....What flourishing cities often have in common, instead, are two crucial cultural characteristics: combativeness and cunning.....That same energy contributes to New York's cyclical boom-and-bust nature, regularly pushing speculation beyond the limits of an exuberant boom, thereby encouraging a bust. ....Cunning and combativeness, however, often restore cities financially without making them many new friends, except, perhaps, for the young -- who, for the past two decades, have been returning in great numbers to the old neighborhoods long ago abandoned by their parents and grandparents....But what makes cities successful -- or even just lovable -- can seldom be quantified.
boom-to-bust  municipalities  Toronto  ECONOMY  city  cities  Boston  Philadelphia  gentrification  cultural_analysis  cultural_values  leadership  Boston_Brahmins  bubbles 
february 2009 by jerryking

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