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Here's What's Become Of A Historic All-Black Town (Mound Bayou) In The Mississippi Delta : NPR
Teddy Roosevelt proclaimed it "The Jewel of the Delta."

Booker T. Washington praised it as a model of "thrift and self-government."

Mound Bayou, in the Mississippi Delta: a town founded in 1887 by former slaves, with a vision that was revolutionary for its time.

From the start, it was designed to be a self-reliant, autonomous, all-black community.

For decades, Mound Bayou thrived and prospered, becoming famous for empowering its black citizens. The town also became known as a haven from the virulent racism of the Jim Crow South.

"It's almost like it was an inverted or alternate universe, where being black was a positive thing," says Rolando Herts, director of the Delta Center for Culture and Learning at Delta State University.
history  race  inequalities 
yesterday by oripsolob
Segregation in the Armed Forces During World War II and the Double V Campaign || The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross
Two months to the day after Pearl Harbor (Feb. 7, 1942), the most widely read black newspaper in America, the Pittsburgh Courier, found a way to split the difference — actually, the newspaper cleverly intertwined them into a symbol and a national campaign that urged black people to give their all for the war effort, while at the same time calling on the government to do all it could to make the rhetoric of the Declaration of Independence and the equal rights amendments to the Constitution real for every citizen, regardless of race. And in honor of the battle against enemies from without and within, they called it “the Double V Campaign.”
War  race  history  inequalities 
yesterday by oripsolob
The Second Middle Passage || The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross
That second forced migration was known as the domestic, or internal, slave trade: “In the seven decades between the ratification of the Constitution [in 1787] and the Civil War [1861],” the historian Walter Johnson tells us in his book Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market, “approximately one million enslaved people were relocated from the upper South to the lower South … two thirds of these through … the domestic slave trade.” In other words, two and a half times more African Americans were directly affected by the second Middle Passage than the first one.
race  history  Economics  inequalities 
yesterday by oripsolob
The Truth Behind '40 Acres and a Mule' || The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross
It is difficult to stress adequately how revolutionary this idea was: As the historian Eric Foner puts it in his book, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877, “Here in coastal South Carolina and Georgia, the prospect beckoned of a transformation of Southern society more radical even than the end of slavery.”
War  race  history  inequalities 
yesterday by oripsolob
Nukes
See Ambrose in Perspectives (78-79). Seems to oversimplify Truman's understanding of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Did he REALLY not know these were civilian targets? Did the military really have a third bomb ready to drop? What about the option of dropping a demonstration bomb on a deserted island? Why wasn't that even mentioned?

Also, underplays the role of civilian authority centered on an elected commander-in-chief.

Ultimately, the absurdity of having nuclear weapons is never really addressed. In the end, why even argue over who decides or if there is a check on the president? Has this just occurred to people because of Trump? If there wasn't significant reform after Nixon, there wouldn't be any more political will. Plus, what about the Long Peace?

The protagonist in this story clearly signaled to his superiors that he had reservations about following orders. That alone disqualified him.

Former DoD Secretary Perry suggests the wisest course (having Congress declare war), but it comes down to a Constitutional struggle between the branches of government over control. But hasn't Congress effectively abdicated its war powers? No declared wars since WW II.
history  mythology  WWII 
16 days ago by oripsolob
Emmett Till’s Murder, and How America Remembers Its Darkest Moments - The New York Times
He walked into a store and it changed civil rights. That crumbling store has come to symbolize the struggle to address the nation’s racial violence.

MONEY, Miss. — Along the edge of Money Road, across from the railroad tracks, an old grocery store rots.

In August 1955, a 14-year-old black boy visiting from Chicago walked in to buy candy. After being accused of whistling at the white woman behind the counter, he was later kidnapped, tortured, lynched and dumped in the Tallahatchie River.

The murder of Emmett Till is remembered as one of the most hideous hate crimes of the 20th century, a brutal episode in American history that helped kindle the civil rights movement. And the place where it all began, Bryant’s Grocery & Meat Market, is still standing. Barely.
race  history  inequalities  Video 
26 days ago by oripsolob
From Blackface To Blackfishing : NPR: Mickey Mouse
Mickey's early appearances were just layered with markers of blackface minstrelsy.

SAMMOND: His facial characteristics, the gloves he sometimes wears, the way that he acts, his bodily plasticity, his ability to take punishment all are kind of markers of the minstrel that are actually - had - were kind of established by the time he came on the scene in the late 1920s.

"Turkey in the Straw"

Nicholas said these cartoons were not just inspired by minstrelsy. They were quite literally minstrels in cartoons that had the same structure as minstrel shows with real people. And the audience that's watching those shorts in those days, they understood them as minstrel shows. By the time Mickey Mouse debuts, vaudeville is already on the wane. But blackface didn't die. It just left the stage and moved over to this new medium.

...

Nicholas told me that in the script for "Dumbo," the lead crow was actually called Jim Crow.

...
"Coal Black And De Sebben Dwarfs," by the way, that short is part of what's now called the Censored Eleven - a bunch of Warner Brothers cartoons that have since been taken out of syndication for being too racist. So Coal Black was happening alongside Mickey Mouse and Bugs Bunny and Felix the Cat. But Nicholas said this newer version of blackface with these much more markedly racist caricatures, it's, like, so obviously racist that people just stopped paying attention to how racist Mickey Mouse and Felix the Cat were.

...
After World War II, the nascent civil rights movement and the advent of television changed the terrain for blackface again. "Amos 'N' Andy," that long-running blackface radio show, tried to make the jump to TV in 1951 only with an entire cast of black actors in those lead roles. But the show's blackface reputation preceded it. And civil rights groups, including the NAACP, successfully petitioned CBS to cancel the show. So it was gone after three seasons. The weird twist to that is there wouldn't be another TV show with a majority black cast for another two decades. That's "Sanford And Son" in case you were wondering.
...
And this isn't just about blackface. This is about the white fantasy of black culture generally, right? So I mean, that's where I see this coming from. It's that there's this is deep, deep fetishistic desire for temporary blackness or the benefits of blackness that then triggers an equally deep shame on the other side of it because they - people know it's wrong at some level, you know? I mean, how else do you explain something that just has been roundly condemned for generations and just keeps happening.

DEMBY: Which brings us to this phenomenon that people are referring to as a new form of blackface - blackfishing, you know, like catfishing
race  history  humor  NPR  Music  sociology  Social  Media 
27 days ago by oripsolob
'Unexampled Courage' Tells The Story That Inspired Integration Of U.S. Armed Forces : NPR
Isaac Woodard, Judge Jay Waties Waring (aristocratic descendant of slaveowners), and Harry Truman

Waring: "I had to decide whether I was going to be ruled by white supremacy or be a federal judge and decide the law."

Dissented in the landmark 1951 Briggs v. Elliott case.

Though the plaintiffs lost the case before the three judge panel which voted 2-1 for the defendants, Waring's eloquent dissent, and his phrase, "Segregation is per se inequality" set the stage for 1954 Brown v. Board.
race  politics  history  inequalities  War  NPR 
4 weeks ago by oripsolob
668: The Long Fuse
Chinese Restaurant Syndrome cooked up by Ho Man Kwok or "Hu-man crock of..."
restaurants  mythology  history  Food  Media  literacy 
4 weeks ago by oripsolob
Female slaveholders profited as much as men, according to a new book.
Married women, who under the legal doctrine of coverture were not commonly allowed to hold property once they had husbands, petitioned courts to gain economic rights to the enslaved people they had owned before marriage—and judges often agreed with their pleas.

The stories from WPA narratives show that from the perspective of the enslaved, female slaveholders weren’t much different from their male counterparts. Many of them were just as physically cruel as men, and they didn’t hesitate to make decisions to “sell away” enslaved people or their relatives. Stories of women who whipped enslaved people with nettleweed or fed enslaved children spoiled meat, and an entire heartbreaking chapter about the practice of separating enslaved women from their infants so that they could act as wet nurses for their mistresses’ offspring, make it clear that Southern women who owned people weren’t kind “mothers” making the best of a bad situation. “If we look carefully at slave-owning women’s management styles, we find that these differed little from those used by slaveholding men—and they rarely treated enslaved people as their children,” Jones-Rogers writes.
women  history  race  inequalities 
4 weeks ago by oripsolob
Bondage and Freedom | The Yale Review
Thus “goaded almost to madness,” and savagely brutalized, Douglass created a vision in which only violence could result, a condition in which he soon argued the entire nation would find itself. In Bondage and Freedom, Douglass still claimed that he fought Covey only from a defensive posture. But this time he attacked with a “fighting madness” and left no doubt that Covey deserved to be bloodied or even killed. This violence was for the good of the slave’s own soul, not merely a matter of natural right. “I was a changed being after that fight,” said Douglass the completely recovered Garrisonian. “I was nothing before; I was a MAN NOW. It recalled to life my crushed self-respect … A man without force is without the essential dignity of humanity.”
race  history  writing  Books 
4 weeks ago by oripsolob
The Faces of Racism | BackStory with the American History Guys
Nathan talks with historian Rhae Lynn Barnes about Virginia Governor Ralph Northam’s 1984 yearbook page and its link to a long and disturbing history of blackface minstrelsy. They discuss how white civic organizations used minstrel shows for fundraising, why the era known as Jim Crow is named after a minstrel character, and what must happen to prevent people from donning blackface going forward.
race  history  NPR  Podcast 
5 weeks ago by oripsolob
Ralph Northam interview: Virginia governor tells Gayle King "I'm not going anywhere" in face of calls to resign - CBS News
GAYLE KING: I know this has been a very difficult week for you in the state of Virginia. So where would you like to begin?

GOV. RALPH NORTHAM: Well it has been a difficult week. And you know if you look at Virginia's history we are now at the 400 year anniversary, just 90 miles from here in 1619. The first indentured servants from Africa landed on our shores in Old Point Comfort what we call now Fort Monroe and while--

GAYLE KING: Also known as slavery.

GOV. RALPH NORTHAM: Yes. And while we have made a lot of progress in Virginia, slavery has ended. Schools have been desegregated. We have ended the Jim Crow laws, easier access to voting. It is abundantly clear that we still have a lot of work to do and I really think this week raised a level of awareness in the Commonwealth and in this country that we haven't seen certainly in my lifetime. So--
history  race  mythology 
5 weeks ago by oripsolob
AP Explains: Racist history of blackface began in the 1830s
In 1848, after watching a blackface act, abolitionist Fredrick Douglass called the performers “the filthy scum of white society” in The North Star newspaper.

Blackface performers, he said, “have stolen from us a complexion denied to them by nature ... to make money and pander to the corrupt taste of their white fellow-citizens.”
history  race 
5 weeks ago by oripsolob
How Slavery Became the Economic Engine of the South - HISTORY
$1500 for an individual enslaved person becomes $250,000 in today's dollars, accounting for inflation.
history  Economics  Money  race 
6 weeks ago by oripsolob
Slavery in Antebellum Georgia | New Georgia Encyclopedia
As it turned out, slaveholders expected and largely realized harmonious relations with the rest of the white population. During election season wealthy planters courted nonslaveholding voters by inviting them to celebrations that mixed speechmaking with abundant supplies of food and drink. On such occasions slaveholders shook hands with yeomen and tenant farmers as if they were equals.

Nonslaveholding whites, for their part, frequently relied upon nearby slaveholders to gin their cotton [if they had any] and to assist them in bringing their crop to market. [They avoided relying too much on the volatile price of cotton, tobacco, etc]. These political and economic interactions were further reinforced by the common racial bond among white Georgia men. Sharing the prejudice that slaveholders harbored against African Americans, nonslaveholding whites believed that the abolition of slavery would destroy their own economic prospects and bring catastrophe to the state as a whole.
race  Economics  history 
6 weeks ago by oripsolob
Dodge Super Bowl Ad Using MLK Speech Draws Criticism | Time
Featuring Martin Luther King's speech, "The Drum Major Instinct"
Video  history  Corporation  car 
7 weeks ago by oripsolob
Do historians miss the ideals of assessment, as some have suggested?
“Explain how we know what we think we know.”

Mintz said he focuses on seven such goals in his own classes. His students should demonstrate or explain:

1) Mastery of essential facts, chronology and periodization.

2) Familiarity with significant historical controversies and conflicting interpretations.

3) How historians are able to reconstruct certain significant facts about the past.

4) The ability to form meaningful and researchable historical questions and construct “concise, sophisticated, compelling theses.”

5) The ability to locate, weigh and evaluate evidence, such as issues of authorship or bias, and assess arguments and construct logical and convincing interpretations, along with other disciplinary methodological skills.

6) Historical thinking, including the ability to describe how institutions, customs or social roles evolved over time and the capacity to understand the perspectives of historical actors, “including those we might find morally repellant.”

7) Connections between past and present in a nuanced, balanced manner.

This kind of transparency isn’t necessarily easy for historians. Panelist Catherine Denial, Bright Professor of American History at Knox College, said she has a mind that “intuits” historical thinking and for years assumed that her students’ minds “worked the same way.”

One of [the] favorite tools is a primary source analysis template inspired by a Wineburg’s call to make visible the invisible processes at work in learning history, and his observation that historians source, contextualize and corroborate historical information. To that list of tasks, Denial added, "observe," as, in her experience, both K-12 educators and college students "leap toward making meaning out of primary source material without first slowing down to make sure they really understood what they were seeing or hearing."

Her "SOCC" template asks students to examine a primary-source document for sourcing (its origins), to observe it, to contextualize it based on existing knowledge and draw hypotheses about its meaning, and to corroborate it with other primary and secondary materials and test their hpotheses.
history  education 
8 weeks ago by oripsolob
Dershowitz: Should Mueller report comment on noncriminal conduct? | TheHill
For example, if the collusion took the form of someone in the Trump campaign directing the Russians to hack the Democratic National Committee or the Clinton campaign, that might well constitute an independent federal crime. But the mere use by a campaign of material previously hacked by Russia would be as protected by the First Amendment as the use by the New York Times of material previously hacked or stolen by Edward Snowden, Chelsea Manning or Daniel Ellsberg.

So what would Mueller’s legal responsibility be if he came to the conclusion that members of the Trump campaign colluded with Russian operatives without committing any federal crimes? Would it be proper for him to include evidence of such noncriminal collusion in his report? Would it be proper for him to opine on the propriety of such noncriminal collusion?
constitution  history  election  politics 
9 weeks ago by oripsolob
665: Before Things Went to Hell
And one of the things that's so interesting when you listen back to all this stuff now is that they do not sound like the Democrats today. For instance, here's Senator Diane Feinstein from California. She was against the harsh restrictions of Prop 187, but at the same time she wanted to crack down on illegal immigration and she called for it on the Senate floor.

Diane Feinstein
There is simply no time to lose. Too many people are still able to illegally cross our borders and too few states, most notably California, carry the burden of having to support, educate, and often incarcerate, the hundreds of thousands who enter this country illegally each year.

Miki Meek
This is her in the mid '90s, and this next thing she says is eerily prophetic.

Diane Feinstein
Ladies and gentlemen, let me say to you what I, honest to God, believe the truth. If we cannot affect sound, just, and moderate controls, the people of America will rise to stop all immigration. I am as sure as that I am that I'm standing here now.
history  NPR 
9 weeks ago by oripsolob
Where Have You Gone, Barbara Jordan? Our Nation Turns Its Lonely Eyes to You
Back in the 1990s, a bipartisan team led by the charismatic Barbara Jordan came up with a solution to the immigration debate that would have fixed a lot the things we’re arguing about today. Producer Miki Meek tells the story. (31 minutes)
history 
9 weeks ago by oripsolob
Displaced: When the Eisenhower Expressway Moved in, Who Was Forced Out?
Mom lived at 623 S. Halsted.

Eisenhower Expressway built between 1949 and 1961. Displaced 13,000 people and 400 businesses.

Near West Side: "the community population of 50,000 includes chiefly persons of Italian, Mexican, Greek, Jewish, and Negro ancestry.”

“There was a tight-knit Greek community,” says Harry Lalagos, who was born in 1944 and lived at 642 S. Blue Island Ave. “Everybody knew everybody, and everybody had cousins and relatives that all lived in the same area. … My dad had a store down there, a grocery store and a restaurant.”

“Our doors were always open,” says Harry’s younger sister, Demetra Lalagos. “People were just popping in and out. … Everybody got along.”

But then came the expressway. “I remember the construction equipment digging down and putting in the overpasses,” Harry says. “If you were standing on the Halsted Street overpass and looking west, you would see the overpasses at Morgan Street and Racine, but it was just all dirt. And every one of the underpasses would flood from the rain. … We'd build a raft and just float around in there.”

The expressway wasn’t the only project that tore up Greektown and Little Italy. A decade later, even more people — including the Lalagos family — were forced out when the University of Illinois built a campus there. “That is what really broke up the Greektown area,” Demetra says. “It was a sad time.”

Their father was forced to close his business around 1959, and the family moved near North and Harlem avenues. “It broke his heart to move out of there, because it was his life,” Harry says.

Greektown’s surviving businesses shifted north of where they had been. “As far as the residential part of it, pretty much all of the people had scattered to different parts of the city,” Harry says.
history  chicago  sociology  inequalities 
12 weeks ago by oripsolob
The Flu Felt Around The World | On the Media | WNYC Studios
And it's actually not until pretty much the end of the 20th century that you start to have really scrupulous attempts to figure out how massive had the global toll been. And then the toll starts to jack up to somewhere between 75 and 100 million. I mean this whole parts of the planet that weren't even counted like most of Africa. As far as we can tell, there was no place on earth that missed the 1918 flu.

There are any number of reports to be found where an individual got on the subway in Coney Island and was dead by the time they reached the Upper East Side. It was hemorrhagic. People's bodies turned black. They had internal bleeding. They coughed up blood.

All the schools were closed in Baltimore. And his father ordered all the children to remain inside the house until whatever this is ends. So for months, they were locked basically inside the home and his job as a little boy was to sit in a certain place by the front window and keep a log of hearses coming down the street and see if you can identify how many caskets were pulled out of the neighbor's houses. Imagine that was his job.

AMANDA ARONCZYK: And yet incredibly, unimaginable as it may seem in today's breathless hype filled media environment, the overarching story of life on Earth wasn't big news.

LAURIE GARRETT: It's interesting because as the flu rolled out across the nation, it's remarkable when you go through old newspapers to see how little coverage it actually got. And I think everybody who's ever dug into the history of 1918 has been struck by this. There is only a, you know, a few newspapers that were really dedicated to the story. And of course there was no such thing as a science reporter or a health reporter. These were written by the same guy who yesterday was covering a brawl in a high school gym, you know?
history  War  Media 
december 2018 by oripsolob
John Dingell: How to Fix Government - The Atlantic
In December 1958, almost exactly three years after I entered the House of Representatives, the first American National Election Study, initiated by the University of Michigan, found that 73 percent of Americans trusted the federal government “to do the right thing almost always or most of the time.” As of December 2017, the same study, now conducted by the nonpartisan Pew Research Center, found that this number had plummeted to just 18 percent.
politics  constitution  Money  election  history 
december 2018 by oripsolob
From Great Depression to Great Recession (lesson plan)
From Great Depression to Great Recession (C/C):
Fireside Chats, Speeches, and Ideology in Times of Economic Turmoil in the United States​
lessons  history  Economics  politics 
december 2018 by oripsolob
Artist Vincent Valdez Made a Painting So Provocative This Texas Museum Waited a Year to Unveil It. Now It's a National Sensation.
As reported by the New York Times, the museum was extra cautious in presenting the piece, which it knew was potentially inflammatory. In order to prepare the community for the work, the Blanton and its faculty met with the Anti-Defamation League and the Austin school district and held roundtable discussions about the piece. It also reached out to local social justice groups, politicians, and other community leaders. (In an apparent oversight, however, it didn’t consult with the local NAACP chapter until earlier this month.)

“The painting calls us to gaze into the faces of evil and in so doing to gaze at ourselves—our capacity for hate and for violence, our collective history, and our fraught contemporary,” wrote Mónica A. Jiménez, from the school’s department of African and African diaspora studies. “Here is our American sublime: beautiful and terrible. We want to frantically turn away, but we cannot.”
art  history  race 
november 2018 by oripsolob
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