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juliusbeezer : geography   15

How apartheid killed Johannesburg's cycling culture | Cities | The Guardian
What happened to Johannesburg’s once vibrant commuter cycling culture? The dominance of the automobile marginalised the bicycle in many cities around the world through the 40s, 50s, 60s and 70s but that process was accelerated in South Africa by apartheid. When policies of spatial segregation forcibly moved black people to faraway townships at the periphery of the city, the distance between work and home increased dramatically and cycling collapsed as an everyday practice.

Twenty-five years after apartheid’s fall, those spatial and economic inequalities remain entrenched in the city and continue to shape how people get around.
cycling  africa  geography 
5 weeks ago by juliusbeezer
Scientists identify vast underground ecosystem containing billions of micro-organisms | Science | The Guardian
The Earth is far more alive than previously thought, according to “deep life” studies that reveal a rich ecosystem beneath our feet that is almost twice the size of that found in all the world’s oceans.

Despite extreme heat, no light, minuscule nutrition and intense pressure, scientists estimate this subterranean biosphere is teeming with between 15bn and 23bn tonnes of micro-organisms, hundreds of times the combined weight of every human on the planet.

Researchers at the Deep Carbon Observatory say the diversity of underworld species bears comparison to the Amazon or the Galápagos Islands, but unlike those places the environment is still largely pristine because people have yet to probe most of the subsurface.
science  geography  environment  bio 
december 2018 by juliusbeezer
Christophe Guilluy — Wikipédia
Il travaille depuis la fin des années 1990 à l'élaboration d'une nouvelle géographie sociale en tant que consultant indépendant pour les collectivités territoriales.

Ses travaux en géographie sociale abordent les problématiques politiques, sociales et culturelles de la France contemporaine par le prisme du territoire6. Il s'intéresse à l'émergence d'une « France périphérique » s'étendant des marges périurbaines les plus fragiles des grandes villes aux espaces ruraux, en passant par les petites et moyennes villes. Il souligne que c'est maintenant 60 % de la population et trois quarts des nouvelles classes populaires vivant dans cette « France périphérique », à l'écart des villes mondialisées7.

Avec le sociologue Serge Guérin, il a mis en avant les « retraités populaires » pour signifier que la majorité des ménages de retraités est formée d'anciens ouvriers, employés ou petits commerçants qui habitent dans le périurbain et dans des conditions modestes, voire précaires8.

En 2004, son Atlas des nouvelles fractures sociales — coécrit avec Christophe Noyé — et, en 2010, Fractures françaises connaissent un réel succès critique, et plusieurs hommes politiques de droite et de gauche affirment s'inspirer des analyses de ce dernier essai9. Interrogé en mai 2013, Guilluy avance que « la France de la périphérie » se réfugie dans un vote protestataire. Selon lui,

« il n'est pas politiquement correct de dire que la majorité des Français se sent en insécurité face à la mondialisation. L'ouverture des frontières aux biens et aux marchandises, que ce gouvernement ne remet pas en cause, se traduit pour eux par la perte croissante d'emplois industriels et par l'augmentation du nombre d'immigrés. »
france  geography  politics 
december 2018 by juliusbeezer
The social ideology of the motorcar – Uneven Earth
The worst thing about cars is that they are like castles or villas by the sea: luxury goods invented for the exclusive pleasure of a very rich minority, and which in conception and nature were never intended for the people. Unlike the vacuum cleaner, the radio, or the bicycle, which retain their use value when everyone has one, the car, like a villa by the sea, is only desirable and useful insofar as the masses don’t have one. That is how in both conception and original purpose the car is a luxury good. And the essence of luxury is that it cannot be democratized. If everyone can have luxury, no one gets any advantages from it. On the contrary, everyone diddles, cheats, and frustrates everyone else, and is diddled, cheated, and frustrated in return.

This is pretty much common knowledge in the case of the seaside villas. No politico has yet dared to claim that to democratize the right to vacation would mean a villa with private beach for every family. Everyone understands that if each of 13 or 14 million families were to use only 10 meters of the coast, it would take 140,000km of beach in order for all of them to have their share! To give everyone his or her share would be to cut up the beaches in such little strips—or to squeeze the villas so tightly together—that their use value would be nil and their advantage over a hotel complex would disappear.
driving  urban  geography 
august 2018 by juliusbeezer
Fun shows how population in is spread. Source:
map  Canada  trivia  geography 
january 2018 by juliusbeezer
There and Back Again | The New Yorker
Seven hours is extraordinary, but four hours, increasingly, is not. Roughly one out of every six American workers commutes more than forty-five minutes, each way. People travel between counties the way they used to travel between neighborhoods. The number of commuters who travel ninety minutes or more each way—known to the Census Bureau as “extreme commuters”—has reached 3.5 million, almost double the number in 1990. They’re the fastest-growing category, the vanguard in a land of stagnant wages, low interest rates, and ever-radiating sprawl. They’re the talk-radio listeners, billboard glimpsers, gas guzzlers, and swing voters, and they don’t—can’t—watch the evening news. Some take on long commutes by choice, and some out of necessity, although the difference between one and the other can be hard to discern. A commute is a distillation of a life’s main ingredients, a product of fundamental values and choices. And time is the vital currency: how much of it you spend—and how you spend it—reveals a great deal about how much you think it is worth.
transport  urban  geography 
november 2017 by juliusbeezer
Driverless Cars Are Not a Panacea - CityLab
I fully agree that driverless cars will exacerbate spatial inequality. But I see it occurring in almost exactly the opposite way.

Driverless cars will do little to alter the basic factors and forces that have brought affluent people back to cities. What they will do instead is free up space on the urban periphery to house less advantaged groups and classes there. Driverless cars will open up cheap outer-edge land for low-cost development and make today’s “drive ’til you qualify” commutes look like a breeze. Rather than being used by a re-suburbanizing rich headed to far-flung luxury developments, driverless cars—or more likely, driverless busses—will extend the commuting range of blue-collar workers, service workers, and the poor. America’s metropolitan geography will come to look more like that of Europe or the developing world, with the rich clustered on the increasingly valuable land in and around the city center, and the low-income warehoused in the much cheaper land at the suburban and exurban fringe.
driverless  urban  geography 
november 2017 by juliusbeezer
The Bad News and Good News, if you want to be Holland.
The bad news is that, short of a zombie apocalypse changing the planet’s demographics in ways we can’t even imagine, your country will never have a 25% bike modal share, or rates above 60% in city centres, as the Netherlands does. Our countries were already quite different (ours having hills) but really parted ways in the wake of the war...

Like a lot of countries in Europe, the Dutch were left broke. So while we were pouring the boom-time surplus into freestanding houses outside of our cities, they were patching holes in city centres.

Suburban development was further resisted in the Netherlands due to their unique shortage of farmland. So where the Sydney region, for example, has housing on land without any rail service (all the land coloured black on the following map)…
cycling  australia  netherlands  SeparatistCritique  geography  urban  jbcomment 
november 2017 by juliusbeezer
Receding glacier causes immense Canadian river to vanish in four days | Science | The Guardian
The abrupt and unexpected disappearance of the Slims river, which spanned up to 150 metres at its widest points, is the first observed case of “river piracy”, in which the flow of one river is suddenly diverted into another.

For hundreds of years, the Slims carried meltwater northwards from the vast Kaskawulsh glacier in Canada’s Yukon territory into the Kluane river, then into the Yukon river towards the Bering Sea. But in spring 2016, a period of intense melting of the glacier meant the drainage gradient was tipped in favour of a second river, redirecting the meltwater to the Gulf of Alaska, thousands of miles from its original destination.
climatechange  geography 
april 2017 by juliusbeezer
Urban Form Analysis with OpenStreetMap Data - Geoff Boeing
Given OpenStreetMap’s vast repository of walking paths and bike routes, we can easily model how trip distances and times, routing options, and accessibility change from one network type to another. OSMnx has built-in shortest path calculators to find the network distance between any two addresses or points. Beyond the basic network stats common in urban morphology and design, we can just as easily calculate advanced topological measures such as betweenness centralities, clustering coefficients, PageRanks, etc. Such measures have arisen recently from the study of complex networks in statistical physics, and provide insight into a network’s structure, performance, and resilience. Consider three small network subsets in different neighborhoods of Portland, Oregon:
cycling  walking  maps  geography 
april 2017 by juliusbeezer
Seeking Spatial Justice — University of Minnesota Press
An innovative new way of understanding and changing the unjust geographies in which we live

In Seeking Spatial Justice, Edward W. Soja argues that justice has a geography and that the equitable distribution of resources, services, and access is a basic human right. Building on current concerns in critical geography and the new spatial consciousness, Soja interweaves theory and practice, offering new ways of understanding and changing the unjust geographies in which we live.
theory  geography  justice 
april 2017 by juliusbeezer
Appel à contributions (n° 35) : Infrastructures – Tracés
Axe 1 : Épistémologie des infrastructures

Quels théories et cadres d’analyse pour l’objet politique que constituent les infrastructures techniques ? Ce premier axe invite tout d’abord à réfléchir sur les infrastructures en tant qu’objet de recherche pour les sciences humaines et sociales, et en particulier la manière dont leurs effets structurels sont étudiés ou au contraire mis à distance ou encore tout simplement oubliés.
pqpc  writing  geography  theory 
april 2017 by juliusbeezer
Editorial Policies
ACME is an international journal for critical analyses of the social, the spatial, and the political.

Our underlying purpose is to make radical work accessible for free. We set no subscription fee, we do not publish for profit, and no ACME Editors receive any compensation for their labour. We note this not in self-righteousness, but as a way to foreground the practice of collective work and mutual aid.
openaccess  geography  journals 
september 2016 by juliusbeezer
The Cold War Is Over by Peter Hitchens | Articles | First Things
If the U.S. had China on the 49th Parallel and Germany on the Rio Grande, and a long land border with the Islamic world where the Pacific Ocean now is, it might be a very different place. There might even be a good excuse for the Patriot Act and the Department of Homeland Security and the FBI. If Russia’s neighbors were Canada and Mexico, rather than Germany, China, Turkey, and Poland, and if its other flanks were guarded by thousands of miles of open ocean, it might have free institutions and long traditions of free speech and the rule of law. It might also be a lot richer. As it is, Russia is a strong state with a country, rather than a country with a strong state. If it were otherwise, it would have gone the way of the Lithuanian Empire or, come to that, the Golden Horde.
russia  politics  geography  war 
september 2016 by juliusbeezer

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