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jerryking : industrial_policies   50

Why moonshots elude the timid of heart
February 14, 2020 | Financial Times | by Tim Harford.

* Loonshots — by Safi Bahcall.
* Major innovations tend to result from investment that is high-risk, high-pay-off.
* Executives at the Cambridge, UK outpost of an admired Japanese company fret that success rate of their research and development, at 70%, was far too high. It signals that research teams had been risk-averse, pursuing easy wins at the expense of more radical and risky long-shots.
* Disney, the belief is that Disney if you weren't failing at half of your endeavours, you weren’t being brave or creative enough.
* The problem is a societal/systematic preference for marginal gains over long shots---It is much more pleasant to experience a steady trickle of small successes than a long drought while waiting for a flood that may never come.
* marginal gains do add up, but need to be bolstered by the occasional long-shot breakthrough.....Major innovations such as the electric motor, the photo­voltaic cell or the mobile phone open up new territories that the marginal-gains innovators & tinkerers can further exploit.[JCK: from Simon Johnson, "public investments in research and development contribute to what the authors call the “spillover effect.” When the product of the research is not a private firm’s intellectual property, its impact flows across the economy."]
* the UK Conservative party’s promise to establish “a new agency for high-risk, high-pay-off research, at arm’s length from government” — a British version of the much-admired US Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency.
* DARPA's failure rate is often said to be around 85%.
* a low failure rate may indeed signal a lack of originality and ambition.
* Arpa hires high-quality scientists for short stints — often two or three years — and giving them control over a programme budget to commission research from any source they wish.
* the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, a foundation, deliberately looks for projects with an unusual or untried approach, but a large potential pay-off.....HHMI gets what it pays for — more failures, but larger successes, compared with other grant-makers funding researchers of a similar calibre.
* how long will UK politicians tolerate failure as a sign of boldness and originality? Eventually, they will simply call it failure.
* the trilemma: Be cautious, or fund lots of risky but tiny projects, or fund a few big, risky projects from a modest budget and accept that every single one may flop.
audacity  big_bets  boldness  books  breakthroughs  Cambridge  DARPA  failure  game_changers  high-reward  high-risk  incrementalism  industrial_policies  innovation  jump-start  marginal_improvements  moonshots  originality  politicians  public_investments  publicly_funded  quick_wins  R&D  risk-aversion  science  small_wins  spillover  success_rates  thinking_big  Tim_Harford  timidity  United_Kingdom 
7 days ago by jerryking
Tech innovation needs a level playing field
January 19, 2020 | Financial Times | by Rana Foroohar.

.........Creating an even playing field will require both monopoly scrutiny and a close examination of whether the pendulum in the patent system has swung too far towards benefiting tech companies that depend more on data and networks than patents, or have an interest in making it tougher to obtain patents.

Because their own products (for example, smartphones) require so many different bits of technology, the companies have an interest in keeping these inputs as cheap as possible. They can deploy legions of lawyers to protect any crucial IP of their own while “efficiently infringing” on the patents that belong to others (that’s the term for violations done knowingly by big companies as a cost of doing business).
......The US, in particular, has work to do there. “Our leadership on the global stage depends on our ability to promote and protect the innovations of American creators, engineers, and scientists,” said Democratic Senator Chris Coons, who has sponsored bipartisan legislation to strengthen America’s own IP protection. “I’m concerned that while our competitors — like China — strengthen their intellectual property regimes, we have been weakening our own innovation ecosystem.”
.......But the US has another problem — that of trying to compete with a state-run economy like China’s when it has no national innovation strategy. While large American companies are busy fighting each other in expensive legal battles to see who gets to set standards for smart speakers (or 5G, or AI, or a host of other areas), China is using its Belt and Road Initiative to roll out its own equipment, technology standards and interests across nations from Asia to Southern Europe. That’s not duplication. It’s just smart.
Big_Tech  China  cross-licensing  entrepreneurship  Google  industrial_policies  innovation  innovation_policies  intellectual_property  national_interests  One_Belt_One_Road  patents  patent_infringement  Rana_Foroohar  smart_speakers  Sonos  technical_standards  U.S.-China_relations 
4 weeks ago by jerryking
Consciously decoupling the US economy
December 1 , 2019 | Financial Times | Rana Foroohar.

The US is economically decoupling from the rest of the world.....Europe is being pulled into China’s technology orbit via the 5G standards and technologies that make up part of the Belt and Road Initiative......one of the most important things the US could do right now to ensure both national security and its own position in the 21st-century digital economy would be to work with allies on transatlantic standards for emerging technologies like 5G, artificial intelligence and so on....... decoupling is no longer a fringe idea......the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is now admitting that we are in a more fragmented world — one that won’t reset to the 1990s — and advocating what amounts to a US industrial policy--- a major shift in thinking. Deglobalisation, the idea of the US and China decoupling economically, is now mainstream.....heightened awareness of the relationship between national security and technology........it is becoming a given that the US needs a more coherent national economic strategy in a world in which state capitalism is in the ascendant. The question is how to get there. And that’s where the internal contradictions in America’s laissez-faire, free-market system start to become a problem......what role should government play?........What should the private sector expect from government and what should they be willing to do in exchange (e.g. Will FAANG repatriate profits to the U.S.? Will Silicon Valley and Wall Street volunteer to retrain the millions of underemployed millennials? How can we move from 40 years of supply-side thinking that has benefited multinational companies, towards something that better supports local economies and workers? ...if America is going to compete with a state-run economy like China in the digital era — one that seems to support a winner-takes-all dynamic — we are going to need bigger, public-sector directed shifts.
5G  adversaries  CFR  China  China_rising  decoupling  deglobalization  digital_economy  industrial_policies  military-industrial_complex  multinationals  new_tech_Cold_War  One_Belt_One_Road  public_sector  Rana_Foroohar  security_&_intelligence  state_capitalism  supply_chains  tariffs  technical_standards  technology  U.S.-China_relations  winner-take-all 
11 weeks ago by jerryking
US navy secretary warns of ‘fragile’ supply chain
November 4, 2019 | Financial Times | by Peter Spiegel and Andrew Edgecliffe-Johnson in New York.

Richard Spencer says America is at risk of relying on China and Russia for critical warship components.....many contractors are reliant on single suppliers for certain high-tech and high-precision parts, increasing the likelihood they would have to be procured from geostrategic rivals.......moreover, China (Beijing) was trying to “weaponize capital” through its Belt and Road Initiative whereby Beijing offers developing countries “loan to own” debt that they could not pay back in order to gain leverage over critical assets.....efforts to improve the domestic supply chain have been hampered by repeated government shutdowns and haphazard federal budgeting in recent years......undermining the ability to convince domestic suppliers that there will be a steady stream of business for them if they invest in building out their manufacturing capabilities......the Secretary of the U.S. Navy has recently launched a “trusted capital” programme whereby large private equity firms are invited to bid on failing or non-existent supply needs in areas from ship maintenance to weapons manufacturing.
adversaries  China  developing_countries  fragility  industrial_policies  maritime  military-industrial_complex  One_Belt_One_Road  precision  private_equity  rivalries  Russia  security_&_intelligence  supply_chains  U.S._Navy  SPOF 
november 2019 by jerryking
Opinion | America’s Risky Approach to Artificial Intelligence
October 7, 2019 | The New York Times | By Tim Wu
Mr. Wu is the author of “The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires.”

The brilliant 2014 science fiction novel “The Three-Body Problem,” by the Chinese writer Liu Cixin, depicts the fate of civilizations as almost entirely dependent on winning grand races to scientific milestones. Someone in China’s leadership must have read that book, for Beijing has made winning the race to artificial intelligence a national obsession, devoting billions of dollars to the cause and setting 2030 as the target year for world dominance. Not to be outdone, President Vladimir Putin of Russia recently declared that whoever masters A.I. “will become the ruler of the world.”..... if there is even a slim chance that the race to build stronger A.I. will determine the future of the world — and that does appear to be at least a possibility — the United States and the rest of the West are taking a surprisingly lackadaisical and alarmingly risky approach to the technology........The plan seems to be for the American tech industry, which makes most of its money in advertising and selling personal gadgets, to serve as champions of the West. Those businesses, it is hoped, will research, develop and disseminate the most important basic technologies of the future. Companies like Google, Apple and Microsoft are formidable entities, with great talent and resources that approximate those of small countries. But they don’t have the resources of large countries, nor do they have incentives that fully align with the public interest (JCK: that is, "business interests" vs. "public interest"]..... The history of computing research is a story not just of big corporate laboratories but also of collaboration and competition among civilian government, the military, academia and private players both big (IBM, AT&T) and small (Apple, Sun)......Some advocates of more A.I. research have called for a “Manhattan project” for A.I. — but that’s not the right model. The atomic bomb and the moon rocket were giant but discrete projects. In contrast, A.I. is a broad and vague set of scientific technologies that encompass not just recent trends in machine learning but also anything else designed to replicate or augment human cognition.....the United States government should broadly fund basic research and insist on broad dissemination..... the United States needs to support immigration laws that attract the world’s top A.I. talent. The history of breakthroughs made by start-ups also suggests the need for policies, like the enforcement of antitrust laws and the defense of net neutrality, that give small players a chance.... the computer scientist and entrepreneur Kai-Fu Lee, in his book “AI Superpowers: China, Silicon Valley, and the New World Order,” describes a race between China and Silicon Valley, as if the latter were the sum total of Western science in this area. In the future, when we look back at this period, we may come to regret the loss of a healthy balance between privately and publicly funded A.I. research in the West, and the drift of too much scientific and engineering talent into the private sector.
antitrust  ARPA  artificial_intelligence  Beijing  Bell_Labs  Big_Tech  business_interests  China  China_Rising  FAANG  high-risk  immigration  industrial_policies  Kai-Fu_Lee  Manhattan_project  publicly_funded  R&D  risks  science_fiction  Silicon_Valley  talent  Tim_Wu  Vladimir_Putin  Xerox 
october 2019 by jerryking
Two MIT Economists Share A Bold Plan To Jump-Start The Economy In New Book
April 9, 2019 | Boston Public Radio | By Arjun Singh

On paper, America’s economy seems to be excelling. In March, the economy added 196,000 new jobs while the unemployment rate sat at 3.8 percent. Meanwhile, American startups like Uber and Pinterest are expected to go public with multi-million or higher valuations. But MIT economists Jonathan Gruber and Simon Johnson believe this hides a darker truth about the American economy: It’s slowly falling behind the rest of the world.

In their new book, “Jump-Starting America: How Breakthrough Science Can Revive Economic Growth and the American Dream,” Gruber and Johnson lay out their plan for how the United States can reclaim its mantle as a leader in not just gross domestic product, but also innovation and science. The key, they say, is government investment and encouragement in the scientific sector.......The economists are optimistic, however, that the United States can regain its lead and eventually develop a robust economy that sees economic growth and investment in the sciences. And not just in places like Boston or San Francisco, but throughout the rest of the country, where Johnson says there is a wealth of untapped talent and potential. They estimate there are at least 102 potential scientific hubs scattered across the U.S.

“The coastal superstar cities have become extremely expensive, but there’s a tremendous amount of talent spread across the U.S.,” Johnson said. “Good living conditions also matter. People also want to live in a place [with a] good climate, much better commute times than you have in the megacities, and low crime rates. Those are our very simple, transparent criteria.”..... public investments in research and development contribute to what the authors call the “spillover effect.” When the product of the research is not a private firm’s intellectual property, its impact flows across the economy.
books  breakthroughs  coastal  competitiveness_of_nations  economists  industrial_policies  innovation  jump-start  MIT  moonshots  NSF  public_investments  R&D  science  Simon_Johnson  spillover  superstars  U.S. 
august 2019 by jerryking
Canada’s missed opportunity: Pot industry now being run out of the U.S.
JULY 3, 2019 | The Globe and Mail | by ANDREW WILLIS.

With Bruce Linton’s firing, it’s now all too clear that the biggest companies in Canadian cannabis are run out of New York and the state of Washington. An industry that this country seemed destined to lead when the federal Liberals legalized recreational cannabis last October 2018, is increasingly dominated by foreigners. ...... The opportunity to create global cannabis champions, based in Canada, appears to be vanishing. There should be a conversation around that issue, in political and business circles, before the biggest head offices all disappear... Linton ...lost his job because his visionary approach for Canopy Growth Corp. didn’t fit with the predictable, quarter-by-quarter profits demanded by Constellation Brands Inc....Linton’s departure is similar to what has played out at many startups that get sold to multinational companies. .....Even when we brought Constellation's $5-billion in, I knew, from that change of structure, there would likely be implications for management, but it was the right thing to do for the company.”... our entrepreneurs tend to sell successful startups at a relatively early stage, compared to jurisdictions such as the U.S. and Asia. . The trend, now happening even more rapidly in the cannabis sector, cuts into the potential future prosperity of this country......a study last year from the Washington-based Brookings Institution and the Martin Prosperity Institute at the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Business – scaling up successful domestic businesses is essential to creating wealth and producing the next generation of corporate leaders. Canadians need to do better at turning their own companies into global champions. Silicon Valley generates enormous wealth out of a vibrant tech community. Why can’t Leamington, Ont., or Nanaimo, B.C., aspire to do the same in cannabis?..Canadian cannabis companies were created by government policy..... federal and provincial regulators granted the licences needed to grow and distribute their products – and local capital markets were receptive to financing them...CEOs, boards and domestic politicians should be asking if the country is best served by a laissez-faire approach to cannabis that created vibrant, valuable businesses following legalization in 2018, then quickly began handing over control of the sector....
Andrew_Willis  Bay_Street  Brookings  cannabis  Canopy_Growth  CEOs  Constellation_Brands  crossborder  departures  firings  global_champions  head_offices  home_grown  industrial_policies  Martin_Prosperity_Institute  missed_opportunities  sellout_culture 
july 2019 by jerryking
How to funnel capital to the American heartland
April 15, 2019 | Financial Times | by Bruce Katz.
* The Innovation Blind Spot, by Ross Baird.
* Ways must be found to rewire money flows in order to reverse the export of wealth
* A federal tax incentive intended to entice coastal capital into the heartland may end up helping to keep local capital local.

Over the past year, economically distressed communities across the US have been engaged in an intense discussion about mobilising private capital. Why? As mayors, governors, real estate developers, entrepreneurs and investors have learnt, buried in the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was a provision that created a significant tax incentive to invest in low-income “opportunity zones” across the country......the law’s greatest effect, ironically, has been to unveil a treasure trove of wealth in communities throughout the nation. Some of the country’s largest investors are high-net-worth families in Kansas City, Missouri, and Philadelphia; insurance companies in Erie, Pennsylvania, and Milwaukee; universities in Birmingham, Alabama, and South Bend, Indiana; philanthropists in Cleveland and Detroit; and community foundations and pension funds in every state.

These pillars of wealth mostly invest their market-oriented equity capital outside their own communities, even though their own locales often possess globally significant research institutions, advanced industry companies, grand historic city centres and distinctive ecosystems of entrepreneurs. The wealth-export industry is not a natural phenomenon; it has been led and facilitated by a sophisticated network of wealth management companies, private equity firms, family offices and financial institutions that have narrow definitions of where and in what to invest.

The US, in other words, doesn’t have a capital problem; it has an organisational problem. So how can capital flows be rewired to reverse the export of wealth?

Three things stand out:

(1) Information matters. The opportunity zones incentive has encouraged US cities to create investment prospectuses to promote the competitive assets of their low-income communities and highlight projects that are investor-ready and promise competitive returns.

(2) norms and networks matter. The opportunity zone market will be enhanced by the creation of “capital stacks” that enable the financing of community products such as workforce housing, commercial real estate, small businesses (and minority-owned businesses in particular) and clean energy, to name just a few. Initial opportunity zone projects are already showing creative blends of public, private and civic capital that mix debt, subsidy and equity.

(3) institutions matter. Opportunity zones require cities to create and capitalise new institutions that can deploy capital at scale in sustained ways. Some models already exist. The Cincinnati Center City Development Corporation, backed by patient capital from Procter & Gamble, has driven the regeneration of the Over-the-Rhine neighbourhood during the past 15 years.

More institutional innovation, however, is needed. As Ross Baird, author of The Innovation Blind Spot, has argued, the US must create a new generation of community quarterbacks to provide budding entrepreneurs with business planning and mentoring, matching them with risk-tolerant equity. These efforts will succeed if they unleash the synergies that flow naturally from urban density. New institutions will not have to work alone, but hand-in-glove with the trusted financial firms that manage this locally-generated wealth.
books  capital_flows  cities  coastal_elites  community  economic_development  economically_disadvantaged  economies_of_scale  high_net_worth  howto  industrial_policies  industrial_midwest  industrial_zones  institutions  investors  match-making  midwest  municipalities  networks  network_density  P&G  PPP  packaging  place-based  private_equity  property_development  prospectuses  Red_States  rescue_investing  rust_belt  tax_codes  venture_capital 
april 2019 by jerryking
Globalised business is a US security issue | Financial Times
Rana Foroohar YESTERDAY

there is a much broader group of people in both the public and the private sector who would like to reverse the economic integration of China and the US for strategic reasons..... a two-day event sponsored late last month by the National Defense University, which brings together military and civilian leaders to discuss the big challenges of the day. Dozens of experts, government officials, and business leaders gathered to talk about the decline in the post-second world war order, the rise of China, and how the US could strengthen its manufacturing and defence industries. The goal would be to create resilient supply chains that could withstand not just a trade war, but an actual war......“If you accept as your starting point that we are in a great power struggle [with China and Russia], then you have to think about securing the innovation base, making viable the industrial base, and scaling it all,”....Included on the event’s reading list was Freedom’s Forge, which outlines the role that US business — notably carmakers — played in gearing up the US for war in the early 1940s. At that time, because of the depth and breadth of the auto industry’s manufacturing and logistical might, the sector was viewed as being just as important to national security as steel and aluminium.

That is not to say the US security community is pro-tariffs or trade war .... But there is a growing group of thoughtful people who believe that American national security interests will require a forcible untangling of the investment and supply chain links between the US and China. They point to high-tech areas like artificial intelligence, robotics, autonomous vehicles, virtual reality, financial technology and biotech as important not only to the military but also for private sector growth.....While America’s military is still figuring out how make sure its supply chains are not controlled by strategic adversaries, the Chinese have played a much more sophisticated long game. The difference can be summed up in two words: industrial policy. China has one. The US doesn’t. The US has always steered away from a formal policy because critics see it as the government “picking winners”. But the Chinese don’t so much pick winners as use a co-ordinated approach to harnessing the technologies they need. They do it not only through investments and acquisitions but also through forced joint ventures, industrial espionage, and cybertheft [jk: predatory practices].....many multinationals were shortening their supply chains even before the current trade conflicts.

It is a trend that will probably speed up. Multinational companies, much more than domestically focused ones, will suffer collateral damage from tariffs. They will also be a major target of Chinese backlash. Anecdotally, this is already leading some groups to shift production from China to other countries, like Vietnam. If the military-industrial complex in the US has its way, those supply chains might move even closer to home.
adversaries  anecdotal  automotive_industry  books  China  China_rising  collateral_damage  co-ordinated_approaches  cybertheft  economic_integration  industrial_espionage  industrial_policies  military-industrial_complex  multinationals  predatory_practices  Rana_Foroohar  WWII  security_&_intelligence  supply_chains  trade_wars  U.S.  U.S.-China_relations 
july 2018 by jerryking
The AI arms race: the tech fear behind Donald Trump’s trade war with China | Financial Times
Shawn Donnan in Washington YESTERDAY

While the headlines about the Trump administration’s trade war with Beijing often focus on raw materials such as steel, aluminium and soyabeans, the underlying motivation of the new protectionist mood is American anxiety about China’s rapidly growing technological prowess.......
At a time when the US is engaged in a battle for technological pre-eminence with China, the ZGC project is exactly the sort of state-backed Chinese investment that American politicians across the political spectrum view with scepticism.

“China has targeted America’s industries of the future, and President Donald Trump understands better than anyone that if China successfully captures these emerging industries, America will have no economic future,” .....US tariffs on $34bn in imports from China that are due to take effect on Friday as part of a squeeze intended to end what the US says has been years of state-endorsed Chinese intellectual property theft. But it is also part of a broader battle against what the White House has labelled China’s “economic aggression”......Viewed from America, President Xi Jinping’s Made in China 2025 industrial strategy is a state-led effort to establish Chinese leadership in the technologies of the next generation of commerce and military equipment — notably AI, robotics and gene editing.

Many US officials are now questioning one of the basic assumptions about how the American economy operates: its openness to foreign investment....While some technology executives extol the potential for co-operation in areas such as AI, the Washington establishment increasingly sees them as central to a growing geopolitical competition....Many Chinese investors are looking for US companies that they can help move into China. .....Even though Mr Trump’s focus on Chinese technology has strong bipartisan support in Washington, its tactics have been heavily criticised. The biggest blunder, many critics argue, has been the Trump administration’s willingness to wage concurrent trade wars. The IP-driven tariffs push against China has been accompanied by one that has hit allies such as Canada and the EU that might have joined a fight against Beijing.

........“We’re treating the Chinese better than we are treating our friends,” says Derek Scissors, a China expert at the conservative American Enterprise Institute, who sees the tariffs Mr Trump is threatening against European car imports as a similar bit of malpractice.
arms_race  artificial_intelligence  China  CFIUS  Donald_Trump  economic_warfare  economic_aggression  FDI  geopolitics  international_trade  investors  investing  intellectual_property  industrial_policies  protectionism  politicians  robotics  One_Belt_One_Road  security_&_intelligence  Silicon_Valley  SOEs  start_ups  theft  U.S.  venture_capital  Washington_D.C. 
july 2018 by jerryking
Why this economist thinks government intervention is a good thing - The Globe and Mail
PAUL WALDIE
The Globe and Mail
Published Monday, Nov. 28, 2016

Many governments are moving away from austerity and toward stimulating economic growth by spending on infrastructure projects. Is that the right approach?

This is not about the panacea of infrastructure. It’s ridiculous if you think about it. All these smart, smart people in the IMF—once they finally admit that austerity was shit and it was very damaging, what’s their solution? Infrastructure. (3) These people have PhDs. Can they not come up with something more interesting than spend a bunch on bridges and roads?

What do you think about Brexit?

A massive, massive disaster. I just can’t believe that the people who engineered it haven’t been put in prison. It’s so obvious now that they were lying. Think of it: If Coca-Cola lied with advertising campaigns like that, they’d be in prison. All these civil servants are going to be spending decades unravelling something that was not the problem. The real problem in the U.K. is low productivity, very high inequality and a lack of serious planning around industrial and innovation policy. That had nothing to do with Europe. Brexit is just going to take away huge amounts of government resources that could have been spent thinking about what it really means to increase productivity. As well, it just really makes things complicated.
Paul_Waldie  economists  Brexit  industrial_policies  innovation_policies  innovation  iPhone  Mariana_Mazzucato  infrastructure  austerity  government_intervention  PhDs  IMF  productivity  income_inequality 
december 2016 by jerryking
Venture Communism: How China Is Building a Start-Up Boom - The New York Times
By MICHAEL SCHUMANSEPT. 3, 2016
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subsidies  China  start_ups  industrial_policies  entrepreneurship  incubators  cities 
september 2016 by jerryking
Southern Ontario should be an innovation cluster, not a farm team - The Globe and Mail
PATRICK DEANE, MERIC GERTLER AND FERIDUN HAMDULLAHPUR
Contributed to The Globe and Mail
Published Monday, Dec. 28, 2015
industrial_policies  uToronto  uWaterloo  innovation  Ontario  clusters  Kitchener-Waterloo 
december 2015 by jerryking
Canadians can innovate, but we’re not equipped to win - The Globe and Mail
JIM BALSILLIE
Contributed to The Globe and Mail
Published Friday, May. 08 2015

[For Corey Reid and UpSark]

...We can make commercialization of ideas a source of our prosperity if we apply strategic approaches....The commercialization of ideas is a chain of systematic and deliberate events. This is how wealth is generated in an innovation economy. Growing and scaling up a critical mass of ideas-based companies in the global marketplace is difficult, but not impossible. Yet for us to expect that the results of our current innovation policies and investments will miraculously spur new companies and significant economic growth is, as many people like to say, the definition of insanity: doing the same thing over and over again, and expecting a different result....Canada’s innovation performance will not improve unless the country’s business, university and political leadership comes together to consider radically different policies, programs and tools.
angels  commercialization  digital_economy  ecosystems  ideas  innovation  industrial_policies  innovation_policies  intellectual_property  Jim_Balsillie  patents  policy_tools  property_rights  protocols  scaling  systematic_approaches  wishful_thinking 
may 2015 by jerryking
You call this an auto strategy? - The Globe and Mail
JIM STANFORD
Special to The Globe and Mail
Published Thursday, Apr. 30 2015
industrial_policies  automotive_industry  Canada  Canadian  EDC  Mexico  Volkswagen 
may 2015 by jerryking
Canadian economy suffers from the myth of comparative advantage - The Globe and Mail
ANDREW JACKSON
Canadian economy suffers from the myth of comparative advantage
SUBSCRIBERS ONLY
Special to The Globe and Mail
Published Thursday, Mar. 05 2015

Consider the recent bid by China to assist in the design, build and operation of high-speed trains in Ontario, perhaps in return for preferred access to raw resources. China is seeking to displace Bombardier, one of our foremost innovative companies, in our own domestic market.

Just as instructively, Bombardier is entering into joint aerospace production deals with Chinese companies, in large part because that is the key to access to the Chinese market. China wants to import our raw resources, not out trains or our planes, and wants to build up a competitive aerospace industry.

The key point here is that China has a competitive advantage based upon still relatively low wages (though they have risen a lot) and is also creating a competitive advantage in sophisticated industries through active industrial and managed trade policies. While we talk about comparative advantage, they are shaping trade and production in their own developmental interests.
industrial_policies  China  Bombardier  high-speed_rail  competitive_advantage  competitiveness_of_nations  comparative_advantage  myths  international_trade  economics  HSR 
march 2015 by jerryking
Why Canada’s tech companies fail - The Globe and Mail
RICHARD BLACKWELL

The Globe and Mail

Published Thursday, Apr. 10 2014,

Missing in Canada, though, are advanced skills related to intellectual property rights. At companies, sophisticated IPR capacity is a “precondition to commercially scaling innovative technologies,” he said, noting only U.S., Japanese and South Korean companies have been among the top patent filers in the United States. BlackBerry is the only Canadian company in the top 100.

Mr. Balsillie said Apple Inc. and Google Inc. spend more on acquiring intellectual property rights than they do on research and development.

IPR skills are crucial if Canadian companies are to compete internationally, he said, or else they will end up as a “lambs for slaughter” in the global marketplace. “They will never grow and Canada will continue to fall behind at a [national] level.”

In an interview after his speech, Mr. Balsillie said Ottawa’s role should be to “sophisticatedly understand how the game is played, particularly in the U.S. and Europe, and make sure that companies are trained to thrive in the game.”

He said currently there are no professors in Canada teaching the global patent system in law, business or engineering schools, and there is no training in the subject in the civil service.

Intellectual property is so important, Mr. Balsillie said, that bilateral issues concerning IPR will eventually overtake traditional trade irritants between countries.
failure  Canada  start_ups  technology  Jim_Balsillie  intellectual_property  scaling  patents  property_rights  protocols  Canadian  industrial_policies  Ottawa  rules_of_the_game  civil_service  UpSpark  sophisticated  bilateral  competitive_strategy 
april 2014 by jerryking
Entrepreneurship, technology, prosperity - The Globe and Mail
Dec. 27 2012 | The Globe and Mail | Dany Assaf and Walid Hejazi.

Canada needs more innovation and entrepreneurship. We need better structures to allow people with great ideas to put them to work – to start their own businesses – and to allow us to earn our way out of our individual and collective challenges. We must refocus on the same basic proposition that built this country and rely on the imagination, skill and productivity of individual Canadians to do business. With the benefit of modern technology and arguably the lowest barriers to business entry in human history, it may not be as hard as we think....Today, however, the cost of overcoming entry barriers to meaningfully “get in the game” have never been lower. You can set up and operate a business from a laptop or cellphone. You can set up a virtual office with cloud computing technology. You have access to research and key information about your market and competitors. You can host global conference calls and web meetings with basic technology. Most importantly, you can reach customers worldwide on the Internet to sell your products and services. You can even seek start-up capital with online crowd funding. In other words, you can enter an industry, operate like a bigger player and grow a business globally faster, cheaper and more effectively than ever before.

This intersection of technology, falling barriers and entrepreneurship is powerful and encouraging as we look to maintain prosperity and create wealth for the future of our children and our country. A a great deal of this is already taking place in Canada, but we need to work on a national strategy and vision to harness, encourage and facilitate the continued growth of small business, and propel our economy through these uncertain times within a 21st-century model.
entrepreneurship  economic_downturn  small_business  Rotman  Canada  Canadian  innovation  industrial_policies  national_strategies 
december 2012 by jerryking
Industry: Nimble, niche and networked - FT.com
June 12, 2012 | FT |By Peter Marsh

Nimble companies, operating on a global basis in niche areas of technology, that seem likely to prosper in the new industrial revolution now beginning. The fact that the UK is replete with such businesses suggests the country could emerge once again as a leading contender in manufacturing– a sector it pioneered in the 18th and 19th centuries but more recently has allowed to slip back in favour of services.......Although Britain may have the knowhow and cultural characteristics required to stage an industrial comeback, it still lags behind far behind the likes of Japan and Germany, where boutique companies making uniquely specialised products form the economic backbone of the nation. If Britain is to resurrect manufacturing as a high-value growth engine, it will almost certainly require some action by government to make the most of the country’s potential....hundreds of connections with companies around the world, which is one fundamental characteristic of the new industrial revolution. Three others involve the application of new technologies, a focus on “niche” areas of industry and an increasing focus on “personalised” products........Today the archetypal UK manufacturer is a small business with perhaps 50 employees that is based in an unremarkable edge-of-town business park and boasts global links as opposed to a highly visible smokestack in a large city. Such companies account for a greater share of industrial activity since the larger enterprises have fallen away.....The UK’s prevailing approach to manufacturing – emphasising small, agile businesses with an eye for the unusual that formulate their own rules – could fit in with the requirements for success......An individualist in the same mould is Sir James Dyson, a high-octane innovator who has made his eponymous vacuum cleaner business into a global leader. His dividing of the company’s Asia-based production from its UK-centred product development is in line with the blueprint of the new industrial revolution stressing the separation of elements in the manufacturing “value chain”......There are further reasons to think the natural leanings of UK manufacturing fit into the framework of the new industrial revolution. One is a tendency to focus on selling into areas with narrow parameters that can to a large degree be invented by the participating companies themselves, and to rely on selling services as well as products.......The best example is the Formula 1 car racing business. This involves intensive use of engineering resources to design and make high-grade machines that do little apart from playing the lead role in a global spectator sport built on advertising. There is no reason why Britain should have become the leading country for Formula 1 car production – apart from the fact that it fits with the UK leaning towards production based around esoteric technologies and markets......British industry also features a facility for working with a range of technical disciplines and finding the common ground between them. ......A third important strength of the UK is the ability to devise solutions to customers’ problems. These are often based on an approach geared to making products as highly customised “one-offs”, and to the needs of one business as opposed to many....The characteristics of the new industrial revolution, however, make the task of assisting UK manufacturing a lot simpler as the country already has many of the attributes required. In this new environment it would seem sensible for policy to plug the gaps in the manufacturing framework that already exists. Such initiatives could focus on helping companies to improve their technologies, develop more global strategies and organise more joint development projects with larger businesses in order to learn more about such groups’ technical capabilities.
3-D  boutiques  collaboration  competitiveness_of_nations  Dyson  Formula_One  gazelles  industrial_policies  Industrial_Revolution  James_Dyson  manufacturers  niches  nimbleness  one-of-a-kind  personalization  production_lines  product_development  specialists  United_Kingdom  value_chains 
june 2012 by jerryking
Does America Need Manufacturing? -
August 24, 2011 | NYTimes.com | By JON GERTNER. Interesting
article about how the U.S. is stumbling its ways towards a tepid,
stealth industrial policy with respect to the making of lithium-ion
batteries to support getting said batteries to be cost-effective enough
for use in electric vehicles.
manufacturers  industrial_policies  batteries  stealth  electric_cars  automotive_industry  MIT  cleantech  start_ups  unemployment  Michigan 
september 2011 by jerryking
Schumpeter: Bamboo innovation | The Economist
May 5, 2011 | The Economist | Anonymous. China’s lack of
originality matters less than you may think, believe Dan Breznitz &
Michael Murphree of the Georgia Institute of Technology. In a new book,
“Run of the Red Queen”, they argue that it is wrong to equate innovation
solely with the invention of breakthrough products. In an emerging
economy, other forms of innovation can yield bigger dividends. One is
“process innovation”: the relentless improvement of factories and
distribn. sys. Another is “product innovation”: the adaptation of
existing goods to China’s unique requirements.

The biggest threat to the Chinese model comes from India.
innovation  China  industrial_policies  strategies  books  patents  breakthroughs  portfolios  process_improvements  product-orientated  taxonomy  moonshots  marginal_improvements 
may 2011 by jerryking
The Return of ‘Drill, Baby, Drill’ - NYTimes.com
May 6, 2011 | NYT | editorial. With the country again facing
$4-a-gallon gasoline, the time would seem ripe for a grown-up
conversation on energy. What we are getting instead is a mindless rerun
of the drill-baby-drill operatics of the 2008 campaign, when gas was
also at $4 a gallon. Then, as now, opportunistic politicians insisted
that vastly expanded oil drilling would bring relief at the pump and
reduced dependence on foreign oil. Then, as now, these arguments were
bogus. As President Obama observed in a March 30 address on energy
issues, drilling alone cannot possibly ensure energy independence in a
country that uses one-quarter of the world’s oil while owning only 2
percent of its reserves. Nor can it lower prices, except at the margins.
Only coordinated measures — greater auto efficiency, alternative fuels,
improved mass transit — can address these issues.
industrial_policies  energy  alternative_energy 
may 2011 by jerryking
Analysis: U.S. Tech Companies, China Tangle Over Contracts - WSJ.com
APRIL 18, 2011 John Bussey. Despite an agreement between
President Obama and President Hu in January, U.S. technology companies
are again complaining about how China awards contracts...The bigger
issue, Mr. Murck adds, is that this is just one piece of China's broader
industrial policy, a large array of mostly new rules designed to speed
the growth of national champions and foster home-grown innovation.

The list is long: new patent laws that could make it easier to seize
foreign innovation; the setting of standards that require products to be
re-engineered to meet Chinese specifications; national-security
initiatives that give preferential treatment to Chinese companies in
several industries; limitations on market access for U.S. services
companies; continued weak enforcement of intellectual-property rights.
China  contracts  global_champions  home_grown  Hu_Jintao  indigenous  industrial_policies  innovation  intellectual_property  non-tariff_barriers  patents  patent_law  predatory_practices  property_rights  technical_standards  technology_transfers 
april 2011 by jerryking
The growing problem: Canada slips from agricultural superpower status - The Globe and Mail
Nov. 23, 2010 | Globe and Mail | PAUL WALDIE.

The Canadian Federation of Agriculture recently launched an effort to develop a national food strategy. About two dozen organizations representing farmers and food processors have joined so far, and the CFA is hoping to get consumer groups and government officials involved. The objective is to develop a long-term plan for the whole system – from field to table – by modernizing regulations, driving innovation and ensuring Canadian products are the preferred choice in international markets.

Neil Currie, general manager of the Ontario Federation of Agriculture,
subsidies  farming  Canada  industrial_policies  supply_chains  agribusiness  Paul_Waldie 
april 2011 by jerryking
Food becomes strategic - The Globe and Mail
ROBERT JOHNSTON AND DIVYA REDDY
From Tuesday's Globe and Mail
Published Tuesday, Nov. 23, 2010
food_crops  food  farmland  fertilizers  industrial_policies  potash  agriculture  farming 
april 2011 by jerryking
Aerotropolis: The Airport-Based Global City of Tomorrow - WSJ.com
FEBRUARY 26, 2011 | wsj | By GREG LINDSAY. From Dubai to
Chongqing to Honduras, the Silk Road of the future is taking shape in
urban developments based on airport hubs. Welcome to the world of the
'aerotropolis.' an amalgam of made-to-order office parks, convention
hotels, cargo complexes and even factories, which in some cases line the
runways. It is a pure node in a global network whose fast-moving
packets are people and goods instead of data. And it is the future of
the global city. ...The basic aim of an aerotropolis is to disrupt local
incumbents and monopolies using the long arm of air travel. It allows
Indian hospitals to entice American heart patients for top-notch surgery
at rock-bottom prices. It lets factories move out to the far reaches of
western China to manufacture the iPad for lower wages while absorbing
millions of urban migrants. Detroit's leaders are even building an
aerotropolis in a Hail Mary bid for Chinese investment.
airports  economic_development  design  industrial_policies  Dubai  globalization  logistics  Paul_Romer 
february 2011 by jerryking
Obama Administration Begins Policy on Start-Ups - NYTimes.com
January 31, 2011, 5:19 pm
The Administration Starts Its Start-Up Policy
By STEVE LOHR
industrial_policies  public_policy  start_ups  Kauffman_Foundation  Obama 
february 2011 by jerryking
China’s Race for Patents to Build an Innovation Economy
Jan 1, 2011 | NYT | STEVE LOHR. China is trying to build an
economy that relies on innovation rather than imitation & intends to
engineer a more innovative society. The Chinese are focusing on
spiking the indigenous generation of “utility-model patents,” which
typically cover items like engineering features in a product & are
less ambitious than “invention patents.” China intends to roughly
double: (a) its # of patent examiners, to 9,000, by 2015. (The U.S. has
6,300 examiners); & (b) the # of patents that its residents &
companies file in other countries. To lift its patent count, China has
introduced incentives including cash bonuses, better housing for
individual filers & tax breaks for companies that are prolific
patent producers...DESPITE China’s inevitable rise, Kao says, the U.S.
has a comp. adv. because it is the country most open to innovation,
forgiving failure, tolerating risk & embracing uncertainty,” “the
future lies in being the orchestrator of the innovation process,”
competitiveness_of_nations  John_Kao  China  patents  industrial_policies  innovation  innovation_policies  Steve_Lohr  taxonomy  Silicon_Valley  bounties  orchestration  incentives  risk-tolerance  prolificacy 
january 2011 by jerryking
Unboxed - Governments Embracing a Role in Innovation - NYTimes.com
June 20, 2009 | NYT | By STEVE LOHR. Innovation policy, to
be sure, is an emerging discipline, lacking crisp definitions or
metrics. What is the appropriate government role in creating industries
and jobs in today’s high-technology, global economy?...John Kao, a
former professor at HBS and founder of the Institute for Large Scale
Innovation....innovation policy is an attempt to bring some coordination
to often disparate government initiatives in scientific research,
education, business incentives, immigration and even intellectual
property....governments are increasingly wading into the innovation
game, declaring innovation agendas and appointing senior innovation
officials. The impetus comes from two fronts: daunting challenges in
fields like energy, the environment and health care that require
collaboration between the public and private sectors; and shortcomings
of traditional economic development and industrial policies.
innovation  large_companies  Finland  government  John_Kao  industrial_policies  shortcomings  scaling  policy  state-as-facilitator  global_economy  policymaking  innovation_policies 
december 2010 by jerryking
China's 'State Capitalism' Sparks a Global Backlash - WSJ.com
NOVEMBER 16, 2010/WSJ/ By JASON DEAN, ANDREW BROWNE And SHAI
OSTER. Bedeviling U.S.-China relations is a deep issue: China's national
economic strategy is detailed and multifaceted, and it is challenging
the U.S. and other powers on a number of fronts. Central to China's
approach are policies that champion SOEs, seek aggressively to obtain
advanced technology, and manage its exchange rate to benefit exporters.
It leverages state control of the financial sys. to channel low-cost
capital to domestic industries—and to resource-rich foreign nations
whose oil and minerals China needs to maintain rapid growth. ...Charlene
Barshefsky, Clinton's U.S.T.R.. says the rise of powerful state-led
economies like China & Russia is undermining the established
post-World War II trading system...the Chinese state is again ascendant.
...The govt. owns almost all major banks in China, its three major oil
companies, its three telecom carriers and its major media firms.
backlash  China  China_rising  industrial_policies  international_system  mercantilism  multifaceted  protectionism  post-WWII  SOEs  state-as-facilitator  state_capitalism  U.S.-China_relations 
november 2010 by jerryking
Obama: Clean Energy's Venture Capitalist-in-Chief
Aug. 5, 2010 | BusinessWeek | By Mike Dorning.The White House
is gambling on a new industrial policy to promote electric cars and
batteries—but does history show such govt backing is a good idea? Obama
is the U.S.'s venture capitalist-in-chief. By the end of 2011, the
White House plans to channel more than $50 B to thousands of clean-tech
companies through tax credits, low-interest guaranteed loans, and
grants. Add in money for a "smart grid," research, and consumer tax
breaks, (e.g $7,500 credit for buying an electric car) and the
commitment rises to $69 B. Obscured by political battles over health
care and financial regulation, Obama has turned the govt. into the chief
financier of a mfg. base for clean-technology: high-performance
batteries, electric cars, low-energy lights, super-efficient air
conditioners, wind turbines, and solar panels. HBS Prof. Josh Lerner
wrote Boulevard of Broken Dreams, an examination of decades of govt.
efforts to spur the growth of chosen industries.
industrial_policies  obama  cleantech  smart_grid  power_grid 
august 2010 by jerryking
Charlie Rose Talks to Wilbur Ross
August 5, 2010 | BusinessWeek | By Charlie Rose. Investor
Wilbur Ross, who specializes in restructuring failed companies, talks
about troubled banks, the state of U.S. manufacturing, and taxes

By Charlie Rose
Wilbur_Ross  moguls  Charlie_Rose  restructurings  industrial_policies 
august 2010 by jerryking
Op-Ed Contributor - Red China, Green China - NYTimes.com
May 6, 2010 | New York Times | By BRUCE USHER. "The country is
missing a key ingredient in shaping an effective clean-tech policy: the
political will to encourage the innovation, manufacturing and
investment necessary to bring these new technologies to market. And the
longer America drags its feet, the more it cedes this enormous potential
source of national wealth to the only other country able to capture it —
China...the Senate energy bill, at a minimum, needs to take aggressive
action on the three following points:

(1), institute national feed-in tariffs or a renewable portfolio
standard; (2) establish a price on carbon via either a tax or a
cap-and-trade program to encourage low-carbon technologies; (3) get
serious about supporting the research and development of carbon capture
and storage, and maintain America’s lead in a field that offers enormous
opportunity but is too large for any one company to finance.
industrial_policies  cleantech  alternative_energy  China  U.S.  political_will  cap-and-trade  carbon_tax 
may 2010 by jerryking
FT.com / Comment / Analysis - A new Asian invasion
June 24 2005 | Financial Times | By Dan Roberts, Richard
McGregor and Stephanie Kirchgaessner. "China’s strategic desire for
control of natural resources, global brands and a short cut to
international markets, combined with unprecedented access to cheap money
from the country’s state-owned banks, therefore means its companies can
afford to are ready to outbid more traditional trade purchasers and
private equity groups."
FDI  China  U.S.  industrial_policies  mercantilism  SOEs  natural_resources  brands  mergers_&_acquisitions  Asian  shortcuts  commodities  commodities_supercycle 
april 2010 by jerryking
Why America Needs an Economic Strategy
October 30, 2008 | Business Week | by Michael E. Porter. The
Harvard Business School competitiveness guru offers his prescription for
long-term prosperity.
michael_porter  competitiveness_of_nations  competitive_strategy  strategy  industrial_policies 
november 2009 by jerryking
Unboxed - Governments Embracing a Role in Innovation - NYTimes.com
June 20, 2009 | New York Times | By STEVE LOHR. The rising
worldwide interest in innovation policy represents the search to answer
an important question: What is the appropriate government role in
creating industries and jobs in today’s high-technology, global economy?
San_Antonio  innovation  government  start_ups  Steve_Lohr  PPP  economic_development  industrial_policies  innovation_policies  global_economy  policymaking 
june 2009 by jerryking
L. Gordon Crovitz Says Venture Capitalists Are Too Market-Oriented for Bailout Money - WSJ.com
MARCH 2, 2009 WSJ column by L. GORDON CROVITZ opines on venture
capital, government bailouts and the problem of adverse selection. in
response to Tom Friedman piece in th NYT urging bailout funds for
venture capitalists.
L._Gordon_Crovtiz  venture_capital  Tom_Friedman  bailouts  Fred_Wilson  moral_hazards  adverse_selection  industrial_policies  market_discipline 
march 2009 by jerryking
Regulations: Alternative Approaches - WSJ.com
February 12, 2007 | WSJ | LEILA ABBOUD. Govts. struggle to find
policies that will spur renewable energy industries--without coddling
them
regulation  alternative_energy  industrial_policies  renewable  green  policymaking 
february 2009 by jerryking

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