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juliusbeezer : physiology   27

How spatial disorientation can trap pilots | Air Facts Journal
When we were well past ninety degrees of bank, I said to Max “I have the airplane” and, as he had been trained to do, he immediately removed his left hand from the control wheel, his right hand from the throttle, and pulled his feet well back from the rudder pedals, positively relinquishing control of the airplane to me. No big deal, just routine until I rolled the airplane back to wings level. His reaction was involuntary and violent as he crashed into the pilot’s door as the recalcitrant portion of his brain fought to remain “upright.”
physiology  aviation 
14 days ago by juliusbeezer
6 Ways Pilots Get Confused In The Clouds, And How To Prevent It | Boldmethod
There are six main types of vestibular (ear) illusions you can get in the clouds, and they're all related to the fact your eyes can't see the horizon, and your ears are telling you the wrong thing. Here's each illusion, and how to prevent them:
physiology  aviation 
14 days ago by juliusbeezer
Active Recovery Induces Greater Endurance Adaptations When P... : The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research
both groups performed 6 sessions of 4- to 6 30-second sprints interspersed with 4-minute recovery over 2 weeks. However, only ARG cycled at 40% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak during the 4-minute recovery periods, while PRG rested on the bike or cycled unloaded. After the 2-week training intervention, both groups improved 10-km time-trial performance to a similar extent (ARG: 8.6%, d = 1.60, p = 0.006; PRG: 6.7%, d = 0.96, p = 0.048) without gains in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak. However, critical power was increased by ARG only (7.9%, d = 1.75, p = 0.015) with a tendency of increased maximal incremental power output (5.3%, d = 0.88, p = 0.063). During the training, active recovery maintained V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and heart rate at a higher level compared with passive recovery (V[Combining Dot Above]O2: p = 0.005, HR: p = 0.018), suggesting greater cardiorespiratory demands with the active recovery. This study demonstrated that greater endurance performance adaptations are induced with active recovery when performing SIT over a short time frame.
cycling  physiology  sport 
september 2018 by juliusbeezer
BBC tells nation that cycling hard for just 3 minutes a week is best fitness regime - BikeBiz
Host Michael Mosley and researchers from Sheffield Hallam University conducted an experiment on high-intensity interval training, or HIIT, and found that cycling in just short bursts three times a week was as effective as long runs and mammoth walks.

Forty seconds of HIIT – a sprint away from the lights perhaps? – three times a week recorded a quantifiable improvement in fitness levels. That is just two minutes of exercise a week.
cycling  health  physiology 
february 2018 by juliusbeezer
Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?
Should I eat with 30 mins of exercise?
Studies offer mixed picture for both carbs and protein, but these authors suggest benefits may have been overstated
exercise  physiology  food 
january 2018 by juliusbeezer
How to get the best out of exercise | Life and style | The Guardian
Exercise does use up stored fuels such as glycogen and cause damage to muscle fibres. However, US researchers who reviewed previous studies in 2013 found a lack of evidence to support immediate post-workout protein consumption to prevent protein breakdown, boost its synthesis in muscles or increase muscle size. They also failed to find support for the purported benefits of eating carbohydrates soon after exercise to restore depleted glycogen levels.
exercise  physiology 
january 2018 by juliusbeezer
'Why do cyclists shave their legs?' - you asked Google and we've got the answer - Cycling Weekly
Specialized is famous for having tested a range of hairy questions in its “win tunnel” (including best hairstyle for long hair – it’s the plait/braid). It tested a number of athletes, pre shave and post shave – and found leg shaving saved on average 70 seconds, with individual time gains varying from a still impressive 50 seconds to 82.

Chris Yu, from the Specialized R&D team commented: “To put it in perspective, that difference is basically like going from a traditional round tube frame all the way to something like a Venge.”
cycling  physiology 
october 2017 by juliusbeezer
10 Things No One Told You About Long Distance Cycling — Angie Across America
Cycling long distance is like a holiday of sorts (going to and experiencing new places), except you are physically working hard to transport yourself from one point to another. And because you are burning calories by the hour, you will need food to fuel you. A typical male on an inactive day may require 2,200 calories. For each hour of cycling activity, he is burning an additional 350 calories per hour. If he rides six hours, he requires 4,300 calories (2,200 base calories + [350 calories per hour x 6 hours]). In order to fuel him for the ride, he needs 4,300 calories worth of food - and that means constantly stopping, buying and eating throughout the day. If he was driving, he would have only required 2,200 calories for the day. A typical inactive female on the other hand, requires 1,600 calories per day, and with each additional hour of cycling, she burns an additional 300 calories per hour. Six hours of riding sets her back by 3,400 calories. That too, is a lot of food and food costs money, so there you have it. It’s gonna cost more than three regular meals.
cycling  food  physiology 
october 2017 by juliusbeezer
Sorry Mate I didn’t See You or SMIDSY? :Hudgell Solicitors™‎
The SMIDSY, or Driver/Rider Failed to look properly, is by far the most common cause of crashes involving motorcycles. In fact it is the most common cause for all vehicle types with the second most common cause being ‘Failed to judge another vehicles path or speed’. These two factors contribute to nearly half of all collisions each year.

There have been numerous articles about how the eye works in relation to seeing, but the issue goes much deeper, right into our brains core.

This isn’t a motorcycle issue, it’s a human issue.
cycling  driving  psychology  physiology  road_safety 
october 2017 by juliusbeezer
Bicycle Crank Length: Invitation for Flames
The concept that all riders should be using the same length crank has the strength of being the status quo, but I fail to see any logic whatsoever behind it. Some have suggested that all cranks should be the same length because of something to do with the nature of the sport, the same way that baseball players all use the same length bat and tennis players all use the same length racket. But those are artificial limitations intended to force all players to compete on equal terms, not personal fit issues. Golfers use different length clubs depending on how tall they are, and runners use shoes that fit their feet -- and take whatever length stride suits them, with taller runners generally taking longer strides than shorter runners. Cyclists choose shoes, frames, and clothing that fits their bodies -- why not cranks as well?

If anyone can provide rational arguments that all cyclists should be using the same length cranks, I'd love to hear them.
cycling  physiology  science 
september 2017 by juliusbeezer
Bicycle Crank Length
one could begin this experiment by testing the subject with just three different length cranks. On this and all the following protocols, it would be desirable to do each and every test when the rider is completely rested so that only accurate and repeatable results are generated. An initial protocol would be to test the subject at 85% of his VO2 max with cranks that are 170 mm long and then two totally 'crazy' crank lengths: a test with ultra-short 50 mm cranks, and a test with ultra-long 300 mm cranks. And in each test, ergometer's seat height will be adjusted so that it will remain constant relative to the pedal position at bottom dead center (as measured parallel and along the actual or virtual seat tube). The subject will be allowed to self-select his own pedalling cadence, but during the test protocol, the subject will have a chance to try a wide range of normal cadences. The cadences that result in the highest sustained wattages (at 85% of his VO2 max) will be identified and the test rider will be encouraged to use the higher wattage cadences.
cycling  science  physiology 
september 2017 by juliusbeezer
Technical FAQ with Lennard Zinn: When it come to crankarm length - no easy answers |
I could go on for hours about how no decent crank length test has ever been done by anyone and why it is actually virtually impossible to do a definitive one. Rider adaptation to the crank over time is required for each crank length to ensure optimal performance, but, if adaptation is allowed, it then becomes impossible to ensure that the subjects have exactly the same fitness level for the testing of each crank length. And a proper scientific test is double-blind, so the subject doesn’t know what they are testing. But with crank length, the subjects can feel the difference, and the bike has to be set up differently and the cadences used have to be adjusted for the different crank lengths. So the test riders are tipped off, which can also skew the results and make it not stand up to scientific scrutiny.

So a clearly-explained logical examination of crank length and its relation to rider size may actually be about as good as can be done. There simply will never be a definitive test that will tell riders exactly what crank length will make them fastest. After doing lots of crank-length testing over a few decades, in and out of labs, the best thing I’ve settled on is simply to run numerous full-out climbing test on the same approximately 30-minute climb, year after year.
cycling  science  physiology 
september 2017 by juliusbeezer
How to pedal perfectly, according to Wattbike |
Wattbike’s Pedalling Effectiveness Score is inspired by the index of force effectiveness (IFE) which is an existing way of expressing mechanical efficiency during pedalling. IFE compares the gross force – the total force applied to the pedal – and the net force – the component of force that is tangential to the chainset. In other words, it gives the proportion of force you put out that actually goes towards creating torque and turning the chainrings.

Pedalling Effectiveness Score is calculated from Wattbike’s 100Hz force data as you ride. After measuring your net force and predicting your gross force, the Pedal Effectiveness Score function displays a real-time pedal stroke graphic alongside a target score graphic, including a colour-coded breakdown for each leg. This information is intended to provide the basis for adjusting your pedal technique until you’re cycling efficiently.
cycling  physiology  science 
august 2017 by juliusbeezer
Going the distance —how to ride further without breaking yourself |
Good article. Sensible advice. One thing I've found over the years is that it's well worth concentrating on not going too fast in the first hour, especially if you're trying to improve a time. Setting out on a nice morning, maybe with a slight tailwind, it's easy to feel fresh early on, ride a bit too fast, and get over-knackered later. "Hurry slowly" is the watchword.

In the first hour of any long ride, I consciously force myself to spin easily, changing down to a slightly smaller gear should I have the slightest inkling of morning friskiness. Only then, if I'm in a hurry, do I press on a bit, gently at first, putting in increasing intervals with a little aerobic effort. And it's only in the last 10-20% of the ride that it's advisable to attempt riding at maximum effort—your body will then tell you if that's not possible.

As I said to that gendarme who kindly wondered what I was doing stumbling round a village stadium in the dark (trying to find a tap to refill my bidon) : "Le secret de la longue distance ce n'est jamais faire effort." He then directed me to the gents at the back of the church.
cycling  physiology  food  exercise  dccomment 
march 2017 by juliusbeezer
Lessons on Aging Well, From a 105-Year-Old Cyclist - The New York Times
Conventional wisdom in exercise science suggests that it is very difficult to significantly add to aerobic fitness after middle age. In general, VO2 max, a measure of how well our bodies can use oxygen and the most widely accepted scientific indicator of fitness, begins to decline after about age 50, even if we frequently exercise.

But Dr. Billat had found that if older athletes exercised intensely, they could increase their VO2 max. She had never tested this method on a centenarian, however.
cycling  health  exercise  physiology 
february 2017 by juliusbeezer
Unofficial TCR Advice, Gearing
Despite the top end of most road gearing setups not being needed in the TCR, the lower end of the range will certainly be needed. How small the easiest gear should be depends on the average gradient of the steeper climbs, the cyclist's predicted climbing speed (which depends on the cyclist's available power and the current elevation), and the cyclist's preferred cadence.

Some climbs on the TCR 2016 route have sustained sections of 8-10% gradient at elevations above 1500 metres (e.g., Grosse Scheidegg and Passo Giau). To sustain 8 kph on a 10% gradient (a VAM of 800 metres per hour) requires about 200 watts for a rider with a system weight of 85 kg (rider + bike + gear), see this calculator. The effect of elevation is covered in the Determinants of Speed section (see the Environmental Factors page), which shows that available power is reduced by about 10% at 1500 metres altitude due to the reduced oxygen density, so producing 200 watts at that altitude feels similar to producing about 220 watts at sea level. This is likely to be around the limit that a typical TCR rider can sustain for an extended period during the event without causing excessive fatigue or when already fatigued. Having a gear that can be ridden at 8 kph is therefore advisable
cycling  technology  physiology  geekout 
september 2016 by juliusbeezer
10th Annual Congress of the ECSS - Plenary Sessions
The Wingate Anaerobic Test

The Wingate Anaerobic test is used world-wide and is considered the most popular test of anaerobic muscle performance. The test is based on cycling at maximal speed, for 30 seconds, against a high braking force. This force remains constant throughout the test but, because it is so high, the subject cannot maintain the initial velocity for more than a few seconds, before starting to slow down.
cycling  physiology 
september 2016 by juliusbeezer
Power Training Zones for Cycling | TrainingPeaks
The power training zones, described below, were developed by drawing upon fundamental principles of exercise physiology as well as approximately two decades of experience with power-based training in both laboratory and field settings. Some of the logic behind the development of this classification scheme is described below.
cycling  sport  physiology 
december 2015 by juliusbeezer
Summer Dreaming | Six training sessions to build cycling form for summer
So we asked two top coaches, Stephen Gallagher and James Spragg of Dig Deep Coaching, for six training sessions to build form for summer.

There’s something for everyone, depending on your objectives this summer: hill repeats for riders training for a sportive with lots of short sharp climbs, threshold intervals to perfect your breakaway riding, sprint drills, a high-intensity calorie burner, a sweetspot session to prepare for long Alpine climbs, and cadence drills.

All six sessions can be done on the road and specify the intensity according to Andy Coggan’s power and heart rate zones, based on a percentage of threshold power or heart rate – the maximum pace you can sustain for an hour.
cycling  physiology  sport 
december 2015 by juliusbeezer
Lactate Threshold 101 | Bicycling
you can find your LT with a do-it-yourself time trial.

Map a 3-mile route that you can ride without stopping. Strap on a heart rate monitor, warm up for 20 minutes, then ride the route at the fastest pace you can sustain. Recover for 10-20 minutes (ride back to the start of your route at an easy pace). Repeat the test. Your LT is approximately the average heart rate of the two efforts. (More accurately, it's 103 percent of that figure.) Jot down your times and average paces; repeat the test in eight weeks to see your progress.
cycling  physiology  sport 
december 2015 by juliusbeezer
The Basics of Lactate Threshold Interval Training | ACTIVE
Lactate threshold can be developed in several ways but one of the most effective is through intervals performed at or slightly below your LT heart rate. These intervals will boost your lactate threshold and functional threshold power (FTP), which is the highest average power, measured in watts, you can generate for one hour...
1. Find a relatively flat, low traffic road to perform your intervals. Your route should be free of traffic lights and stop signs. You cannot perform this workout effectively if you have to continuously slow down, stop or turn corners. If you can't find an ideal outdoor route, perform the workout on your indoor trainer.

2. Select a gear that allows you to train at 98-105 percent of your LTHR (95-105 percent of your FTP) at a cadence of 85 to 95 rpm during the hard efforts. You can self-select your cadence, but remember that a high cadence with relatively small gearing will place greater stress on your cardiovascular system while big gears with a low cadence will stress your musculoskeletal system. You may want to diversify your training by doing some intervals with a high cadence and others with a lower cadence.

3. Your goal is to build up to 3 x 15 minutes with 5 minutes of recovery between hard efforts; however, this is not set in stone. You can build up to 2 x 20 minutes with 5 minutes of recovery. You can also increase the number of intervals you perform in a workout and make them a bit shorter such as 5 x 10 minutes with 5 minutes of recovery between hard efforts. In addition, you can boost your fitness by incrementally reducing the length of your recovery period from 5 minutes to 2.5 minutes. For instance, you could perform 3 x 15 minutes with 2.5 minutes of recovery between hard efforts for a really intense workout!
cycling  physiology  sport 
december 2015 by juliusbeezer
Pacing in a self-paced world record attempt in 24-h road cycling - Springer
little is known about pacing in ultra-endurance performance (Abbiss and Laursen 2008). It is assumed that athletes in an ultra-endurance event adopt a positive pacing strategy where the athlete progressively slows down after peak speed is reached (Abbiss and Laursen 2008). In their review, Abbiss and Laursen (2008) mentioned positive pacing for triathletes (Laursen et al. 2005) competing in an Ironman and for cyclists competing in the 525-km ‘Race across the Alps’ (Neumayr et al. 2004). For other ultra-endurance athletes such as ultra-runners, recent studies investigated pacing in elite 100-km (Lambert et al. 2004) and 161-km ultra-marathoners (Hoffman 2014; Parise and Hoffman 2011) and recreational 100-km age group ultra-marathoners (Knechtle et al. 2015; Rüst et al. 2015b). Elite 100-km ultra-marathoners ran with fewer changes in speed, started the race at a faster running speed than slower runners, and were able to maintain their initial speed for a longer distance before slowing down compared to slower runners (Lambert et al. 2004). Winners in a 161-km ultra-marathon generally remained relatively close behind the leading runners before taking the lead in the middle half of the race and then avoiding slowing down as much as the other top runners in the latter race stages (Hoffman 2014). Indeed, in a 100-km ultra-marathon, the fastest runners were able to achieve a negative pacing in the last segment of the race (Knechtle et al. 2015). As far as age is concerned, 100-km ultra-marathoners aged 18-24 years were slower than athletes in most other age groups and there was no trend of slowing down for older athletes (Rüst et al. 2015b).
cycling  sport  physiology 
november 2015 by juliusbeezer
Why Cyclists Blow Through Stop Signs: It's Physics : TreeHugger
on a street with a stop sign every 300 feet, calculations predict that the average speed of a 150-pound rider putting out 100 watts of power will diminish by about forty percent. If the bicyclist wants to maintain her average speed of 12.5 mph while still coming to a complete stop at each sign, she has to increase her output power to almost 500 watts. This is well beyond the ability of all but the most fit cyclists.
cycling  pqpc  science  physiology 
september 2015 by juliusbeezer
Meghan Probstfield, Sara Towe Horsfall & Jan-Martijn Meij (eds), Music Sociology: Examining the Role of Music in Social Life | Peace News
A worrying 17% of Western adults consider themselves tone-deaf, when in reality at most 2% suffer from 'amusia'. A great music sociologist, Christopher Small, wrote that music is 'inaccessible to most, who must content themselves with the contemplation of someone else’s finished work. [All of us] are consumers of something we have not produced.' On the other hand in countries like Ghana and Bali, however, music making is an integral part of life, and high levels of skill are reached by all members of the group.

Music sociology needs to address problems like this, as well as how music figures in the marginalisation of minorities and subcultures. Large-scale textbooks on music sociology, such as this one, address minority cultures and identity, but they fail to mention why music is predominantly in the hands of the virtuosi and industry execs, albeit with some cottage industries arising from 'bedroom' music producers.
music  sociology  physiology 
april 2015 by juliusbeezer
What an RAF pilot can teach us about being safe on the road
At a traffic junction all but the worst of drivers will look in both directions to check for oncoming traffic. However, it is entirely possible for our eyes to “jump over” an oncoming bicycle or motorbike.

The smaller the vehicle, the greater the chance it will fall within a saccade.

motorbike in a saccade

This isn’t really a case of a careless driver, it’s more of a human incapacity to see anything during a saccade. Hence the reason for so many “Sorry mate, I didn’t see you” excuses.

The faster you move your head, the larger the jumps and the shorter the pauses. Therefore, you’ve got more of a chance of missing a vehicle.
cycling  driving  road_safety  physiology  psychology 
december 2014 by juliusbeezer
What If ‘Born This Way’ Is Wrong? -- Science of Us
“You say, okay, I’m going to get some gay people and I’m going to test whether their brains are different or something,” Walters said. “You already presume to know what is gay and who is gay. If someone has desires to act on it, are they in that study’s sample? If they act on it, but they don’t declare themselves, they don’t feel that’s who they are in their everyday lives, are they in the sample? If they’ve had both sets of experiences, are they in the sample? If someone says, I’m a lesbian, but boy do I get turned on by gay male porn, are they in that sample? It narrows the vast complexity and richness of human sexuality to think that there is some simple one or the other way of looking at it: gay, straight, this desire, that desire. And it flies in the face of both our history and other cultural experiences.”

Walters also invokes history in her argument against “born this way”–ism.
sex  physiology  psychology 
june 2014 by juliusbeezer

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