recentpopularlog in

jerryking : disproportionality   20

Where You Should Move to Make the Most Money: America’s Superstar Cities - WSJ
By Christopher Mims
Dec. 15, 2018 12:00 a.m. ET
Technology is creating an economy in which superstar employees work for superstar firms that gather them into superstar cities, leading to a stark geographic concentration of wealth unlike any seen in the past century.

The latest example of this is Apple announcing this past week a billion-dollar investment in a new campus that could ultimately accommodate up to 15,000 employees in a city already red hot with talent (Austin, Texas).....When economists talk about “superstar” anything, they’re referencing a phenomenon first described in the early 1980s. It began as the product of mass media and was put into overdrive by the internet. In an age when the reach of everything we make is greater than ever, members of an elite class of bankers, chief executives, programmers, Instagram influencers and just about anyone with in-demand technical skills have seen their incomes grow far faster than those of the middle class.

In this winner-take-all economy, the superstar firms—think Apple, Google and Amazon, but also their increasingly high-tech equivalents in finance, health care and every other industry—appear to account for most of the divergence in productivity and profits between companies in the U.S.

As firms cluster around talent, and talent is in turn drawn to those firms, the result is a self-reinforcing trend toward ever-richer, ever-costlier metro areas that are economically dominant over the rest of the country.
Christopher_Mims  cities  clusters  geographic_concentration  geographic_inequality  hyper-concentrations  start_ups  superstars  winner-take-all  disproportionality  digitalization 
december 2018 by jerryking
Start Spreading the News: Digital Fuels Superstar Cities - CIO Journal. WSJ
Dec 29, 2017 | WSJ | By Irving Wladawsky-Berger.

Superstar companies are primarily driven by economies of scale, generally achieved through platforms and network effects. Whenever a product, service or process is captured in software and digitized, it becomes digital capital and the economics of abundance take over. The more products or services a platform offers, the more users it will attract, helping it then attract more offerings from ecosystem partners, which in turn brings in more users.....The result is that a small number of companies become category kings dominating the rest of their competitors in their particular market – the Facebooks, Googles, Twitters, Ubers and AirBnbs. Category kings generally take over 70 percent of the total market value in their category, leaving everyone else to split the remaining 30 percent.

“Cities have been caught up in this winner-take-all phenomenon, too,” noted Mr. Florida. “Just as the economy confers disproportionate rewards to superstar talent, superstar cities… similarly tower above the rest. They generate the greatest levels of innovation, control and attract the largest shares of global capital and investment.”

Network dynamics apply to cities just as they do for companies and talent. “They have unique kinds of economies that are based around the most innovative and highest value-added industries, particularly finance, media, entertainment and tech; businesses in superstar cities are formed and scaled up more quickly. All of this attracts still more industries and more talent. It’s a powerful, ongoing feedback loop that compounds the advantages of these cities over time.”

But, such a concentration of talent, wealth and economic activity in fewer and fewer places has led to what a recent Economist issue called the changing economies of geography, the rising inequalities between a relatively small number of superstar cities and the many towns and regions that have been left behind by technology and globalization.
Irving_Wladawsky-Berger  cities  winner-take-all  platforms  superstars  network_effects  disproportionality  geographic_concentration  geographic_inequality  feedback_loops  compounded  increasing_returns_to_scale  digitalization 
january 2018 by jerryking
The Disproportionate Risks of Driving While Black
Yang Congtou Beijing 1 hour ago
'The officer found a small amount of marijuana and several grams of cocaine and arrested her.'

Ok, keep in mind God helps those who help themselves.
1) Don't drive...
advice  letters_to_the_editor  race  African-Americans  disproportionality  personal_risk  racial_disparities 
october 2015 by jerryking
The Disproportionate Risks of Driving While Black - The New York Times
By SHARON LaFRANIERE and ANDREW W. LEHRENOCT. 24, 2015

Documenting racial profiling in police work is devilishly difficult, because a multitude of factors — including elevated violent crime rates in many black neighborhoods — makes it hard to tease out evidence of bias from other influences. But an analysis by The New York Times of tens of thousands of traffic stops and years of arrest data in this racially mixed city of 280,000 uncovered wide racial differences in measure after measure of police conduct.

Those same disparities were found across North Carolina, the state that collects the most detailed data on traffic stops. And at least some of them showed up in the six other states that collect comprehensive traffic-stop statistics.

Here in North Carolina’s third-largest city, officers pulled over African-American drivers for traffic violations at a rate far out of proportion with their share of the local driving population. They used their discretion to search black drivers or their cars more than twice as often as white motorists — even though they found drugs and weapons significantly more often when the driver was white.

Officers were more likely to stop black drivers for no discernible reason. And they were more likely to use force if the driver was black, even when they did not encounter physical resistance.....National surveys show that blacks and whites use marijuana at virtually the same rate, but black residents here are charged with the sole offense of possession of minor amounts of marijuana five times as often as white residents are.

And more than four times as many blacks as whites are arrested on the sole charge of resisting, obstructing or delaying an officer, an offense so borderline that some North Carolina police chiefs discourage its use unless more serious crimes are also involved.
racial_disparities  policing  African-Americans  police_misconduct  disproportionality  police_abuse  police_brutality  police_reform  trustworthiness  legitimacy  violent_crime 
october 2015 by jerryking
Expertise in scaling up is the visible secret of Silicon Valley - FT.com
September 15, 2015 |FT| Reid Hoffman.

Most observers instinctively conclude that Silicon Valley is great because it has a unique ability to create start-ups. Most observers are wrong....Why does Silicon Valley continue to produce a disproportionate share of industry-transforming companies like Google, Facebook and LinkedIn? Or the next generation of companies like Airbnb, Dropbox, and Uber? The answer, which has been hiding in plain sight, is Silicon Valley’s ability to support scale-ups....Most of the impact and value creation in Silicon Valley actually occurs after the start-up phase ends and the scale-up phase begins.
Building great, world-changing companies requires more than just building a cool app and raising money. Entrepreneurs need to build massive organisations, user bases and businesses, at a dizzyingly rapid pace.....So what makes Silicon Valley so good at scale-ups? The obvious answers are talent and capital. Both offer a scale-up positive feedback loops. The competitor that gets to scale first nearly always wins. First-scaler advantage beats first-mover advantage. Once a scale-up occupies the high ground in its ecosystem, the networks around it recognise its leadership, and talent and capital flood in....talent and capital are necessary but not sufficient. The key success factor is actually a comprehensive and adaptable approach to scale. A scale-up grows so fast that conventional management approaches are doomed to fail. ...Change, not stability, is the default state at every stage and in every facet of the company. Continually reinventing yourself, your product and your organisation won’t be easy, but it will allow you to use rapid scaling as a strategic weapon to attain and retain market leadership.
blitzscaling  capital  change  constant_change  disproportionality  entrepreneur  expertise  first_movers  ksfs  networks  Reid_Hoffman  reinvention  scaling  Silicon_Valley  special_sauce  start_ups  talent  user_bases 
september 2015 by jerryking
A half-century of progress and black America’s still burning - The Globe and Mail
DOUG SAUNDERS
The Globe and Mail
Published Saturday, May. 09 2015

When it comes to race relations, America is better than it’s ever been,” the Washington journalist Jamelle Bouie writes. “With that said, we shouldn’t confuse optimism about race relations (or, again, how whites view blacks and other groups) with optimism about racial progress, or how groups fare in relation to each other. There, the news isn’t just bad – it’s bleak.”

Why have the huge improvements in American racial attitudes and general social measures not brought about an improvement in racial equality? Why do police attack and discriminate against black Americans disproportionately – even when, as is the case in Baltimore, most of the police force, its chief, its mayor and its president are African-American?

This is the paradox of the United States today: A population of voters and leaders who have largely moved beyond racial discrimination continue to produce often grotesquely racist results. Why does the reality not change with the attitudes toward it?

The answer is found in the cities and towns where these explosions of violence and deprivation are taking place: Once an institution (a city, a police force, a school system, an economy) is set up to create a racial divide, it will continue to do so, regardless who’s running it, unless there’s a dramatic intervention.
Doug_Saunders  African-Americans  race_relations  institutions  institutional_path_dependency  systemic_discrimination  disproportionality  institutional_racism  deprivations 
may 2015 by jerryking
The riddle of black America’s rising woes under Obama - FT.com
October 12, 2014 4:54 pm
The riddle of black America’s rising woes under Obama
By Edward Luce

Without Mr Obama’s efforts, African-American suffering would have been even greater. He has fought Congress to preserve food stamps and long-term unemployment insurance – both of which help blacks disproportionately. The number of Americans without health insurance has fallen by 8m since the Affordable Care Act came into effect. Likewise, no president has done as much as Mr Obama – to depressingly little effect – to try to correct the racial bias in US federal sentencing. Bill Clinton was once termed “America’s first black president”. But it was under Mr Clinton that incarceration rates rose to their towering levels.
By no honest reckoning can Mr Obama be blamed for the decline in black America’s fortunes. Yet the facts are deeply unflattering. Since 2009, median non-white household income has dropped by almost a 10th to $33,000 a year, according to the US Federal Reserve’s survey of consumer finances. As a whole, median incomes fell by 5 per cent. But by the more telling measure of net wealth – assets minus liabilities – the numbers offer a more troubling story.
The median non-white family today has a net worth of just $18,100 – almost a fifth lower than it was when Mr Obama took office. White median wealth, on the other hand, has inched up by 1 per cent to $142,000. In 2009, white households were seven times richer than their black counterparts. That gap is now eightfold. Both in relative and absolute terms, blacks are doing worse under Mr Obama.
Why then do African-Americans still give him such stellar ratings? To understand, listen to the dog whistles of Mr Obama’s detractors. The more angrily the Tea Party reviles Mr Obama, the more ardently African-Americans back him. When Newt Gingrich, the former Republican leader, described Mr Obama as a “food stamp president”, the subtext was plain. It was too when Joe Wilson, a Republican lawmaker, interrupted Mr Obama’s address to Congress to call him a liar – an indignity none of his predecessors suffered.
Likewise, no president has been forced to authenticate that he was born in the US (rather than Kenya). Donald Trump then demanded proof that the president had attended Harvard. How could a black man get so far without cheating? That at least is what many black Americans heard.
African-Americans  Obama  racial_disparities  legacies  generational_wealth  indignities  Donald_Trump  Tea_Party  bigotry  disproportionality  decline  Edward_Luce 
october 2014 by jerryking
Innovation: If you can’t make yourself obsolete, someone else will - The Globe and Mail
GUY DIXON
The Globe and Mail
Published Thursday, Jun. 26 2014

I think at the root of the problem is a deficit of ambition [JCK: i.e. a lack of chutzpah or audacity] The larger the corporation, the safer they become. What I’ve witnessed, certainly between 2008, 2009, is this deficit of ambition.....All of our research points to the fact that companies that do manage and measure innovation outperform those that don’t. You can put resources into place, and that’s where managing it comes in: deploying resources that will support innovative, new ideas; ensuring that you have a strong knowledge architecture – and that it is a formal, systemic thing, so that people access knowledge that is already developed; ensuring access to markets – that’s a structural element. Do your people have access to customers and markets?; and actively managing talent and selecting people and promoting them and ensuring that they have an orientation toward innovation and the development of new ideas....What percentage of turnover or revenue is presented by products that have been introduced in the past number of years? And for different companies, in different industries, that’s going to vary. Companies that are very successful treat that number as sacrosanct for the sales projection for next year and the bottom line for next year....Way too many companies are focused on market share versus the modern metric of, ‘Are we gaining a disproportionate share of opportunity?’ [Is this distinction something to be explored with the help of sensors, location-based services and the LBMA??] And then we’re back to this abandonment thing.
Managing_Your_Career  organizational_culture  playing_it_safe  innovation  metrics  ambitions  opportunities  market_share  complacency  measurements  talent_management  ideas  obsolescence  disproportionality  latent  hidden  self-obsolescence  large_companies  new_products  Fortune_500  brands  Guy_Dixon  outperformance  systematic_approaches 
june 2014 by jerryking
How Not to Stay on Top - NYTimes.com
By JOE NOCERA
Published: August 19, 2013

Was BlackBerry’s fall from grace inevitable? When you look at the history of dominant companies — starting with General Motors — it is easy enough to conclude yes. There are companies that occasionally manage to reinvent themselves. They are nimble and ruthless, willing to disrupt their own business model because they can sense a threat on the horizon. But they’re the exception.

Wang Laboratories is the rule. And so is BlackBerry.

Wang went from an 80% market share in word-processing among the top 2,000 corporations to bankruptcy in about a decade, and BlackBerry of course went from inventing the cellphone and wireless email category, and utterly dominating it, to a a shadow of its former self today, with a “for sale” sign on outside corporate headquarters and a 2.7% global smartphone market share. What happened?

To rudely condense history, IBM’s PC happened to Wang and the iPhone happened to BlackBerry. At a somewhat more nuanced level, however, what happened to both Wang and BlackBerry is that when the storm clouds appeared they did not take their competitors seriously, they failed to understood what their customers wanted on the new landscape, and finally and most unforgivably they thought they knew what was best for their customers better than the customers themselves. More specifically, both firms thought their core customers were mistaken—wrong—to express a preference for the new, inferior arrival.
competitive_landscape  Wang_Labs  BlackBerry  blindsided  RIM  disruption  reinvention  failure  GM  IBM  iPhone  market_share  disproportionality  nimbleness 
september 2013 by jerryking
'Heaven was the word for Canada:' race in Martin Luther King's 'North Star' - The Globe and Mail
Aug. 24 2013 | The Globe and Mail | John Ibbitson.

....Racially, the single greatest achievement may have been the decision by the government of Lester B. Pearson in 1967 to introduce the points system for choosing immigrants, sweeping away policies that had kept non-whites out of Canada for generations.

The following half-century of wide-open immigration and entrenched multiculturalism forged Canadian cities so cosmopolitan, diverse and tolerant that they come closer than any to Dr. King’s dream of harmony and equality....

But only for some. Black Canadians make up 2.5 per cent of the population, but fill 9 per cent of the spaces in the country’s prisons, according to the federal Office of the Correctional Investigator. Too many poor non-white neighbourhoods are unstable and, for many of those trapped in them, unsafe
MLK  John_Ibbitson  anniversaries  speeches  Underground_Railroad  geographic_segregation  North_Star  marginalization  1967  Lester_Pearson  African_Canadians  overrepresentation  disproportionality  immigration  multiculturalism  Canadian  cities  cosmopolitan  exclusion 
august 2013 by jerryking
Professional firms: Simply the best
Apr 13th 2013 | The Economist |

What It Takes: Seven Secrets of Success from the World’s Greatest Professional Firms. By Charles Ellis. Wiley; 290 pages; $40 and £26.99.

During a long career advising senior professionals, Mr Ellis found that a handful of firms were almost universally regarded by their peers as the best in their particular business. As well as McKinsey (management consulting) and Goldman (investment banking), they included Capital Group (investment management), the Mayo Clinic (health care) and Cravath, Swaine & Moore (law). He was surprised to discover that each of the firms had several things in common. These include leaders who devote their lives to serving their firm rather than enriching themselves (though that tended to follow naturally), a good sense of what motivates staff to get up early and work late and the ability to get individualistic professionals to function unusually well in teams.

Above all, these firms are fanatical about recruiting new employees who are not just the most talented but also the best suited to a particular corporate culture. These firms’ bosses spend a disproportionate amount of time on the recruitment process, often putting it before other more immediately lucrative demands on their time. McKinsey interviews 200,000 people each year, but selects just over 1%.

Each McKinsey applicant can be interviewed eight times before being offered a job; at Goldman, twice that is not unheard of. At Capital a serious candidate is likely to be seen by 20 people, some more than once. Recruitment, these firms believe, is the start of a lifelong relationship. At the same time, Goldman and McKinsey also have a policy of helping their staff to find suitable work elsewhere, all in the expectation that they will eventually become loyal customers.
best_of  books  book_reviews  disproportionality  Goldman_Sachs  high-achieving  lifelong  McKinsey  organizational_culture  outplacement  overachievers  professional_service_firms  recruiting  relationships  selection_processes  selectivity  serving_others  talent_management 
april 2013 by jerryking
Is the real problem here crime or systemic racism?
May 31, 2005 | G & M |Margaret Wente.

What the study did was record the age, race and gender of everybody stopped by police in the course of a year. What it found was that blacks (who make up only 1 per cent of Kingston's population) are stopped nearly three times as often, per capita, as whites. Therefore, it concluded, the police are racially biased.

But if that's true, then the police are also ageist and sexist. Only 7 per cent of the people stopped by police were 55 or older, while 35 per cent were between 15 and 24. And roughly three times more men were stopped than women. Does this mean the police are also biased against young people and men? Most crimes are committed by young men, and a disproportionate number of crimes are committed by young black men. Only 9 % of Toronto's population is black, but more than half of Toronto's 20 "most wanted" are black.
Margaret_Wente  Toronto  African_Canadians  disproportionality  statistics  Kingston  systemic_discrimination  zero-tolerance  expulsions  high_schools  criminality  Toronto_Police_Service  carding  racial_profiling  racial_disparities  young_people 
september 2012 by jerryking
Race is the elephant in the room
Nov. 22 2005 | G&M | MARGARET WENTE

Toronto schools are also taking it in the neck for racial profiling. That's because young black males make up a disproportionate number of the students who are penalized for discipline and behaviour problems. Anyone with the slightest experience in Toronto's schools knows these problems are real. But saying so is not an option. Instead, the school board has promised the Ontario Human Rights Commission that the schools will be more sensitive. From now on, principals must consider "mitigating factors" before they impose discipline. One such factor is "racial harassment." Next fall, schools will begin to gather race-based discipline statistics in order to detect bias. Want to guess what's going to happen?
race  Toronto  Margaret_Wente  killings  African_Canadians  schools  students  youth  disproportionality 
august 2012 by jerryking
Do Your Commitments Match Your Convictions?
January 2005 | HBR | By Donald N. Sull & Dominic Houlder
The Idea in Brief
How many of us struggle harder every day to uphold obligations to our bosses, families, and communities--even as the quality of our lives erodes? And how many of us feel too overwhelmed to examine the causes of this dilemma? For most people, it takes a crisis--illness, divorce, death of a loved one, business failure--before we'll
refocus our commitments of money, time, and energy on what really matters to us. But why wait for a crisis? Instead, use a systematic process to periodically clarify your convictions and assess
whether you're putting your money (and time and energy) where your mouth is. Identify high-priority values that are receiving insufficient resources--or outdated commitments that are siphoning precious resources away from your deepest convictions.
Once you've spotted gaps between what matters most to you and how you're investing your resources, use a time-out (a sabbatical, course, or retreat) to rethink old commitments and define new
ones more consistent with your values. By routinely applying this process, you--not your past obligations--will determine the direction your life takes.

The Idea in Practice
To manage the gap between your convictions and commitments, apply the following steps.
Inventory Your Values
List the things that matter most to you, in specific language. For example, instead of "Money," write,
"Providing financial security to my family," or "Earning enough to retire early." Aim for five to ten
values, and write what you honestly value--not what you think you should value.
Assess How You're Investing Your Resources
Track how much money, time, and energy you're devoting to your values. For each value you've
listed, record the following:
• Percentage of your household income you devote to that value
- 2 -
• Number of hours per week you spend on the value
• Quality of energy (high, low) you devote to activities related to that value. (An hour spent on an
activity when you're fresh and focused represents a greater commitment than an hour spent when
you're exhausted and distracted.)
Identify Gaps Between Your Values and Commitments
Do some values on your list receive little or none of your money, time, and energy? Is there a single
value that sucks a disproportionate share of your resources away from other priorities?
Understand What Has Caused the Gaps
Disconnects between what you value and how you actually spend your time can have several
causes. Perhaps you've taken on obligations without considering the long-term ramifications. One
successful entrepreneur in New York had promised to spend more time with her London-based
partner. But when she decided to sell her start-up to a West Coast competitor through a five-year
earn-out deal, she had to move to San Francisco to run the business. She now spends even more
time airborne--torn between two conflicting commitments she made simultaneously.
Or maybe you've let others define "success" for you. One young banker earned colleagues' praise
for his extreme work ethic. When he became a father, he wanted to spend more time with his family,
which baffled his colleagues. Because he badly desired continued praise from colleagues, he
continued his workaholic ways--and effectively gave his colleagues the power to set his priorities.
Change Course
It's harder to recalibrate commitments when you're not facing a crisis. A time-out--a sabbatical,
course, or other device--can help you reflect and give you an excuse to break old commitments and
forge new ones. To avoid "commitment creep," abandon or renegotiate one old commitment for every
new one you make.
commitments  convictions  disproportionality  Donald_Sull  financial_security  HBR  indispensable  JCK  Managing_Your_Career  overwhelmed  reflections  resolutions  sabbaticals  slack_time  timeouts  values  what_really_matters 
march 2012 by jerryking
Cash Cows: Burger Joints Call Them 'Heavy Users' -- but Not to Their Faces
January 12, 2000 | THE WALL STREET JOURNAL | By JENNIFER ORDONEZ

The heavy user accounts for only one of five fast-food patrons -- but about 60% of all
visits to fast-food restaurants. By this definition, the heavy user accounted for roughly $66 billion of the
$110 billion the National Restaurant Association says was spent on fast food last year in the U.S.
Definitions of the heavy user vary, but by any measurement, Mr. Sheridan stands out. He spends as
much as $40 a day at fast-food restaurants. He sometimes visits them more than 20 times a month -- a
qualifying number for heavy-user status, according to a survey done by marketing firm Porter Novelli....Unlike frequent fliers and preferred shoppers, heavy users get little in the way of special treatment or
freebies. At fast-food restaurants, they stand in the same lines as everyone else, indistinguishable from
light users.
fast-food  hamburgers  McDonald's  Burger_King  KFC  customer_segmentation  cash_cows  disproportionality 
october 2011 by jerryking
Is Marriage for White People? — By Ralph Richard Banks — Book Review - NYTimes.com
September 16, 2011 | NYT | By IMANI PERRY

"...The impediments to marriage for black people are daunting and
multifaceted.

Black women significantly outperform black men in high school and
college. As a result, the black middle class is disproportionately
female and the black poor are disproportionately male, and the gap is
widening. Extraordinary rates of incarceration for black men, and the
long-term effects of a prison record on employment, exacerbate this
situation. Banks refers to studies indicating that “in evaluating
potential mates, economic stability still matters more for
African-Americans than for other groups.” Yet they may never find that
security, and therefore never marry.

Moreover, the benefits of marriage don’t accrue as readily for
African-Americans as for other groups precisely because of their
economic instability."
African-Americans  book_reviews  disproportionality  marriage  mass_incarceration  middle_class  multifaceted  outperformance  racial_disparities  relationships  stigmatization  unemployment  women 
september 2011 by jerryking
We Need an Immigration Stimulus - WSJ.com
APRIL 27, 2009 | Wall Street Journal | by L. GORDON CROVITZ.

Economic downturn is the right time to move on immigration, one of the
few policy tools that could clearly boost growth.Immigrants have had a
disproportionate role in innovation and technology. Companies founded by
immigrants include Yahoo, eBay and Google. Half of Silicon Valley
start-ups were founded by immigrants, up from 25% a decade ago. Some 40%
of patents in the U.S. are awarded to immigrants. A recent study by the
Kauffman Foundation found that immigrants are 50% likelier to start
businesses than natives. Immigrant-founded technology firms employ
450,000 workers in the U.S. And according to the National Venture
Capital Association, immigrants have started one quarter of all U.S.
venture-backed firms.
Silicon_Valley  start_ups  L._Gordon_Crovtiz  Amar_Bhidé  immigrants  policy_tools  immigration  Kauffman_Foundation  disproportionality  economic_downturn 
may 2009 by jerryking
Hallmarks of an entrepreneur striving for gold
02-Aug-2005 | Financial Times pg. 8 | by John Mullins.

Entrepreneurs can succeed in difficult industries, but they must – among other things – be able to:

· Identify the critical success factors specific to their particular industry;

· Assemble a team that can deliver on these factors.

(1) Which decisions or activities are the ones that, if carried out wrong, will have crippling effects on company performance?
(2) Which decisions or activities, done right, will have a disproportionately positive effect on performance?
(3) In terms of skilful team-building, what skills do you have? Need?
disproportionality  entrepreneur  industry_expertise  ksfs  linchpins  jck  life_skills  online_travel  questions  rate-limiting_steps  site_selection  skills  skiing  Starbucks  start_ups  teams  think_threes  tourism 
march 2009 by jerryking
A+ for cultural capital
Jun. 27, 2006 G&M op-ed by Margaret Wente on immigrant
students in Toronto … fully 43% of Toronto’s secondary school students
were born outside Canada. For all the hardships faced by new immigrants
to Canada, many of their kids are the brightest of the bright. And they
also make up a disproportionate share of dropouts. It appears that how
well these students do in school has far more to do with where they’re
from than how long they’ve been here...The education system is supposed
to be the great equalizer. So what can the schools do about these
achievement gaps? People in Toronto are discussing all the usual stuff
-- a more inclusive curriculum, more ethnic teachers, more outreach to
families, more rejection of ethnic stereotypes, and, of course, an end
to discrimination. But the education system's ability to equalize the
outcomes is probably severely limited. That's because cultural capital
is formed at home and formed early.
achievement_gaps  high_schools  performance  Toronto  Margaret_Wente  schools  immigrants  TDSB  school_districts  dropouts  disproportionality  education  outcomes  cultural_capital  hardships 
january 2009 by jerryking

Copy this bookmark:





to read