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Opinion | The Jim Crow South? No, Long Island Today
Nov. 21, 2019 | The New York Times |

White Americans have long found comfort believing that racial discrimination is a thing of the past.

Black Americans feel they know better, and a three-year investigation of Long Island real estate agents by the local newspaper Newsday provides the latest depressing evidence that they are right.

More than half a century after the great civil rights battles to end discrimination, the newspaper found that black home buyers are being steered to black neighborhoods and more closely scrutinized by brokers.

Newsday sent white investigators posing as buyers to meet with 93 real estate agents about 5,763 listings across Long Island. Then, they sent a second buyer — either black, Hispanic or Asian — to meet with the same agents. The practice is a gold-standard methodology known as “paired testing,” in which real estate agents are contacted by pairs of prospective clients with similar financial profiles.

Black testers were treated differently than white ones 49 percent of the time. Hispanic buyers encountered unequal treatment 39 percent of the time and Asian buyers 19 percent of the time.

Along with steering minority testers to majority-minority areas, and white testers to mostly white areas, some agents required black buyers to meet additional financial conditions that they didn’t demand of white buyers with the same profile.
African-Americans  editorials  Jim_Crow  housing  New_York  racism  racial_disparities  Fair_Housing_Act  Long_Island  pairs  racial_discrimination  real_estate  redlining  segregation 
november 2019 by jerryking
Thanks to a billionaire, Detroit is new and improved – but for whom?
November 18, 2019 | The Globe and Mail | by ADRIAN MORROW, U.S. CORRESPONDENT

Detroit's urban renaissance has also drawn tough criticism. For one, Quicken and Bedrock are accused of building an affluent island in the centre of a low-income city. While Dan Gilbert’s spending has revitalized the central business district, much of Detroit remains economically distressed with neighbourhoods full of boarded-up businesses and burnt-out houses. Detroit’s racial divides factor in, too: Recent developments have tended to concentrate in the whiter neighbourhoods of a city where 79 per cent of the population is black. For another, Bedrock and its related companies have received US$767-million worth of government subsidies and tax breaks since 2010. To some, this is an egregious use of funds when Detroit’s schools and transit system are struggling. Mr. Gilbert’s critics argue a man with a net worth Forbes estimates at US$6.8-billion has no need for government assistance.
Whether Mr. Gilbert is the hero Detroit needed to pull it back from the precipice or an unaccountable billionaire wielding an uncomfortable amount of civic power, his rise represents an extraordinary moment in U.S. urbanism. The rapid rebirth and future of one of the country’s greatest and most troubled cities rests largely in the hands of one man and his corporate empire, which is both animating the metropolis with its workforce, and directly shaping the look and feel of its streets and buildings........the subsidies have been “necessary,” but the city and state have done too little to extract benefits such as affordable housing and heritage preservation in exchange. Rather than a divide between downtown and neighbourhoods, or Mr. Gilbert and community bootstrappers, she argued, all of these elements have to work together.
anchor_tenants  Dan_Gilbert  decline  Detroit  downtown_core  gentrification  hollowing_out  income_inequality  moguls  property_development  Quicken_Loans   racial_disparities  refurbished  rejuvenation  revivals  subsidies  tax_subsidies  urban_renaissance  urban_renewal  white-collar 
november 2019 by jerryking
Opinion | The American Dream Isn’t for Black Millennials
Jan. 5, 2019 | The New York Times | By Reniqua Allen. Ms. Allen is the author of “It Was All a Dream.”

....I marched up to my new, small, one-bedroom apartment on the Hill, satisfied. It felt as if I’d broken barriers.

But when I got a notice in the mail about five years after I closed, I felt dizzy. It was not long after the financial crisis. The letter said that my mortgage company had been charged with giving subprime loans to black and Hispanic people around the country and asked if I wanted to join a class-action suit. I had most likely been the target of predatory lending. I had known from the start that my income could make me a target. I’d heard the words of the broker. But because of my race? It hadn’t crossed my mind. I was devastated......How much room is there in anyone’s life for a mistake or the perception of a mistake if you’re young and black in America? How much of the American dream hangs in the balance? For the dozens of people I talked to, the reality is that if we want our dreams to come true, all too often we have to be almost perfect, making the right decisions all the time. Not getting that ticket. Not listening to that mortgage broker. Not speaking up.....I know the history of this country, know the history of redlining, know how my grandparents were locked out of neighborhoods because of their skin color. But for some reason I was still surprised. I would say I was mad, but more than that, I was hurt that I had been lulled into some kind of false bourgeois comfort that had made me think that my life was different from my predecessors’ lives. Sure, I had made it up that Hill, but at what cost?
African-Americans  downward_mobility  economic_downturn  millennials  the_American_dream  subprime  predatory_practices  racial_disparities  redlining  home_ownership 
january 2019 by jerryking
Devah Pager, Who Documented Race Bias in Job Market, Dies at 46 - The New York Times
By Katharine Q. Seelye
Nov. 8, 2018

Devah Pager wrote in her book, “Marked: Race, Crime and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration.
PhDs  obituaries  professors  race  biases  racial_disparities  sociologists  racial_discrimination  joblessness  mass_incarceration 
november 2018 by jerryking
‘Lopping,’ ‘Tips’ and the ‘Z-List’: Bias Lawsuit Explores Harvard’s Admissions Secrets
July 29, 2018 | - The New York Times | By Anemona Hartocollis, Amy Harmon and Mitch Smith.
=======================================
One tries very hard to assess the candidate’s potential. Is he or she a self-starter? How much help has he had? Has the candidate peaked? How will he or she react to not being head of the class?

Does he or she have the core values, confidence, perspective and flexibility to adapt and thrive? Not surprisingly, companies and others prefer applicants who have what a law firm where I later recruited called “a can-do attitude.”
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........The case has been orchestrated by Edward Blum, a longtime crusader against affirmative action and voting rights laws, and it may yield him a fresh chance to get the issue before the Supreme Court. The court turned away his last major challenge to university admissions, Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin, in 2016.

[Read: How other Ivy League schools are coming to Harvard’s defense.]

The debate goes back to the civil rights movement of the 1950s and ’60s. The assassination of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 was a turning point, pushing colleges to redouble their efforts to be more representative of American society.

But Asians were an overlooked minority despite a long history of discrimination. .......The plaintiffs say that the personal rating — which considers an applicant’s character and personality — is the most insidious of Harvard’s admissions metrics. They say that Asian-Americans are routinely described as industrious and intelligent, but unexceptional and indistinguishable — characterizations that recall painful stereotypes for many people of Asian descent. (The applicant who was the “proverbial picket fence” was Asian-American.).........Professor Khurana, the Harvard College dean, acknowledged that Harvard was not always perfect, but said it was trying to get its practices right.

“I have a great deal of humility knowing that some day history will judge us,” Professor Khurana said. “I think that’s why we are constantly asking ourselves this question: How can we do better? How could we be better? What are we missing? Where are our blind spots?”
admissions  affirmative_action  Asian-Americans  blind_spots  Colleges_&_Universities  discrimination  diversity  Harvard  Ivy_League  lawsuits  race-blind  race-conscious  selection_processes  biases  elitism  ethnic_stereotyping  meritocratic  students  racial_disparities  1968  core_values 
august 2018 by jerryking
Black Cancer Matters
MARCH 15, 2018 | The New York Times | By SUSAN GUBAR.

the economic consequences of racial discrimination increase cancer risk.....putting into play the words “race” and “cancer,” .....ponder the impact of race on cancer outcomes nationally — disentangled from local ecological factors. The big picture is grim.

A 2016 report of the American Cancer Society states that the “five-year relative survival is lower for blacks than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis.” African-American men, for example, are twice as likely to die from prostate cancer. Experts continue to debate why, even as many ascribe this scandalous phenomenon to inequalities in access to screening and treatment.

In women’s cancer, the mortality gap has widened. According to the 2016-18 report on Cancer Facts and Figures for African-Americans, “despite lower incidence rates for breast and uterine cancers, black women have death rates for these cancers that are 42% and 92% higher, respectively, than white women.” Investigators connect the ghastly numbers to the usual socioeconomic discrepancies but also to biological differences in the malignancies of black women.

With regard to breast cancer, is the mortality gap related to a greater percentage of black women than white women contending with an aggressive form of the disease that lacks estrogen receptors?

Dr. Otis Webb Brawley, the chief medical officer of the American Cancer Society, rejects an explanation based on “biological difference,” pointing instead to dietary disparities....“The black-white gap in the onset of menstruation and body weight has dramatically widened, which means that the disease disparities will widen also.”

Disadvantaged Americans consume more calories and carbohydrates, “the sort of food that is available in poor areas of inner cities,”..... “Poverty is a carcinogen.”

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isn't just about race-- watch the trailer in which blacks and whites say the very same things about being poisoned by the Koch brothers' companies. This is a story about social justice and lack of sufficient government regulation of the enterprises owned by the "donor" class that owns most of our politicians. The most accurate predictor of people's life expectancy is their zip code [http://fortune.com/2017/05/08/us-life-expectancy-study/]. If you life in a polluted poisoned environment, you will suffer the consequences regardless of race.
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African-Americans  cancers  economically_disadvantaged  mortality  prostate  racial_discrimination  racial_disparities  the_big_picture  women 
march 2018 by jerryking
When biased data holds a potentially deadly flaw
SEPTEMBER 27, 2017 | FT | Madhumita Murgia.

Researchers at scientific journal Nature said findings from its own investigation on the diversity of these data sets “prompted warnings that a much broader range of populations should be investigated to avoid genomic medicine being of benefit merely to ‘a privileged few’ ”.

This insidious data prejudice made me curious about other unintended biases in the tech world. Several new consumer technologies — often conceived by, built by and tested overwhelmingly on Caucasian males — are flawed due to biases in their design.
massive_data_sets  biases  data  data_driven  unintended_consequences  racial_disparities  algorithms  value_judgements 
january 2018 by jerryking
When Black Children Are Targeted for Punishment - The New York Times
By DERRICK DARBY and JOHN L. RURYSEPT. 25, 2017
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history  racial_disparities  African-Americans  children  punishment  high_schools  K-12 
september 2017 by jerryking
Whites Have Huge Wealth Edge Over Blacks (but Don’t Know It) - The New York Times
By EMILY BADGER SEPT. 18, 2017

Americans believe that blacks and whites are more equal today than they truly are on measures of income, wealth, wages and health benefits. And they believe more historical progress has occurred than is the case, suggesting “a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism” regarding racial equality......we also overgeneralize from other markers of racial progress: the election of a black president, the passage of civil rights laws, the sea change in public opinion around issues like segregation. If society has progressed in these ways, we assume there’s been great economic progress, too.

We’re inclined, as well, to believe that society is fairer than it really is. The reality that it’s not — that even college-educated black workers earn about 20 percent less than college-educated white ones, for example — is uncomfortable for both blacks who’ve been harmed by that unfairness and whites who’ve benefited from it......If we want people to have a better understanding of racial inequality, this implies that the solution isn’t simply to parrot these statistics more widely. It’s to get Americans thinking more about the forces that underlie them, like continued discrimination in hiring, or disparities in mortgage lending.

It’s a myth that racial progress is inevitable, Ms. Richeson said. “But it’s also dangerous insofar as it keeps us blind to considerable inequality in our nation that’s quite foundational,” she said. “Of course we can’t address it if we’re not even willing to acknowledge it.”

And if we’re not willing to acknowledge it, she adds, that has direct consequences for whether Americans are willing to support affirmative action policies, or continued enforcement of the Voting Rights Act, or renewed efforts at school desegregation......
achievement_gaps  generational_wealth  misperceptions  African-Americans  optimism  whites  racial_disparities  infographics  white_privilege 
september 2017 by jerryking
40 Acres and a Mule Would Be at Least $6.4 Trillion Today—What the U.S. Really Owes Black America by Tracy Loeffelholz Dunn and Jeff Neumann — YES! Magazine
Slavery made America wealthy, and racist policies since have blocked African American wealth-building. Can we calculate the economic damage?

Tracy Loeffelholz DunnJeff Neumann posted May 14, 2015
reparations  race  slavery  African-Americans  generational_wealth  racism  racial_disparities  infographics 
march 2017 by jerryking
The Widening Racial Wealth Divide
OCTOBER 10, 2016 ISSUE | - The New Yorker | By James Surowiecki
THE WIDENING RACIAL WEALTH DIVIDE
It would take black Americans two hundred and twenty-eight years to have as much wealth as white Americans have today.

As Thomas Shapiro, a sociologist at Brandeis and the co-author of the seminal book “Black Wealth/White Wealth,” told me, “History and legacy created the racial gap. Policies have maintained it.” Together, they contribute to what he’s called “the hidden cost of being African-American.”

Start with history. Beginning in the New Deal and on into the postwar years, the federal government invested heavily to help ordinary Americans buy homes and go to school, via programs like the Federal Housing Administration and the G.I. Bill. That fuelled an economic boom and fostered the growth of a prosperous middle class. But black Americans received little of this assistance. Redlining by banks and by government agencies prevented black families from buying homes in white neighborhoods; in a thirty-year period, just two per cent of F.H.A. loans went to families of color. G.I. Bill benefits went disproportionately to white veterans. Black agricultural and domestic workers were excluded from Social Security until the fifties. As Dedrick Asante-Muhammad, the co-author of the CFED/I.P.S. report, told me, “Massive government investment helped create an American middle class. But it was a white American middle class.”
racial_disparities  James_Surowiecki  race  African-Americans  redlining  discrimination  generational_wealth  racism  education  housing  intergenerational  New_Deal  wealth_creation  home_ownership  books  post-WWII 
october 2016 by jerryking
The Disrupters: Making New York’s Cultural Boards More Diverse
JULY 30, 2016 | The New York Times| By JACOB BERNSTEIN.

But Dr. Muhammad, the former director of the Schomburg center, cautioned against seeing Mr. Smith’s entry into New York cultural life as a sign that things will change in a meaningful way.

“White people are going to be wealthier on average, wealthier people are going to be in leadership positions more often, and in those positions they’re likely to be part of a network of people in the same social milieu,” Dr. Muhammad said. “There’ll continue to be people like Robert Smith, who happen to be African-American and do wonderful things, but there’s a giant wealth gap between blacks and whites, and it’s only widened in the wake of the great recession. Is this a sign of a trend that black people will be the heads of boards all over the country? I doubt it.”
Darren_Walker  glass_ceilings  African-Americans  high_net_worth  cultural_institutions  boards_&_directors_&_governance  diversity  New_York_City  museums  lawyers  investment_banking  Wall_Street  Harvard  Robert_Smith  racial_disparities 
august 2016 by jerryking
Why black Canadians are facing U.S.-style problems - The Globe and Mail
DOUG SAUNDERS
The Globe and Mail
Published Saturday, Jul. 16, 2016

What’s the root of this discrimination, which takes place even when officials are racially diverse and liberal-minded? In part, it’s institutional path dependency: Police and judges have always responded to suspects based on traditional patterns (and on patterns learned from the U.S. media and justice system), and it’s hard to break those ugly traditions.

That’s dangerous, because black Canadians are also inordinately excluded from home ownership, neighbourhoods with good public transit and key employment markets. That’s partly due to the timing and economic circumstances of Caribbean immigration, partly due to racism.

Either way, it creates a spiral of discrimination: A group of Canadians who live in fringe rental-only neighbourhoods, with less secure employment and access to resources, who face a more hostile police and justice system, hurting their chances of advancement.
African_Canadians  Canadian  Doug_Saunders  geographic_segregation  racial_disparities  systemic_discrimination  systemic_racism  racial_discrimination  institutional_path_dependency  exclusion  marginalization 
july 2016 by jerryking
Laquan McDonald and the ‘System’ - The New York Times
NOV. 30, 2015 489 COMMENTS
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Charles M. Blow
Charles_Blow  racial_disparities 
december 2015 by jerryking
The Disproportionate Risks of Driving While Black
Yang Congtou Beijing 1 hour ago
'The officer found a small amount of marijuana and several grams of cocaine and arrested her.'

Ok, keep in mind God helps those who help themselves.
1) Don't drive...
advice  letters_to_the_editor  race  African-Americans  disproportionality  personal_risk  racial_disparities 
october 2015 by jerryking
The Disproportionate Risks of Driving While Black - The New York Times
By SHARON LaFRANIERE and ANDREW W. LEHRENOCT. 24, 2015

Documenting racial profiling in police work is devilishly difficult, because a multitude of factors — including elevated violent crime rates in many black neighborhoods — makes it hard to tease out evidence of bias from other influences. But an analysis by The New York Times of tens of thousands of traffic stops and years of arrest data in this racially mixed city of 280,000 uncovered wide racial differences in measure after measure of police conduct.

Those same disparities were found across North Carolina, the state that collects the most detailed data on traffic stops. And at least some of them showed up in the six other states that collect comprehensive traffic-stop statistics.

Here in North Carolina’s third-largest city, officers pulled over African-American drivers for traffic violations at a rate far out of proportion with their share of the local driving population. They used their discretion to search black drivers or their cars more than twice as often as white motorists — even though they found drugs and weapons significantly more often when the driver was white.

Officers were more likely to stop black drivers for no discernible reason. And they were more likely to use force if the driver was black, even when they did not encounter physical resistance.....National surveys show that blacks and whites use marijuana at virtually the same rate, but black residents here are charged with the sole offense of possession of minor amounts of marijuana five times as often as white residents are.

And more than four times as many blacks as whites are arrested on the sole charge of resisting, obstructing or delaying an officer, an offense so borderline that some North Carolina police chiefs discourage its use unless more serious crimes are also involved.
racial_disparities  policing  African-Americans  police_misconduct  disproportionality  police_abuse  police_brutality  police_reform  trustworthiness  legitimacy  violent_crime 
october 2015 by jerryking
Education Gap Between Rich and Poor Is Growing Wider - The New York Times
SEPT. 22, 2015 | NYT | Eduardo Porter.

For all the progress in improving educational outcomes among African-American children, the achievement gaps between more affluent and less privileged children is wider than ever, notes Sean Reardon of the Center for Education Policy Analysis at Stanford. Racial disparities are still a stain on American society, but they are no longer the main divider. Today the biggest threat to the American dream is class.....Financed mainly by real estate taxes that are more plentiful in neighborhoods with expensive homes, public education is becoming increasingly compartmentalized. Well-funded schools where the children of the affluent can play and learn with each other are cordoned off from the shabbier schools teaching the poor, who are still disproportionally from black or Hispanic backgrounds.
poverty  African-Americans  income_inequality  racial_disparities  real_estate_taxes  education  achievement_gaps  social_classes  public_education  sorting  segregation  geographic_sorting  neighbourhoods  children  affluence  upper-income  super_ZIPs  compartmentalization  the_American_dream 
september 2015 by jerryking
How Segregation Destroys Black Wealth
SEPT. 15, 2015 | NYT | By THE EDITORIAL BOARD.

The Federal Housing Administration, created during the New Deal to promote homeownership, openly supported these racist measures; it forbade lending to black people even as it subsidized white families that moved from the cities to the suburbs. Cut off from fairly priced home loan credit, black neighborhoods deteriorated and their values plummeted....Many discriminatory practices were formally ended with the civil rights and fair lending laws of the 1960s and 70s. But these were quickly replaced by subtler techniques that encouraged ghettoization, like channeling black families away from white areas and banks’ and mortgage brokers’ systematically pushing middle-income black families into high-cost, high-risk loans when they could have qualified for more affordable loans....This history of discrimination has taken an enormous toll on black wealth, as is shown in research by Douglas Massey and Jonathan Tannen at Princeton University’s Office of Population Research. In 1970, two years after the passage of the Fair Housing Act, for example, the average well-off black American lived in a neighborhood where potential home wealth, as measured by property values, stood at about only $50,000 — as opposed to $105,000 for affluent whites and $56,000 for poor whites.

By 2010, affluent African-Americans had passed poor whites in potential home wealth but had fallen further behind affluent whites. There is more than money at stake, Mr. Massey and Mr. Tannen write, because home values “translate directly into access to higher quality education given that public schools in the United States are financed by real estate taxes.”

Throughout history, ethnic groups have been able to translate economic gains into housing in better neighborhoods and advantages for their children. But for African-Americans, the researchers write, that transition has been “thwarted by segregation and the prejudice and discrimination that create and maintain it.” In other words, the damage reaches across generations and continues today
African-Americans  discrimination  education  Fair_Housing_Act  generational_wealth  home_ownership  housing  intergenerational  New_Deal  prejudices  public_education  public_schools  racial_disparities  racism  real_estate_taxes  redlining  segregation  wealth_creation  wealth_management 
september 2015 by jerryking
Racial Wealth Gap Persists Despite Degree, Study Says - The New York Times
By PATRICIA COHEN AUG. 16, 2015

The lack of family wealth is pivotal to understanding the racial economic gap, he argues.

While the researchers from the St. Louis Fed, when asked, played down the importance of financial support from family when explaining their results, Mr. Darity said he believed that family aid helped individuals avoid the type of risky big-ticket borrowing that ensnared so many Hispanic and black graduates.

“Prior family wealth is the key,” Mr. Darity explained in an email, noting that it “shapes both income-generating opportunities and the capacity to allow wealth to grow more wealth.”
African-Americans  downward_mobility  financial_literacy  generational_wealth  personal_finance  racial_disparities  self-perpetuation  social_classes  social_mobility  wealth_creation  wealth_management 
august 2015 by jerryking
Retired Wells Fargo Exec to Help Ex-Convicts - Barron's
By ED FINN
August 1, 2015

As Ludeman sees it, life in Ferguson and many other impoverished U.S. cities has been made far worse by the inability of ex-convicts to adjust to life outside prison. Of the people released from prison, an astounding 77% end up getting arrested again within five years. ...Ludeman was quick to educate himself on the social and economic costs of America’s burgeoning state and federal prison population, which now numbers 1.6 million, up from 300,000 in 1980. One reason the U.S. economy has been slow to recover in recent years is that so many Americans have prison records and therefore find it nearly impossible to get jobs. This is largely due to laws passed since 1980 requiring mandatory sentences, particularly for drug-related offenses. By one estimate, 7.7 million people in the U.S. have served time in prison.

Before thinking about Project Cope, says Ludeman, “I did not realize the devastating impact to individuals, families, and communities, who are literally annihilated by mass incarceration.”

Without question, the harsher sentencing laws of the past three decades have taken a proportionately greater toll on African-Americans. While African-Americans make up 13% of the overall U.S. population, they account for 38% of prison inmates. Studies have shown that when a white person and an African-American with similar criminal histories are charged with the same type of crime, the chances of the African-American going to prison are far higher than for the white defendant. One study indicated that young African-American males have a one-in-three chance of going to prison at some point in their lives, versus one-in-six for Hispanics and one-in-17 for whites
Second_Acts  nonprofit  CEOs  leadership  serving_others  justice_system  penal_institutions  prisons  incarceration  racial_disparities  African-Americans 
august 2015 by jerryking
Harvard Accused of Bias Against Asian-Americans
A complaint Friday alleged that Harvard University discriminates against Asian-American applicants by setting a higher bar for admissions than that faced by other groups. The complaint, filed by a…
Harvard  Colleges_&_Universities  admissions  Asian-Americans  biases  elitism  achievement_gaps  ethnic_stereotyping  meritocratic  students  racial_disparities  Ivy_League 
may 2015 by jerryking
America’s racial divide widens under Obama’s watch - The Globe and Mail
KONRAD YAKABUSKI
The Globe and Mail
Published Thursday, May. 07 2015,

African-Americans are sliding down an economic ladder they had been gradually climbing. Millions of black people who moved north during the Great Migration of the mid-20th century found jobs in bustling factories. Millions more found public-sector jobs – as teachers, postal employees or city workers – as black people took over city governments and congressional seats in places such as Baltimore and Detroit. These workers formed the basis of a black middle class.

But the previous recession hit black people harder than any other group. Manufacturing was shedding jobs before the crash; governments and the post office followed suit when it hit. As Bard College professor Walter Russell Mead has noted, black people accounted for less than 12 per cent of the U.S. work force in 2011, but 21 per cent of postal employees and 20 per cent of all government workers. But with government and manufacturing in retreat, black people faced bleak job prospects.

The new economy is largely a black-free zone. A USA Today analysis last year found that African-Americans occupied only 2 per cent of the jobs at seven big Silicon Valley companies. That’s not hard to understand given the state of public schools in places such as Baltimore, Detroit and Washington, where political nepotism and unions have stood in the way of reform.

Meanwhile, systemic racism in the U.S. criminal justice system – black people are far more likely than white people to be sentenced to jail for minor drug violations, ending up with criminal records that make them virtually unemployable – is so deep as to cry out for a national inquiry.
racial_disparities  Silicon_Valley  Ted_Cruz  Konrad_Yakabuski  Campaign_2016  digital_economy  race_relations  Obama  downward_mobility  African-Americans  public_sector  middle_class  Walter_Russell_Mead  systemic_discrimination  criminal_justice_system  joblessness  public_schools  Great_Migration  sentencing  downward_spirals  institutional_path_dependency 
may 2015 by jerryking
Forcing Black Men Out of Society - NYTimes.com
Devah Pager

This astounding shortfall in black men translates into lower marriage rates, more out-of-wedlock births, a greater risk of poverty for families and, by extension, less stable communities. The missing men should be a source of concern to political leaders and policy makers everywhere.

While the 1.5 million number is startling, it actually understates the severity of the crisis that has befallen African-American men since the collapse of the manufacturing and industrial centers, which was quickly followed by the “war on drugs” and mass imprisonment, which drove up the national prison population more than sevenfold beginning in the 1970s.

In addition to the “missing,” millions more are shut out of society, or are functionally missing, because of the shrinking labor market for low-skilled workers, racial discrimination or sanctions that prevent millions who have criminal convictions from getting all kinds of jobs. At the same time, the surge in imprisonment has further stigmatized blackness itself, so that black men and boys who have never been near a jail now have to fight the presumption of criminality in many aspects of day-to-day life — in encounters with police, in schools, on the streets and on the job....William Julius Wilson wrote in his 1996 book, “When Work Disappears,” for the first time in the 20th century, most adults in many poor inner-city neighborhoods were not working.... Devah Pager wrote in her book, “Marked: Race, Crime and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration.”
understated  African-Americans  men  criminality  incarceration  racial_disparities  racial_discrimination  books  stereotypes  children  deindustrialization  war_on_drugs  stigmatization  family_breakdown  instability  unemployment  mass_incarceration  joblessness  William_Julius_Wilson  blackness  presumptions 
april 2015 by jerryking
How Black Middle-Class Kids Become Poor Adults
JAN 19 2015 | The Atlantic | GILLIAN B. WHITE.

A 2014 study from the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, which looked at factors like parental income, education, and family structure, shows a similar pattern: Many black Americans not only fail to move up, but show an increased likelihood of backsliding. According to the study, “In recent decades, blacks have experienced substantially less upward intergenerational mobility and substantially more downward intergenerational mobility than whites.”...The explanations for this phenomenon are varied, but largely hinge on many of the criticisms that already exist in regard to socioeconomics and race in the U.S. Economists cite lower educational attainment, higher rates of single-parent households, and geographic segregation as potential explanations for these trends.
African-Americans  middle_class  children  single_parents  downward_mobility  geographic_segregation  social_mobility  social_classes  racial_disparities  unemployment  generational_wealth 
january 2015 by jerryking
The Measuring Sticks of Racial Bias - NYTimes.com
JAN. 3, 2015
Continue reading the main story
Economic View
By SENDHIL MULLAINATHAN
racial_disparities  racism  biases  African-Americans  race  Ferguson  résumés  bigotry  discrimination 
january 2015 by jerryking
The riddle of black America’s rising woes under Obama - FT.com
October 12, 2014 4:54 pm
The riddle of black America’s rising woes under Obama
By Edward Luce

Without Mr Obama’s efforts, African-American suffering would have been even greater. He has fought Congress to preserve food stamps and long-term unemployment insurance – both of which help blacks disproportionately. The number of Americans without health insurance has fallen by 8m since the Affordable Care Act came into effect. Likewise, no president has done as much as Mr Obama – to depressingly little effect – to try to correct the racial bias in US federal sentencing. Bill Clinton was once termed “America’s first black president”. But it was under Mr Clinton that incarceration rates rose to their towering levels.
By no honest reckoning can Mr Obama be blamed for the decline in black America’s fortunes. Yet the facts are deeply unflattering. Since 2009, median non-white household income has dropped by almost a 10th to $33,000 a year, according to the US Federal Reserve’s survey of consumer finances. As a whole, median incomes fell by 5 per cent. But by the more telling measure of net wealth – assets minus liabilities – the numbers offer a more troubling story.
The median non-white family today has a net worth of just $18,100 – almost a fifth lower than it was when Mr Obama took office. White median wealth, on the other hand, has inched up by 1 per cent to $142,000. In 2009, white households were seven times richer than their black counterparts. That gap is now eightfold. Both in relative and absolute terms, blacks are doing worse under Mr Obama.
Why then do African-Americans still give him such stellar ratings? To understand, listen to the dog whistles of Mr Obama’s detractors. The more angrily the Tea Party reviles Mr Obama, the more ardently African-Americans back him. When Newt Gingrich, the former Republican leader, described Mr Obama as a “food stamp president”, the subtext was plain. It was too when Joe Wilson, a Republican lawmaker, interrupted Mr Obama’s address to Congress to call him a liar – an indignity none of his predecessors suffered.
Likewise, no president has been forced to authenticate that he was born in the US (rather than Kenya). Donald Trump then demanded proof that the president had attended Harvard. How could a black man get so far without cheating? That at least is what many black Americans heard.
African-Americans  Obama  racial_disparities  legacies  generational_wealth  indignities  Donald_Trump  Tea_Party  bigotry  disproportionality  decline  Edward_Luce 
october 2014 by jerryking
When Whites Just Don’t Get It - NYTimes.com
AUGUST 30, 2014 | NYT |Nicholas Kristof.

• The net worth of the average black household in the U.S. is $6,314, compared with $110,500 for the average white household, according to 2011 census data. The gap has worsened in the last decade, and the U.S now has a greater wealth gap by race than South Africa did during apartheid. (Whites in America on average own almost 18 times as much as blacks; in South Africa in 1970, the ratio was about 15 times.)

• The black-white income gap is roughly 40 percent greater today than it was in 1967.

• A black boy born today in the U.S. has a life expectancy five years shorter than that of a white boy.

• Black students are significantly less likely to attend schools offering advanced math and science courses than white students. They are three times as likely to be suspended and expelled, setting them up for educational failure.

• Because of the catastrophic experiment in mass incarceration, black men in their 20s without a high school diploma are more likely to be incarcerated today than employed, according to a study from the National Bureau of Economic Research. Nearly 70 percent of middle-aged black men who never graduated from high school have been imprisoned.

All these constitute not a black problem or a white problem, but an American problem.
race_relations  racial_disparities  achievement_gaps  Nicholas_Kristof  mass_incarceration 
august 2014 by jerryking
Ferguson, Watts and a Dream Deferred - NYTimes.com
AUG. 19, 2014 | NYT |Thomas B. Edsall.

...One optimistic note is that the white reaction to events in Ferguson, including the commentary of some outspoken white conservatives, has been sympathetic to the anger and outrage over the police shooting of an unarmed black teenager. This stands in sharp distinction to the aftermath of the violence in Los Angeles in 1965....
Ferguson  Michael_Brown  African-Americans  racial_disparities  outrage  income_distribution  income_inequality  economic_downturn 
august 2014 by jerryking
The Impossibility of Reparations
JUN 3 2014 | - The Atlantic | DAVID FRUM.

If “reparations” means remembrance and repentance for the wrongs of the past, then let’s have reparations. Americans tell a too-flattering version of their national story. They treat slavery as ancillary rather than essential. They forget that the work of slaves paid this country’s import bill from the 17th century until 1860. They do not acknowledge that the “freedom” championed by slaveholding Founding Fathers, including the author of the Declaration of Independence, included the freedom to own other human beings as property. They can no longer notice how slavery is stitched into every line of the Constitution and was supported by every single early national institution. The self-reckoning we see in Germany and other European countries does not come easily to Americans—and is still outright rejected by many.
slavery  myths  origin_story  reparations  Ta-Nehisi_Coates  African-Americans  racial_disparities  execution  affirmative_action  race_relations  David_Frum  slaveholders  Founding_Fathers 
june 2014 by jerryking
Cop Watch app records police-citizen interactions | Toronto Star
By: Antonia Zerbisias Feature Writer, Published on Tue Jan 28 2014

Cop Watch Toronto , which was released last week on iTunes.

“Sadly, it’s been years and years of seeing violence in (the black) community,” he said. “Only the fatal ones get serious media attention, but there are dozens and dozens of incidents that happen that get no attention at all — but they are just as traumatic to the people involved.”

The app, which costs 99 cents, is not a new concept. In the U.S. last year, similar apps, such as “ Stop and Frisk Watch ” for New Yorkers, have been released.

Although the aims are the same as Cop Watch Toronto, the operation is not. What Cop Watch does is begin shooting automatically once it’s opened, and as soon as recording is stopped, instantly uploads to YouTube. At the same time, an email is sent to the community-based Network for the Elimination of Police Violence , with the videographer’s location and an URL for the video.
African_Canadians  uWindsor  alumni  mobile_applications  police  police_force  policing  carding  racial_profiling  racial_disparities  community-based 
january 2014 by jerryking
How Dr. King Shaped My Work in Economics - NYTimes.com
August 27, 2013| NYT | By JOSEPH E. STIGLITZ.

The battle against outright discrimination is, regrettably far from over: 50 years after the march, and 45 years after the passage of the Fair Housing Act, major United States banks, like Wells Fargo, still discriminate on the basis of race, targeting the most vulnerable of our citizens for their predatory lending activities. Discrimination in the job market is pervasive and deep. Research suggests that applicants with African-American sounding names get fewer calls for interviews. Discrimination takes new forms; racial profiling remains rampant in many American cities, including through the stop-and-frisk policies that became standard practice in New York. Our incarceration rate is the world’s highest, although there are signs, finally, that fiscally strapped states are starting to see the folly, if not the inhumanity, of wasting so much human capital through mass incarceration. Almost 40 percent of prisoners are black. This tragedy has been documented powerfully by Michelle Alexander and other legal scholars.
African-Americans  books  economics  economists  fallacies_follies  Fair_Housing_Act  human_capital  incarceration  Joseph_Stiglitz  mass_incarceration  MLK  predatory_practices  racial_discrimination  racial_disparities  social_justice 
august 2013 by jerryking
10% of African-American Households Have Incomes Above $100,000 - WSJ.com
August 24, 2013 | WSJ | By DAVID WESSEL.
50 Years of a Dream
On the anniversary of the March on Washington, how has the outlook for white and black Americans changed?

Attitudes toward race have changed enormously. "It's not respectable today to be a racist. It was perfectly acceptable in 1963," says Eleanor Holmes Norton, one of the behind-the-scenes organizers of the March and now the District of Columbia's representative in Congress.

By nearly every available economic metric, African-Americans are better off today than earlier generations were.

Memories are short, but a few facts underscore just how much has changed in 50 years.

In 1966, the earliest year for which comparable data is available, 42% of African-Americans lived in poverty; in 2011, 28% did.

The income of the median black family, the one in the middle of the statistical middle, is 80% higher, adjusted for inflation, than a comparable family in 1963, the Census Bureau says.

And the ranks of blacks in the top stratum of American society has grown. The number of African-Americans in the U.S. has roughly doubled since 1963; the number with bachelor's degrees has increased 14 fold. As recently as 2000, there were more black men in prison than in college; that is no longer true.
African-Americans  anniversaries  MLK  racial_disparities  households  generational_wealth  census  statistics  income 
august 2013 by jerryking
How Social Networks Drive Black Unemployment - NYTimes.com
May 5, 2013, 9:12 pm 774 Comments
How Social Networks Drive Black Unemployment
By NANCY DITOMASO

Help is not given to just anyone, nor is it available from everyone. Inequality reproduces itself because help is typically reserved for people who are “like me”: the people who live in my neighborhood, those who attend my church or school or those with whom I have worked in the past. It is only natural that when there are jobs to be had, people who know about them will tell the people who are close to them, those with whom they identify, and those who at some point can reciprocate the favor.

Because we still live largely segregated lives, such networking fosters categorical inequality: whites help other whites, especially when unemployment is high. Although people from every background may try to help their own, whites are more likely to hold the sorts of jobs that are protected from market competition, that pay a living wage and that have the potential to teach skills and allow for job training and advancement. So, just as opportunities are unequally distributed, they are also unequally redistributed.
social_networking  networking  African-Americans  unemployment  job_search  racial_disparities  nepotism 
may 2013 by jerryking
What Explains the Racial Wealth Gap? - Real Time Economics - WSJ
February 27, 2013| WSJ| By Neil Shah.

What Explains the Racial Wealth Gap?

Differences related to inheritances, college education and unemployment also play a role. Whites are five times more likely to inherit, while 80% of black students graduate with debt compared with 64% for whites. “Similar college degrees produce more wealth for whites,” Shapiro said.
wealth_creation  personal_finance  financial_literacy  racial_disparities  generational_wealth  college-educated 
february 2013 by jerryking
Research Shows Grit Plays Key Role in Black Males’ College Success
February 19, 2013 | Diverse Education | by Marlon A. Walker.

Article looks at the work of Dr. Terrell L. Strayhorn who studies the role that grit plays in predicting successful outcomes of black males at college....In the article, “What Role Does Grit Play in the Academic Success of Black Male Collegians at Predominantly White Institutions?” Strayhorn takes a look at a student’s social background, as well as his academic performance. In it, grit is defined as “the tendency to pursue long-term, challenging goals with perseverance and passion.”...Even when you take Black men in college who have similar GPAs in high school and similar test scores, those who are grittier — who persevere despite setbacks and pursue their own goals despite barriers — are more likely to succeed.”... In reporting their grit level, students were asked to answer things such as: “I finish whatever I begin” and “I have overcome setbacks.”

In the article, Strayhorn says he found that grit, as well as background traits and academic factors explain nearly a quarter of the difference in grades received by Black male students in college. That’s a good thing, he said.

“You can teach people how to be gritty,” he said. “These are not fixed traits in individuals. You can nurture someone’s perseverance, giving way for workshops and programs … teaching students to hang in there, even when they face setbacks and failures.”...The study found that grittier Black males had higher grades than the other Black males in the survey. The study also found that the grittier Black males had better grades and test scores in high school.
Colleges_&_Universities  African-Americans  perseverance  academia  achievement_gaps  education  students  tutoring  SAT  racial_disparities  grit  test-score_data  GPA 
february 2013 by jerryking
Asians - Too Smart for Their Own Good? - NYTimes.com
By CAROLYN CHEN
Published: December 19, 2012

Asian-Americans constitute 5.6 percent of the nation’s population but 12 to 18 percent of the student body at Ivy League schools. But if judged on their merits — grades, test scores, academic honors and extracurricular activities — Asian-Americans are underrepresented at these schools. Consider that Asians make up anywhere from 40 to 70 percent of the student population at top public high schools like Stuyvesant and Bronx Science in New York City, Lowell in San Francisco and Thomas Jefferson in Alexandria, Va., where admissions are largely based on exams and grades.

In a 2009 study of more than 9,000 students who applied to selective universities, the sociologists Thomas J. Espenshade and Alexandria Walton Radford found that white students were three times more likely to be admitted than Asians with the same academic record.
admissions  education  Colleges_&_Universities  achievement_gaps  ethnic_stereotyping  meritocratic  students  racial_disparities  Asian-Americans  underrepresentation  Stuyvesant_High 
december 2012 by jerryking
Is the real problem here crime or systemic racism?
May 31, 2005 | G & M |Margaret Wente.

What the study did was record the age, race and gender of everybody stopped by police in the course of a year. What it found was that blacks (who make up only 1 per cent of Kingston's population) are stopped nearly three times as often, per capita, as whites. Therefore, it concluded, the police are racially biased.

But if that's true, then the police are also ageist and sexist. Only 7 per cent of the people stopped by police were 55 or older, while 35 per cent were between 15 and 24. And roughly three times more men were stopped than women. Does this mean the police are also biased against young people and men? Most crimes are committed by young men, and a disproportionate number of crimes are committed by young black men. Only 9 % of Toronto's population is black, but more than half of Toronto's 20 "most wanted" are black.
Margaret_Wente  Toronto  African_Canadians  disproportionality  statistics  Kingston  systemic_discrimination  zero-tolerance  expulsions  high_schools  criminality  Toronto_Police_Service  carding  racial_profiling  racial_disparities  young_people 
september 2012 by jerryking
Racial equality looks different from behind bars - The Globe and Mail
Jun. 09 2012 | The Globe and Mail | by Doug Saunders.

What if the statistics are wrong? What if, instead of solving its greatest social problem, the United States has quite literally removed the victims of inequality from public records and put them in a box?...All of the data used to measure the social well-being of the country, from the national census on downward, is collected by surveying households. It does not count anyone who is not in a household – that is, who is in military service, in medical institutions or in prison....starting with the hyperbolic sentencing policies of Ronald Reagan, the U.S. prison system expanded at an astonishing rate. Before, prison was for violent and repeat offenders. After the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 broadened its use, the prison population expanded fivefold....Prison has now supplanted education and welfare as the main social service provided to the disenfranchised. Blacks are seven times more likely than whites to be in prison. It’s self-perpetuating, because imprisonment increases rates of criminality, poverty, educational failure and family breakup.

But Americans do not see these effects. Prisoners don’t appear on the census, the unemployment-rate, educational-attainment records or the voting rolls.

What happens if you include them? That is exactly what Dr. Pettit has done in her new book, Invisible Men: Mass Incarceration and the Myth of Black Progress...There genuinely have been great gains for black Americans with education. But instead of expanding these gains, the United States has used prisons to freeze half the black population out of them. Canada is in danger of doing the same to its native population under new tough-on-crime laws – and as the U.S. example shows, sticking a country’s social problems in a box does not make them go away.
race_relations  African-Americans  statistics  prisons  undercounting  incarceration  Doug_Saunders  books  racial_disparities  mass_incarceration  myths  self-perpetuation 
june 2012 by jerryking
BBC News - African-Caribbean boys 'would rather hustle than learn'
20 October 2011 | BBC | By Hannah Richardson BBC News education reporter.

African-Caribbean boys 'would rather hustle than learn'
achievement_gaps  African_Canadians  Caribbean  homophobia  United_Kingdom  high_schools  racial_disparities  hustle  men  masculinity  Afro-Caribbeans 
may 2012 by jerryking
Colon Cancer Advances Show Black-White Divide - NYTimes.com
December 27, 2011, 11:48 am
Colon Cancer Advances Show Black-White Divide
By ANAHAD O'CONNOR
colons  colorectal  cancers  achievement_gaps  racial_disparities 
december 2011 by jerryking
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