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jerryking : segregation   34

Opinion | The Jim Crow South? No, Long Island Today
Nov. 21, 2019 | The New York Times |

White Americans have long found comfort believing that racial discrimination is a thing of the past.

Black Americans feel they know better, and a three-year investigation of Long Island real estate agents by the local newspaper Newsday provides the latest depressing evidence that they are right.

More than half a century after the great civil rights battles to end discrimination, the newspaper found that black home buyers are being steered to black neighborhoods and more closely scrutinized by brokers.

Newsday sent white investigators posing as buyers to meet with 93 real estate agents about 5,763 listings across Long Island. Then, they sent a second buyer — either black, Hispanic or Asian — to meet with the same agents. The practice is a gold-standard methodology known as “paired testing,” in which real estate agents are contacted by pairs of prospective clients with similar financial profiles.

Black testers were treated differently than white ones 49 percent of the time. Hispanic buyers encountered unequal treatment 39 percent of the time and Asian buyers 19 percent of the time.

Along with steering minority testers to majority-minority areas, and white testers to mostly white areas, some agents required black buyers to meet additional financial conditions that they didn’t demand of white buyers with the same profile.
African-Americans  editorials  Jim_Crow  housing  New_York  racism  racial_disparities  Fair_Housing_Act  Long_Island  pairs  racial_discrimination  real_estate  redlining  segregation 
november 2019 by jerryking
Opinion | 1919: The Year of the Crack-Up
Dec. 31, 2018| The New York Times By Ted Widmer, distinguished lecturer at the Macaulay Honors College of the City University of New York.

In his essay “The Crack-Up,” F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote, “The test of a first-rate intelligence is the ability to hold two opposed ideas in the mind at the same time, and still retain the ability to function.”
1919  African-Americans  F._Scott_Fitzgerald  history  WWI  second-class_citizenship  segregation  Woodrow_Wilson  Paris  turning_points 
january 2019 by jerryking
Where Have All the Black-Owned Businesses Gone? - The Atlantic
BRIAN S. FELDMAN MAY 1, 2017

The last 30 years also have brought the wholesale collapse of black-owned independent businesses and financial institutions that once anchored black communities across the country. In 1985, 60 black-owned banks were providing financial services to their communities; today, just 23 remain. In 11 states where black-owned banks had headquarters in 1994, not a single one is still in business. Of the 50 black-owned insurance companies that operated during the 1980s, today just two remain.

Over the same period, tens of thousands of black-owned retail establishments and local service companies also have disappeared, having gone out of business or been acquired by larger companies. Reflecting these developments, working-age black Americans have become far less likely to be their own boss than in the 1990s. The per-capita number of black employers, for example, declined by some 12 percent just between 1997 and 2014.......the decline in entrepreneurship and business ownership among black Americans also is cause for concern. ...market concentration has played a role in suppressing opportunity and in displacing local economies. ...........The role of market concentration in inhibiting black-owned businesses is also troubling because of the critical role that such enterprises have played in organizing and financing the struggle for civil rights in America......The decline of black-owned independent businesses traces back to many causes, but a major one that has been little noted was the decline in the enforcement of anti-monopoly and fair-trade laws beginning in the late 1970s......Bob Dickerson, the CEO of the Birmingham Business Resource Center in Alabama, says, “Had our institutions and businesses been maintained, had that money been plowed back into our communities, it could have meant a world of difference.”

The role of market concentration in driving down the number of black-owned independent businesses becomes all the more concerning when one considers some mostly forgotten history. In principles, people, and tactics, the fight for black civil rights, going back to before the Civil War, was often deeply intertwined and aligned with America’s anti-monopoly traditions......The story of how the struggle for civil rights intertwined and intersected historically with the struggle against monopoly provides a lesson for the future. It suggests a need to recognize how political independence connects with economic independence in the struggle for social justice. Without freedom from domination in one sphere, there is no freedom in the other.
African-Americans  anticompetitive_behaviour  anti-monopoly  antitrust  black-owned  business  civil_rights  collapse-anxiety  corporate_concentration  economic_clout  economic_inclusion  economic_independence  enforcement  fair-trade  Jim_Crow  market_concentration  market_power  New_Deal  political_independence  segregation  societal_collapse 
may 2017 by jerryking
William Coleman Fought Civil-Rights Battles From the Inside - WSJ
William T. Coleman Jr. graduated at the top of his Harvard Law School class, served in President Gerald Ford’s cabinet as transportation secretary, argued 19 cases before the Supreme Court and was a director of companies including International Business Machines Corp. and PepsiCo Inc. He was one of the few blacks of his generation to become a top-level insider in business and government.

In his later years, he also was frustrated that American schools and neighborhoods remained largely segregated. “We underestimated the complexity of achieving sustained integration,” he wrote in his 2010 memoir, “Counsel for the Situation.”

He shunned extreme language. “You accomplish things by being in the room when the deal is made, and it’s just not in your interest to take positions where you’re not going to get in the room,” he said in an oral history.....He relished legal problem-solving, and it allowed him to live well. Blue-chip companies “pay me a hell of a lot of money to tell them what to do and what not to do,” he said in an interview with the National Visionary Leadership Project. He also remained active in civil rights.
African-Americans  lawyers  Harvard  '70s  NAACP  memoirs  books  obituaries  civil_rights  segregation  desegregation  problem_solving  cabinets  HLS  blue-chips 
april 2017 by jerryking
Why I’m Moving Home
MARCH 16, 2017 | The New York Times | By J. D. VANCE.

" The economist Matthew Kahn has shown that in Appalachia, for instance, the highly skilled are much likelier to leave not just their hometowns but also the region as a whole. This is the classic “brain drain” problem: Those who are able to leave very often do.

The brain drain also encourages a uniquely modern form of cultural detachment. Eventually, the young people who’ve moved out marry — typically to partners with similar economic prospects. They raise children in increasingly segregated neighborhoods, giving rise to something the conservative scholar Charles Murray calls “super ZIPs.” These super ZIPs are veritable bastions of opportunity and optimism, places where divorce and joblessness are rare." ......“The sociological role [colleges and universities] play is to suck talent out of small towns and redistribute it to big cities.” There have always been regional and class inequalities in our society, but the data tells us that we’re living through a unique period of segregation....This has consequences beyond the purely material. Jesse Sussell and James A. Thomson of the RAND Corporation argue that this geographic sorting has heightened the polarization that now animates politics. This polarization reflects itself not just in our voting patterns, but also in our political culture...JD Vance has decided to move [back] home-to Ohio....."we often frame civic responsibility in terms of government taxes and transfer payments, so that our society’s least fortunate families are able to provide basic necessities. But this focus can miss something important: that what many communities need most is not just financial support, but talent and energy and committed citizens to build viable businesses and other civic institutions."
sorting  segregation  neighbourhoods  polarization  geographic_mobility  brain_drain  super_ZIPs  cultural_detachment  Rust_Belt  midwest  Red_states  whites  political_partisanship  political_polarization  working_class  J.D._Vance  highly_skilled  industrial_Midwest  Appalachia  cities  engaged_citizenry  talent  Charles_Murray  civics  social_mobility  self-perpetuation  values  opportunity_gaps  college-educated  geographic_sorting  regional  compartmentalization 
march 2017 by jerryking
Education Gap Between Rich and Poor Is Growing Wider - The New York Times
SEPT. 22, 2015 | NYT | Eduardo Porter.

For all the progress in improving educational outcomes among African-American children, the achievement gaps between more affluent and less privileged children is wider than ever, notes Sean Reardon of the Center for Education Policy Analysis at Stanford. Racial disparities are still a stain on American society, but they are no longer the main divider. Today the biggest threat to the American dream is class.....Financed mainly by real estate taxes that are more plentiful in neighborhoods with expensive homes, public education is becoming increasingly compartmentalized. Well-funded schools where the children of the affluent can play and learn with each other are cordoned off from the shabbier schools teaching the poor, who are still disproportionally from black or Hispanic backgrounds.
poverty  African-Americans  income_inequality  racial_disparities  real_estate_taxes  education  achievement_gaps  social_classes  public_education  sorting  segregation  geographic_sorting  neighbourhoods  children  affluence  upper-income  super_ZIPs  compartmentalization  the_American_dream 
september 2015 by jerryking
How Segregation Destroys Black Wealth
SEPT. 15, 2015 | NYT | By THE EDITORIAL BOARD.

The Federal Housing Administration, created during the New Deal to promote homeownership, openly supported these racist measures; it forbade lending to black people even as it subsidized white families that moved from the cities to the suburbs. Cut off from fairly priced home loan credit, black neighborhoods deteriorated and their values plummeted....Many discriminatory practices were formally ended with the civil rights and fair lending laws of the 1960s and 70s. But these were quickly replaced by subtler techniques that encouraged ghettoization, like channeling black families away from white areas and banks’ and mortgage brokers’ systematically pushing middle-income black families into high-cost, high-risk loans when they could have qualified for more affordable loans....This history of discrimination has taken an enormous toll on black wealth, as is shown in research by Douglas Massey and Jonathan Tannen at Princeton University’s Office of Population Research. In 1970, two years after the passage of the Fair Housing Act, for example, the average well-off black American lived in a neighborhood where potential home wealth, as measured by property values, stood at about only $50,000 — as opposed to $105,000 for affluent whites and $56,000 for poor whites.

By 2010, affluent African-Americans had passed poor whites in potential home wealth but had fallen further behind affluent whites. There is more than money at stake, Mr. Massey and Mr. Tannen write, because home values “translate directly into access to higher quality education given that public schools in the United States are financed by real estate taxes.”

Throughout history, ethnic groups have been able to translate economic gains into housing in better neighborhoods and advantages for their children. But for African-Americans, the researchers write, that transition has been “thwarted by segregation and the prejudice and discrimination that create and maintain it.” In other words, the damage reaches across generations and continues today
African-Americans  discrimination  education  Fair_Housing_Act  generational_wealth  home_ownership  housing  intergenerational  New_Deal  prejudices  public_education  public_schools  racial_disparities  racism  real_estate_taxes  redlining  segregation  wealth_creation  wealth_management 
september 2015 by jerryking
Black Church Is Target Again for Deadly Strike at the Heart - The New York Times
By RACHEL L. SWARNS and CAMPBELL ROBERTSON JUNE 19, 2015

in those years after Emancipation is what the African-American scholar W. E. B. Du Bois and others have described as the “first social institution fully controlled by black men in America.” Black churches ran schools, offered burial assistance and served as clearinghouses for information about jobs, social happenings and politics. More than just spiritual homes, they embodied their communities’ growing political aspirations.

And before long, they became targets.

In 1963, a bomb tore through the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Ala., killing four girls. Black churches have long been a site of racist attacks.

In the fall of 1870, as the Ku Klux Klan battled to return African-Americans to subservience, nearly every black church in Tuskegee, Ala., was engulfed in flames. Ninety-three years later, as the civil rights movement gained momentum, a bomb blast killed four young girls in a black church in Birmingham, Ala., that was a well-known meeting place for movement leaders....In the 19th century, these centers of worship, small and large, rural and urban, stone and ramshackle, became vital community engines. More than 100 of the first black men to be elected to legislative office in the United States were ministers, according to Eric Foner, a Columbia University history professor known for his expertise in the Reconstruction era.

During segregation, churches became places where black men and women found leadership opportunities denied to them by white society.
clearinghouses  Charleston_shootings  African-Americans  churches  Civil_War  KKK  institutions  social_institutions  history  violence  Reconstruction  segregation  leadership  leadership_development  W.E.B._Du_Bois  19th_century 
june 2015 by jerryking
Why Reconstruction Matters - NYTimes.com
By ERIC FONER MARCH 28, 2015

Reconstruction also made possible the consolidation of black families, so often divided by sale during slavery, and the establishment of the independent black church as the core institution of the emerging black community. But the failure to respond to the former slaves’ desire for land left most with no choice but to work for their former owners.

It was not economic dependency, however, but widespread violence, coupled with a Northern retreat from the ideal of equality, that doomed Reconstruction. The Ku Klux Klan and kindred groups began a campaign of murder, assault and arson that can only be described as homegrown American terrorism. Meanwhile, as the Northern Republican Party became more conservative, Reconstruction came to be seen as a misguided attempt to uplift the lower classes of society.
African-Americans  disenfranchisement  segregation  Jim_Crow  the_South  Reconstruction  slavery  emancipation  Civil_War  KKK  terrorism  violence 
march 2015 by jerryking
What I learned in Ferguson - The Globe and Mail
OMAR EL AKKAD
What I learned in Ferguson
SUBSCRIBERS ONLY
The Globe and Mail
Published Sunday, Dec. 07 2014

...the underlying, centuries-old imbalances that allow such a thing to happen. ...an entire urban structure built on inequality....Last weekend, the Globe published a story on how the Ferguson protests have become an American phenomenon, sparking a nationwide conversation on race, poverty and violence. But where there is a story about breadth, there is also a story about depth....the fault lines of segregation exist not along one axis but two: race and wealth....To make ends meet, municipalities such as Ferguson have resorted to more direct means – namely, fees and court fines. Jaywalking and speeding citations aren’t just a tool for enforcing public safety, they’ve increasingly become a financial necessity.

But beyond creating a sense of resentment among the citizenry, these revenue tools have direct and sometimes life-changing consequences. In a place where the median household income is about $37,500 (roughly $10,000 less than the state average), tickets often go unpaid, leading to a warrant, which in turn can lead to arrest, destroying job prospects in the process.

But there’s more. In Missouri, those on parole or probation are not allowed to vote. That means a fine that started out as a financial measure for the municipality can end up as a tool of political disenfranchisement.
Omar_el_Akkad  Ferguson  life-changing  resentments  police_brutality  structural_change  inequality  segregation  disenfranchisement  fault_lines  municipalities  institutional_path_dependency  imbalances 
december 2014 by jerryking
N.Y. Military Museum Recognizes the Harlem Hellfighters - WSJ
by Leslie Brody Nov. 28, 2014

They were in heroes in France during World War I, only to be treated as second-class citizens when they returned to New York.

Now, the Harlem Hellfighters, a black infantry regiment that won awards for valor, are getting a new life online thanks to a project posting their personnel records on a museum website....The unit was originally formed as the 15th Colored Regiment of the New York National Guard, according to New York University Professor Jeffrey Sammons. Started in 1916, it was the first black National Guard unit recognized by New York, and one of the few black regiments that saw combat during World War I.

Because of racism in the military, the unit was kept separate from the rest of the state’s National Guard and trained separately, according to Mr. Sammons, co-author of a book on the subject, “Harlem’s Rattlers and the Great War: The Undaunted 369th Regiment and the African American Quest for Equality.”

The unit was sent to Europe to dig ditches, unload ships and build railroads but was deployed in combat in 1918 when the French military needed reinforcements, Mr. Sammons said.

He said the entire regiment won the high honor of a Croix de Guerre from the French government for its distinguished service, but then came home to have a parade in New York City that was separate from other events for returning veterans.
WWI  African-Americans  segregation  New_York_City  museums  heroes  France  second-class_citizenship 
november 2014 by jerryking
A More Honest History Lesson
July 31, 1989 | TIME | Edward M. Gomez.

the little museum has become one of the most innovative and carefully watched institutions of its kind in the U.S. Embracing the city's past in the belief that no part of it should be overlooked, the Valentine relates the "story of a real city,instead of some abstraction." notes the monthly Richmond Review. Through an intelligent and careful study of the Jim Crow era. it helps audiences understand the thinking of those who practiced the unacceptable.
history  Richmond  African-Americans  segregation  Jim_Crow  the_South  Reconstruction  museums  exhibitions 
september 2012 by jerryking
School Colors - WSJ.com
February 5, 2003 | WSJ | editorials.

A recent study by the Civil Rights Project, a liberal outfit housed at Harvard, uses the racial composition of inner-city schools to allege that the U.S. is undergoing resegregation. Our reading is that their findings say much more about the state of inner-city public education.

For starters, the U.S. is less segregated today than ever before....The racial makeup of our schools results not from the return of Bull Connor but from economics, immigration and birth rates. Middle-class blacks, whose ranks continue to grow, have moved into mixed neighborhoods.

Left behind in the major big cities is a minority underclass, whose numbers are inflated by recent arrivals who traditionally settle first among their own ethnic groups. During the 1990s, 11 million foreigners immigrated to the U.S., and more than half came from Latin America. Poor minorities are also the youngest members of our society. And they're having most of the children, which explains their high enrollment numbers. White enrollment rates have been steadily declining for decades.

The answer to today's increasing self-segregation is to fix the inner-city schools. Their dreadful quality is a major motive behind white -- and now middle-class black -- flight.
editorials  segregation  schools  urban  cities  public_education  underclass  self-segregation  African-Americans  middle_class 
august 2012 by jerryking
The test
January-February 2009 | This Magazine | Andrew Wallace.

Africentric schools could be the key to success for a generation at risk. (Just don't call it segregation.)
African_Canadians  Afrocentric  schools  Toronto  TDSB  segregation 
march 2012 by jerryking
Separating races is not the answer
Oct 12, 2005 |The Globe and Mail. pg. A.22 |

...And why does it want this? Because black youths are shooting one another in the street. Ergo, says the coalition, society is failing black people. The school system, the justice system and the police are failing them. Even multiculturalism is failing them, because it presupposes an open society of equals rather than the real world in which blacks face racism and discrimination. Multiculturalism "doesn't allow us to focus on communities that are in crisis and need a targeted approach," Margaret Parsons, the executive director of the African Canadian Legal Clinic, told a Toronto newspaper. "It does not address racism."

This is quite stunning. Agencies that have been sitting on the sidelines for years have decided within two months that they have the answer. When community activist Dudley Laws declared in the summer of 2001 that at least 94 black youths had been killed by other black youths since 1996, the silence from black community groups was deafening. Now those groups wish to pick up their ball and bat and go home.

Segregating people by race, voluntary or otherwise, is not a solution. It compounds the problems of poverty, exclusion and related pathologies, including rampant fatherlessness and its flip side, out-of-control youth. Creating separate offices and separate schools, and tearing down behavioural codes that apply to everyone, will send a destructive message to everyone: that people do not have to live together, that separate is not so bad as long as it is equal.
ProQuest  in_the_real_world  segregation  African_Canadians  violence  killings  silence  editorials  dysfunction  fatherhood  family_breakdown 
november 2011 by jerryking
Jaye's Rant 7: An Afro-Centric Solution - SkyscraperCity
29th, 2008 |Jelani Laws

Jaye's Rant 7: An Afro-Centric Solution
An Afro-centric Solution

By: Jelani Laws
Afrocentric  schools  African_Canadians  race  TDSB  segregation 
november 2011 by jerryking
Her Formula for Success - WSJ.com
APRIL 23, 2003|WSJ|By NICHOLAS VON HOFFMAN.
HER DREAM OF DREAMS

By Beverly Lowry
(Knopf, 481 pages, $27.50)

To appreciate Madam Walker's accomplishments, you have to know what she was up against. The barriers of sex, tough as they were, do not compare with those of race. Post-slavery America, Madam's America, was a society of unremitting violence toward black people. Readers will learn, for instance, that when toting up the annual white-on-black killing statistics, the statisticians of the time paused to ponder whether a man who had a heart attack running from the dogs set on him belonged in the lynched, murdered or accidental-death column.
heart_attacks  personal_care_products  segregation  women  trailblazers  African-Americans  moguls  book_reviews  C.J.Walker  the_South  Jim_Crow  hair  personal_grooming  entrepreneur  racial_violence  lynchings  terror 
november 2011 by jerryking
Idea of ‘Africentric lens’ at Oakwood Collegiate called short-sighted - The Globe and Mail
MARCUS GEE | Columnist profile | E-mail
From Tuesday's Globe and Mail
Published Monday, Mar. 28, 2011 8:54PM EDT
Last updated Thursday, Mar. 31, 2011
TDSB  Marcus_Gee  Afrocentric  schools  students  achievement_gaps  segregation 
april 2011 by jerryking
TDSB withdraws plans for Africentric high school - The Globe and Mail
KATE HAMMER
Published Wednesday, Mar. 30, 2011
Beth Davey, co-chair of Oakwood Collegiate’s school council, said that
students unanimously favoured introducing Africentric elements to the
curriculum over opening a “school inside a school.”

She also expressed concern over the Africentric school’s mandate to
reach underachieving students.

“Most students don’t want to blend their day-to-day with a critical mass
of underachieving kids.”
TDSB  Afrocentric  high_schools  proposals  Toronto  African_Canadians  segregation 
april 2011 by jerryking
EDUCATION: Africentric school short of older students
March 11, 2009 G&M article by KATE HAMMER

Africentric school short of older students
Although junior classes attracting pupils, figures show only six registered for Grade 5 at alternative facility.
Toronto  education  African_Canadians  schools  Afrocentric  segregation 
march 2009 by jerryking
Separation Anxiety
Nov. 30, 2007 WSJ op-ed by by ABIGAIL THERNSTROM AND STEPHAN
THERNSTROM. Column looks at whether historically black colleges are good
for blacks.
education  African-Americans  Colleges_&_Universities  segregation  HBCUs  Jim_Crow  graduation_rates 
january 2009 by jerryking
BAD IDEAS 101: School by skin colour
Nov. 7, 2007 G&M editorial that argues Afrocentric
education as a way of closing the achievement gap with white children,
is a misguided idea.
Afrocentric  African_Canadians  education  schools  segregation  race_relations  achievement_gaps  editorials 
january 2009 by jerryking

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