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jerryking : guts   11

Opinion | The Wisdom Your Body Knows - The New York Times
By David Brooks
Opinion Columnist

Nov. 28, 2019

**
** “How Emotions Are Made” by Lisa Feldman Barrett.
This has been a golden age for brain research.....we mistakenly believe that thinking happens only from the neck up.......scientists are now focusing on the thinking that happens not in your brain but in your gut. You have neurons spread through your innards, and there’s increasing attention on the vagus nerve, which emerges from the brain stem and wanders across the heart, lungs, kidney and gut. The vagus nerve is one of the pathways through which the body and brain talk to each other in an unconscious conversation. Much of this conversation is about how we are relating to others. Human thinking is not primarily about individual calculation, but about social engagement and cooperation.....When you enter a new situation, Porges argues, your body reacts. Your heart rate may go up. Your blood pressure may change. Signals go up to the brain, which records the “autonomic state” you are in....

a main purpose of the brain is to read the body, and to regulate "the body budget". Spotting a bully on the playground may cause one's brain to predict actions, speeds heart rates and breathing to deal with it. We experience these changes as emotion — e.g. fear, anger, etc. — because our brain has created an emotion concept [JCK - a lexicon??] to make those physical changes meaningful.

“You might think that in everyday life, the things you see and hear influence what you feel, but it’s mostly the other way around: What you feel alters your sight and hearing,”....... Under the old brain-only paradigm, we told people to self-regulate their emotions through conscious self-talk. But real emotional help comes through co-regulation. When a mother and a child physically hold each other, their bodily autonomic states harmonize, connecting on a metabolic level. Together they move from separate distress to mutual calm........the Welch Emotional Connection Screen, which measures the emotional connection between mothers and pre-term babies. ....When we step back and see the brain and body thinking together, the old distinction between reason and emotion doesn’t seem to make sense. Our perception of the world is shaped by the predictions our brains make about our physical autonomic states. It is vital to teach emotional granularity, something our culture pays almost no attention to. We’re not separate brains, coolly observing each other. We’re physical viscera, deeply interacting with each other. The important communication is happening at a much deeper level.
biology  Communicating_&_Connecting  David_Books  digestive_systems  emotional_connections  emotions  gastrointestinal  guts  human_anatomy  human_behavior  human_brains  logic_&_reasoning  mental_health  metabolism  op-ed  physical_touch  physiological_response  psychology  stress_response  thinking  wisdom 
december 2019 by jerryking
Gut feelings: How microbes may affect your mental health
MAY 24, 2019 | The Globe and Mail | PAUL TAYLOR.

......A growing body of research suggests that what’s happening in the gut may also have an impact on the brain.....In a study published in February, for instance, Belgian scientists reported that two types of gut bacteria tend to be depleted in people with depression. The significance of this study is still open to debate. Although the scientists found “an association” between the absence of certain gut microbes and depression, they didn’t actually prove one thing causes the other......adds support to earlier studies that demonstrated mood and behaviour could be altered by manipulating the gut’s microbial contents..[JCK: from David Brooks, "You have neurons spread through your innards, and there’s increasing attention on the vagus nerve, which emerges from the brain stem and wanders across the heart, lungs, kidney and gut. The vagus nerve is one of the pathways through which the body and brain talk to each other in an unconscious conversation. ].....It was once thought that depression resulted from a “chemical imbalance” in the brain. Based on this theory, patients should feel better by simply taking medications that restore the brain’s correct chemical balance.

But now researchers believe that there may be many different causes of depression, which is characterized by both structural and activity changes in the brain. Some evidence also suggests inflammation may play a role. “There are probably multiple types of depression that all masquerade as a single entity,” Sinyor explains. “And that’s the reason why we have many treatments that work, but certain treatments work for some people while other treatments work for others.”

Both Collins and Sinyor think it’s possible that research may eventually lead to new bacterial-based treatments for depression and other mental-health disorders.
bacteria  clinical_depression  digestive_systems  gastrointestinal  guts  human_anatomy  human_behavior  human_brains  mens'_health  mental_health  microbes  microbiome 
may 2019 by jerryking
Gut Feeling: To Stay Healthy, Keep Your Body’s Microbes in Line - WSJ
By Jo Craven McGinty
Aug. 17, 2018

the human body hosts a variety of microbes.....they helps digest our food, regulate our immune system and feed the cells that line the gut. But if its mix of microbes gets out of whack, the same organisms that ensure our health can make us sick.....“Not only irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, but cardiovascular disease, even Parkinson’s, autism and multiple sclerosis,”.... illnesses—as well as obesity—have been transferred to mice by implanting (i.e. fecal transplants) the rodents with samples of the microbiomes of humans who suffer from the disorders.....The first step in understanding the microbiome is to document the assembly of microbes, and each person’s appears to be unique......Not all of the organisms in the human microbiome have been identified, but one of the better known is E. coli, a sometimes deadly bacteria that provided early evidence that microbes could be beneficial in treating human disease.

In World War I, a special kind of E. coli was found in a German soldier who, unlike his comrades, didn’t develop infectious diarrhea while stationed in an area of Europe where the disease was endemic.

E. coli Nissle, named for the professor who isolated the strain in 1917, became the active ingredient in a drug used to treat diarrhea, ulcerative colitis and other gastrointestinal disorders.
autism  bacteria  digestive_systems  E._coli  germs  gut_feelings  guts  microbes  microbiome  pathogens  mens'_health  gastrointestinal  human_anatomy 
august 2018 by jerryking
Stone Age cave dwellers had healthier mouths than we do - The Globe and Mail
PAUL TAYLOR

The Globe and Mail

Published Thursday, Feb. 21 2013

Think of your mouth as being in a constant state of disease..."There is a very low diversity of bacterial species and a high prevalence of disease-causing pathogens."...In fact, our teeth and gums are generally in worse shape than our cave-dwelling ancestors....What's to blame? Our shift to a carbohydrate-rich diet – especially the increased consumption of processed sugar – fostered the growth of certain bacteria that cause gum disease and dental decay, "Hunter-gatherers in general had really good teeth. You see quite a bit of wear because of the highly abrasive nature of their diet, but you see almost no signs of pathology," said Cooper.

"That all changes with farming and the increased consumption of domesticated cereals," added Cooper.

The DNA analysis revealed that as agriculture took hold, there was a marked decrease in bacterial diversity and certain disease-causing microbes became more prevalent, including Porphyromonas gingivalis which contributes to gum disease.The composition of oral bacteria underwent another dramatic shift with the industrial revolution and the introduction of processed sugar and flour. There was a further decrease in diversity, and a rise in bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans, which causes dental caries commonly known as cavities......Diet has influenced the bacteria that inhabit the human body "and we can see that in the oral cavity," said Cooper. "One can pretty safely deduce that same thing has happened in the gastrointestinal system, which is arguably even more important in terms of the role of bacteria in human health."

Indeed, a growing body of medical research suggests that the loss of beneficial bacteria is associated with a range of modern systemic diseases, from diabetes and heart disease, to obesity and autism. And perhaps most important of all, a diverse gut bacteria is necessary to train the immune systems of young children.
evolution  bacteria  diets  dental  guts  disease  pathogens  digestive_systems  microbes  microbiome  gums  gastrointestinal  hunter-gatherers  immune_system  human_evolution 
february 2013 by jerryking
Gut Infections Are Growing Much More Lethal - NYTimes.com
By DENISE GRADY
Published: March 19, 2012

Gastrointestinal infections are killing more and more people in the United States and have become a particular threat to the elderly, according to new data released last week. Deaths from the infections more than doubled from 1999 to 2007, to more than 17,000 a year from 7,000 a year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported. Of those who died, 83 percent were over age 65.

Two thirds of the deaths were caused by a bacterium, Clostridium difficile, which people often contract in hospitals and nursing homes, particularly when they have been taking antibiotics. The bacteria have grown increasingly virulent and resistant to treatment in recent years.

But researchers were surprised to discover that the second leading cause of death from this type of illness was the norovirus. It causes a highly contagious infection, sometimes called winter vomiting illness, that can spread rapidly on cruise ships and in prisons, dormitories and hospitals.
bacteria  mens'_health  digestive_systems  colons  colorectal  viruses  virulence  guts  lethality  microbes  microbiome  infections  Clostridium_difficile  gastrointestinal 
march 2012 by jerryking
A Gut Check for Many Ailments - WSJ.com
JANUARY 17, 2012

A Gut Check for Many Ailments

By SHIRLEY S. WANG
mens'_health  digestive_systems  guts  microbes  microbiome 
january 2012 by jerryking

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