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jerryking : mass_incarceration   12

Devah Pager, Who Documented Race Bias in Job Market, Dies at 46 - The New York Times
By Katharine Q. Seelye
Nov. 8, 2018

Devah Pager wrote in her book, “Marked: Race, Crime and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration.
PhDs  obituaries  professors  race  biases  racial_disparities  sociologists  racial_discrimination  joblessness  mass_incarceration 
november 2018 by jerryking
‘Locking Up Our Own,’ What Led to Mass Incarceration of Black Men - The New York Times
By JENNIFER SENIOR APRIL 11, 2017

LOCKING UP OUR OWN
Crime and Punishment in Black America
By James Forman Jr.
Illustrated. 306 pages. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. $27

Part of the power of “Locking Up Our Own” is that it’s about Washington — not the swamp of deceit merchants and influence-peddlers that Donald J. Trump promised to drain, but a majority-black city that hundreds of thousands call home, regardless of whose bum is in the Oval Office. Washington only first got the chance to elect its own mayor and city council in 1975, and the city’s coming-of-age story — and the challenges it faced — in some ways mirrored that of other cities with large African-American populations, like Atlanta and Detroit.

“Locking Up Our Own” is also very poignantly a book of the Obama era, when black authors like Alexander and Bryan Stevenson and Ta-Nehisi Coates initiated difficult conversations about racial justice and inequality, believing that their arguments might, for once, gain more meaningful traction. (Often, in fact, they said things the president, burdened with the duty to represent everyone, might not have felt free to say himself.......Forman does not minimize the influence of racism on mass incarceration. And he takes great pains to emphasize that African-Americans almost inevitably agitated for more than just law-enforcement solutions to the problems facing their neighborhoods — they argued for job and housing programs, improvements in education. But their timing in stumping for social programs was terrible. “Such efforts had become an object of ridicule by 1975, a symbol of the hopeless naïveté of 1960s liberalism,” Forman writes.

One result: A wide range of African-American leaders championed tougher penalties for drug crimes and gun possession in the 1970s, ’80s and ’90s. It was the one option they consistently had, and it seemed a perfectly responsible, moral position. Wasn’t the safety of black law-abiding citizens a basic civil right?
mass_incarceration  African-Americans  men  books  book_reviews  penalties  prisons  unintended_consequences  criminal_justice_system  difficult_conversations 
april 2017 by jerryking
Forcing Black Men Out of Society - NYTimes.com
Devah Pager

This astounding shortfall in black men translates into lower marriage rates, more out-of-wedlock births, a greater risk of poverty for families and, by extension, less stable communities. The missing men should be a source of concern to political leaders and policy makers everywhere.

While the 1.5 million number is startling, it actually understates the severity of the crisis that has befallen African-American men since the collapse of the manufacturing and industrial centers, which was quickly followed by the “war on drugs” and mass imprisonment, which drove up the national prison population more than sevenfold beginning in the 1970s.

In addition to the “missing,” millions more are shut out of society, or are functionally missing, because of the shrinking labor market for low-skilled workers, racial discrimination or sanctions that prevent millions who have criminal convictions from getting all kinds of jobs. At the same time, the surge in imprisonment has further stigmatized blackness itself, so that black men and boys who have never been near a jail now have to fight the presumption of criminality in many aspects of day-to-day life — in encounters with police, in schools, on the streets and on the job....William Julius Wilson wrote in his 1996 book, “When Work Disappears,” for the first time in the 20th century, most adults in many poor inner-city neighborhoods were not working.... Devah Pager wrote in her book, “Marked: Race, Crime and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration.”
understated  African-Americans  men  criminality  incarceration  racial_disparities  racial_discrimination  books  stereotypes  children  deindustrialization  war_on_drugs  stigmatization  family_breakdown  instability  unemployment  mass_incarceration  joblessness  William_Julius_Wilson  blackness  presumptions 
april 2015 by jerryking
When Whites Just Don’t Get It - NYTimes.com
AUGUST 30, 2014 | NYT |Nicholas Kristof.

• The net worth of the average black household in the U.S. is $6,314, compared with $110,500 for the average white household, according to 2011 census data. The gap has worsened in the last decade, and the U.S now has a greater wealth gap by race than South Africa did during apartheid. (Whites in America on average own almost 18 times as much as blacks; in South Africa in 1970, the ratio was about 15 times.)

• The black-white income gap is roughly 40 percent greater today than it was in 1967.

• A black boy born today in the U.S. has a life expectancy five years shorter than that of a white boy.

• Black students are significantly less likely to attend schools offering advanced math and science courses than white students. They are three times as likely to be suspended and expelled, setting them up for educational failure.

• Because of the catastrophic experiment in mass incarceration, black men in their 20s without a high school diploma are more likely to be incarcerated today than employed, according to a study from the National Bureau of Economic Research. Nearly 70 percent of middle-aged black men who never graduated from high school have been imprisoned.

All these constitute not a black problem or a white problem, but an American problem.
race_relations  racial_disparities  achievement_gaps  Nicholas_Kristof  mass_incarceration 
august 2014 by jerryking
How Dr. King Shaped My Work in Economics - NYTimes.com
August 27, 2013| NYT | By JOSEPH E. STIGLITZ.

The battle against outright discrimination is, regrettably far from over: 50 years after the march, and 45 years after the passage of the Fair Housing Act, major United States banks, like Wells Fargo, still discriminate on the basis of race, targeting the most vulnerable of our citizens for their predatory lending activities. Discrimination in the job market is pervasive and deep. Research suggests that applicants with African-American sounding names get fewer calls for interviews. Discrimination takes new forms; racial profiling remains rampant in many American cities, including through the stop-and-frisk policies that became standard practice in New York. Our incarceration rate is the world’s highest, although there are signs, finally, that fiscally strapped states are starting to see the folly, if not the inhumanity, of wasting so much human capital through mass incarceration. Almost 40 percent of prisoners are black. This tragedy has been documented powerfully by Michelle Alexander and other legal scholars.
African-Americans  books  economics  economists  fallacies_follies  Fair_Housing_Act  human_capital  incarceration  Joseph_Stiglitz  mass_incarceration  MLK  predatory_practices  racial_discrimination  racial_disparities  social_justice 
august 2013 by jerryking
Murder Spike Poses Quandary - WSJ.com
May 6, 2008 | WSJ | By GARY FIELDS.

Murder Spike Poses Quandary
Criminologists Offer Varied Explanations For April's Increase in Some Cities

What is most troubling to people who study crime is that there is no simple explanation for this rise. There are the usual reasons -- the economy, poverty, gangs and crews, and the availability of firearms, but there is one that has been little explored: the migration of the prison culture back to the streets. As nearly 700,000 convicts a year return home, some may be bringing prison culture with them.

"This is part of the price we're paying for 20 years of mass incarceration,"...violence also turns on a central currency within prisons: respect. Disrespect can lead to lethal responses at the slightest provocation....while the overall murder rate has dropped for years, it has been inching up in the black community in recent years. African-Americans make up only 13% of the nation's population, but more are killed in the U.S. than any other racial group, accounting for 49% of all murder victims, according to Federal Bureau of Investigation statistics...."The homicides occur in neighborhoods where folks don't finish high school," Mr. Owens said. "If you can't make the transition from learning to read to reading to learn, you're done."
killings  criminality  African-Americans  violence  incarceration  mass_incarceration  disrespect  prisons  murders 
february 2013 by jerryking
Racial equality looks different from behind bars - The Globe and Mail
Jun. 09 2012 | The Globe and Mail | by Doug Saunders.

What if the statistics are wrong? What if, instead of solving its greatest social problem, the United States has quite literally removed the victims of inequality from public records and put them in a box?...All of the data used to measure the social well-being of the country, from the national census on downward, is collected by surveying households. It does not count anyone who is not in a household – that is, who is in military service, in medical institutions or in prison....starting with the hyperbolic sentencing policies of Ronald Reagan, the U.S. prison system expanded at an astonishing rate. Before, prison was for violent and repeat offenders. After the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 broadened its use, the prison population expanded fivefold....Prison has now supplanted education and welfare as the main social service provided to the disenfranchised. Blacks are seven times more likely than whites to be in prison. It’s self-perpetuating, because imprisonment increases rates of criminality, poverty, educational failure and family breakup.

But Americans do not see these effects. Prisoners don’t appear on the census, the unemployment-rate, educational-attainment records or the voting rolls.

What happens if you include them? That is exactly what Dr. Pettit has done in her new book, Invisible Men: Mass Incarceration and the Myth of Black Progress...There genuinely have been great gains for black Americans with education. But instead of expanding these gains, the United States has used prisons to freeze half the black population out of them. Canada is in danger of doing the same to its native population under new tough-on-crime laws – and as the U.S. example shows, sticking a country’s social problems in a box does not make them go away.
race_relations  African-Americans  statistics  prisons  undercounting  incarceration  Doug_Saunders  books  racial_disparities  mass_incarceration  myths  self-perpetuation 
june 2012 by jerryking
Is Marriage for White People? — By Ralph Richard Banks — Book Review - NYTimes.com
September 16, 2011 | NYT | By IMANI PERRY

"...The impediments to marriage for black people are daunting and
multifaceted.

Black women significantly outperform black men in high school and
college. As a result, the black middle class is disproportionately
female and the black poor are disproportionately male, and the gap is
widening. Extraordinary rates of incarceration for black men, and the
long-term effects of a prison record on employment, exacerbate this
situation. Banks refers to studies indicating that “in evaluating
potential mates, economic stability still matters more for
African-Americans than for other groups.” Yet they may never find that
security, and therefore never marry.

Moreover, the benefits of marriage don’t accrue as readily for
African-Americans as for other groups precisely because of their
economic instability."
African-Americans  book_reviews  disproportionality  marriage  mass_incarceration  middle_class  multifaceted  outperformance  racial_disparities  relationships  stigmatization  unemployment  women 
september 2011 by jerryking

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