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jerryking : geographic_sorting   8

Can we ever knock down the walls of the wealthy ghetto?
Jul. 15, 2017 | The Globe and Mail | DOUG SAUNDERS.

Fifty-two years ago, sociologist John Porter demonstrated, in his bestseller The Vertical Mosaic, that Canada's economy, its politics and its culture were controlled by a cloistered elite from the same schools and neighbourhoods, and only 3 per cent of Canadians had any access to this circle. Social mobility has improved dramatically thanks to half a century of immigration, growth and better social policies. But the top ranks remain closed and self-protective.

There are two factors in particular that make Canada's cycle of privilege a closed loop that excludes outsiders.

The first is Canada's lack of an inheritance tax. Estates (including houses) are taxed as income upon their owner's death, then can be passed on to children – removing incentives to put that wealth to better and more productive use. As a result, the higher rungs on the ladder are less open to people who have developed creative, profitable companies and ideas, and more so to people who have simply had the right parents.

The second is Canada's lax policy on private schools. The 6 per cent of Canadians who attend fee-charging schools are overwhelmingly there because their families are wealthy (studies show that their advantages are entirely found in their connections, not in their academic performance).
Canada  Canadians  high_net_worth  privilege  Doug_Saunders  cumulative  social_mobility  social_classes  private_schools  inheritance_tax  elitism  compounded  inequality  geographic_sorting  college-educated  super_ZIPs  self-perpetuation  upper-income 
july 2017 by jerryking
How We Are Ruining America
JULY 11, 2017 | The New York Times | David Brooks.

Over the past generation, members of the college-educated class have become amazingly good at making sure their children retain their privileged status. They have also become devastatingly good at making sure the children of other classes have limited chances to join their ranks.....Over the past few decades, upper-middle-class Americans have embraced behavior codes that put cultivating successful children at the center of life. As soon as they get money, they turn it into investments in their kids......Richard Reeves of the Brookings Institution recently published a book called “Dream Hoarders” detailing some of the structural ways the well educated rig the system.

The most important is residential zoning restrictions. Well-educated people tend to live in places like Portland, New York and San Francisco that have housing and construction rules that keep the poor and less educated away from places with good schools and good job opportunities.....second structural barrier is the college admissions game. Educated parents live in neighborhoods with the best teachers, they top off their local public school budgets and they benefit from legacy admissions rules, from admissions criteria that reward kids who grow up with lots of enriching travel and from unpaid internships that lead to jobs.....the structural barriers emphasized are less important than the informal social barriers that segregate the lower 80 percent (e.g. being aware of cultural signifiers around, say, gourmet food)

.......American upper-middle-class culture (where the opportunities are) is now laced with cultural signifiers that are completely illegible unless you happen to have grown up in this class (i.e. excelling at being socially graceful). They play on the normal human fear of humiliation and exclusion. Their chief message is, “You are not welcome here.”
David_Brooks  social_mobility  Colleges_&_Universities  socially_graceful  inequality  geographic_sorting  college-educated  super_ZIPs  self-perpetuation  values  opportunity_gaps  upper-income  social_exclusion  books  structural_barriers  admissions  elitism  social_classes  zoning  restrictions  social_barriers  cultural_signifiers  privilege  gaming_the_system  unfair_advantages  ruination  rituals 
july 2017 by jerryking
Why I’m Moving Home
MARCH 16, 2017 | The New York Times | By J. D. VANCE.

" The economist Matthew Kahn has shown that in Appalachia, for instance, the highly skilled are much likelier to leave not just their hometowns but also the region as a whole. This is the classic “brain drain” problem: Those who are able to leave very often do.

The brain drain also encourages a uniquely modern form of cultural detachment. Eventually, the young people who’ve moved out marry — typically to partners with similar economic prospects. They raise children in increasingly segregated neighborhoods, giving rise to something the conservative scholar Charles Murray calls “super ZIPs.” These super ZIPs are veritable bastions of opportunity and optimism, places where divorce and joblessness are rare." ......“The sociological role [colleges and universities] play is to suck talent out of small towns and redistribute it to big cities.” There have always been regional and class inequalities in our society, but the data tells us that we’re living through a unique period of segregation....This has consequences beyond the purely material. Jesse Sussell and James A. Thomson of the RAND Corporation argue that this geographic sorting has heightened the polarization that now animates politics. This polarization reflects itself not just in our voting patterns, but also in our political culture...JD Vance has decided to move [back] home-to Ohio....."we often frame civic responsibility in terms of government taxes and transfer payments, so that our society’s least fortunate families are able to provide basic necessities. But this focus can miss something important: that what many communities need most is not just financial support, but talent and energy and committed citizens to build viable businesses and other civic institutions."
sorting  segregation  compartmentalization  neighbourhoods  polarization  geographic_mobility  brain_drain  super_ZIPs  cultural_detachment  Rust_Belt  midwest  Red_states  whites  political_partisanship  political_polarization  working_class  J.D._Vance  industrial_Midwest  Appalachia  cities  engaged_citizenry  talent  Charles_Murray  civics  social_mobility  self-perpetuation  values  opportunity_gaps  college-educated  geographic_sorting  regional 
march 2017 by jerryking
Leaving for the city | The Economist
Sep 3rd 2016 |

Bill Bishop: The Big Sort

The best book to read if you want to understand corporate America’s migration patterns is not Mr Florida’s but a more recent study, Bill Bishop’s “The Big Sort”. It argues that Americans are increasingly clustering in distinct areas on the basis of their jobs and social values. The headquarters revolution is yet another iteration of the sorting process that the book describes, as companies allocate elite jobs to the cities and routine jobs to the provinces. Corporate disaggregation is no doubt a sensible use of resources. But it will also add to the tensions that are tearing America apart as many bosses choose to work in very different worlds from the vast majority of Americans, including their own employees.
workplaces  Flybits  urban  cities  creative_class  trends  books  geographic_sorting  geographic_mobility 
november 2016 by jerryking
Education Gap Between Rich and Poor Is Growing Wider - The New York Times
SEPT. 22, 2015 | NYT | Eduardo Porter.

For all the progress in improving educational outcomes among African-American children, the achievement gaps between more affluent and less privileged children is wider than ever, notes Sean Reardon of the Center for Education Policy Analysis at Stanford. Racial disparities are still a stain on American society, but they are no longer the main divider. Today the biggest threat to the American dream is class.....Financed mainly by real estate taxes that are more plentiful in neighborhoods with expensive homes, public education is becoming increasingly compartmentalized. Well-funded schools where the children of the affluent can play and learn with each other are cordoned off from the shabbier schools teaching the poor, who are still disproportionally from black or Hispanic backgrounds.
poverty  African-Americans  income_inequality  racial_disparities  real_estate_taxes  education  achievement_gaps  social_classes  public_education  sorting  segregation  geographic_sorting  neighbourhoods  children  affluence  upper-income  super_ZIPs  compartmentalization  the_American_dream 
september 2015 by jerryking
Google Correlate: Your data, Google's computing power
Google Correlate is awesome. As I noted in Search Notes last week, Google Correlate is a new tool in Google Labs that lets you upload state- or time-based data to see what search trends most correlate with that information.

Correlation doesn't necessarily imply causation, and as you use Google Correlate, you'll find that the relationship (if any) between terms varies widely based on the topic, time, and space.

For instance, there's a strong state-based correlation between searches for me and searches for Vulcan Capital. But the two searches have nothing to do with each other. As you see below, the correlation is that the two searches have similar state-based interest.

For both searches, the most volume is in Washington state (where we're both located). And both show high activity in New York.

State-based data

For a recent talk I gave in Germany, I downloaded state-by-state income data from the U.S. Census Bureau and ran it through Google Correlate. I found that high income was highly correlated with searches for [lohan breasts] and low income was highly correlated with searches for [police shootouts]. I leave the interpretation up to you.

By default, the closest correlations are with the highest numbers, so to get correlations with low income, I multiplied all of the numbers by negative one.

Clay Johnson looked at correlations based on state obesity rates from the CDC. By looking at negative correlations (in other words, what search queries are most closely correlated with states with the lowest obesity rates), we see that the most closely related search is [yoga mat bags]. (Another highly correlated term is [nutrition school].)

Maybe there's something to that "working out helps you lose weight" idea I've heard people mention. Then again, another highly correlated term is [itunes movie rentals], so maybe I should try the "sitting on my couch, watching movies work out plan" just to explore all of my options.

To look at this data more seriously, we can see with search data alone that the wealthy seem to be healthier (at least based on obesity data) than the poor. In states with low obesity rates, searches are for optional material goods, such as Bose headphones, digital cameras, and red wine and for travel to places like Africa, Jordan, and China. In states with high obesity rates, searches are for jobs and free items.

With this hypothesis, we can look at other data (access to nutritious food, time and space to exercise, health education) to determine further links.

Time-based data

Time-based data works in a similar way. Google Correlate looks for matching patterns in trends over time. Again, that the trends are similar doesn't mean they're related. But this data can be an interesting starting point for additional investigation.

One of the economic indicators from the U.S. Census Bureau is housing inventory. I looked at the number of months' supply of homes at the current sales rate between 2003 and today. I have no idea how to interpret data like this (the general idea is that you, as an expert in some field, would upload data that you understand). But my non-expert conclusion here is that as housing inventory increases (which implies no one's buying), we are looking to spiff up our existing homes with cheap stuff, so we turn to Craigslist.

Of course, it could also be the case that the height of popularity of Craiglist just happened to coincide with the months when the most homes were on the market, and both are coincidentally declining at the same rate.

Search-based data

You can also simply enter a search term, and Google will analyze the state or time-based patterns of that term and chart other queries that most closely match those patterns. Google describes this as a kind of Google Trends in reverse.

Google Insights for Search already shows you state distribution and volume trends for terms, and Correlate takes this one step further by listing all of the other terms with a similar regional distribution or volume trend.

For instance, regional distribution for [vegan restaurants] searches is strongly correlated to the regional distribution for searches for [mac store locations].

What does the time-trend of search volume for [vegan restaurants] correlate with? Flights from LAX.

Time-based data related to a search term can be a fascinating look at how trends spark interest in particular topics. For instance, as the Atkins Diet lost popularity, so too did interest in the carbohydrate content of food.

Interest in maple syrup seems to follow interest in the cleanse diet (of which maple syrup is a key component).

Drawing-based data

Don't have any interesting data to upload? Aren't sure what topic you're most interested in? Then just draw a graph!

Maybe you want to know what had no search volume at all in 2004, spiked in 2005, and then disappeared again. Easy. Just draw it on a graph.

Apparently the popular movies of the time were "Phantom of the Opera," "Darkness," and "Meet the Fockers." And we all were worried about our Celebrex prescriptions.

(Note: the accuracy of this data likely is dependent on the quality of your drawing skills.)

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Related:

Data science democratized
Dashboards evolve to meet social and business needs
A new focus on user-friendly data analysis
Social data is an oracle waiting for a question
causality  Data  Future_of_Search  analytics  datatool  googlecorrelate  via:moon  house  LBMA  OPMA  correlations  time-based  geographic_sorting  tools  digital_cameras 
july 2015 by jerryking
Graduates, Take Heed - WSJ.com
June 11, 2004 | WSJ | By DANIEL AKST.

if you are dreaming of making the world a better place...just go out and make the most money you can. Then, if you still want to do more, give it away....Economics, remember, is not a zero-sum game. Capital is the lifeblood of the economy, fueling the productivity gains that in turn fuel expanding affluence and social progress. As if none of this were sufficient, Alex's earnings required him to pay enough income taxes over the years for the government to employ a small army of social workers. He never shirked these obligations through dubious tax-shelter schemes, either. And don't forget the foundation!

The conclusion is unavoidable: If you have a good education, you shouldn't just consider getting rich. Creating and amassing wealth is an outright moral obligation. Do so and you can take comfort not just in financing public services but in knowing that you are giving people what they need or want, generating jobs and underwriting the affluence that makes art, justice, environmental protection and other social goods possible.

Of course, making yourself a pile of money is good for you too. You'll live in a better neighborhood, drive a safer car, get to be more selective in choosing a spouse and enjoy a longer, healthier life. Your kids will get a better education, which in turn will mean more of the same for them, too -- and will better equip them to improve the world still more.
commencement  advice  Wall_Street  capitalism  new_graduates  personal_enrichment  career_paths  finance  wealth_creation  philanthropy  tithing  geographic_sorting  compounded  self-perpetuation  super_ZIPs  zero-sum_games 
august 2012 by jerryking

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