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Here's What's Become Of A Historic All-Black Town (Mound Bayou) In The Mississippi Delta : NPR
Teddy Roosevelt proclaimed it "The Jewel of the Delta."

Booker T. Washington praised it as a model of "thrift and self-government."

Mound Bayou, in the Mississippi Delta: a town founded in 1887 by former slaves, with a vision that was revolutionary for its time.

From the start, it was designed to be a self-reliant, autonomous, all-black community.

For decades, Mound Bayou thrived and prospered, becoming famous for empowering its black citizens. The town also became known as a haven from the virulent racism of the Jim Crow South.

"It's almost like it was an inverted or alternate universe, where being black was a positive thing," says Rolando Herts, director of the Delta Center for Culture and Learning at Delta State University.
history  race  inequalities 
yesterday by oripsolob
Segregation in the Armed Forces During World War II and the Double V Campaign || The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross
Two months to the day after Pearl Harbor (Feb. 7, 1942), the most widely read black newspaper in America, the Pittsburgh Courier, found a way to split the difference — actually, the newspaper cleverly intertwined them into a symbol and a national campaign that urged black people to give their all for the war effort, while at the same time calling on the government to do all it could to make the rhetoric of the Declaration of Independence and the equal rights amendments to the Constitution real for every citizen, regardless of race. And in honor of the battle against enemies from without and within, they called it “the Double V Campaign.”
War  race  history  inequalities 
yesterday by oripsolob
The Second Middle Passage || The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross
That second forced migration was known as the domestic, or internal, slave trade: “In the seven decades between the ratification of the Constitution [in 1787] and the Civil War [1861],” the historian Walter Johnson tells us in his book Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market, “approximately one million enslaved people were relocated from the upper South to the lower South … two thirds of these through … the domestic slave trade.” In other words, two and a half times more African Americans were directly affected by the second Middle Passage than the first one.
race  history  Economics  inequalities 
yesterday by oripsolob
The Truth Behind '40 Acres and a Mule' || The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross
It is difficult to stress adequately how revolutionary this idea was: As the historian Eric Foner puts it in his book, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877, “Here in coastal South Carolina and Georgia, the prospect beckoned of a transformation of Southern society more radical even than the end of slavery.”
War  race  history  inequalities 
yesterday by oripsolob
Derek Black and Matthew Stevenson — How Friendship and Quiet Conversations Transformed a White Nationalist - The On Being Project
Sociology Sal:
Retweeted Krista Tippett
This was a great episode. For #teachsoc it highlights ingroups/outgroups, stereotypes, and the importance of personal connection. #race
inequalities  sociology  race  Podcast  NPR 
3 days ago by oripsolob
Folk and Blues: The Tribulations of The Old Town School
"The school’s economic crisis, detractors say, is largely of its own making, due to a decade of mismanagement, lost opportunities, misguided priorities and poorly timed decisions. For its part, the school argues that enrollment is down because guitar playing is out of fashion and because YouTube videos and School of Rock have crowded the marketplace."

...

A financial endowment is a donation of money or property to a nonprofit organization which uses the resulting investment income for a specific purpose.

Usually the endowment is structured so that the principal amount is kept intact, while the investment income is available for use, or part of the principal is released each year, which allows for their donation to have an impact over a longer period than if it were spent all at once. An endowment may come with stipulations regarding its usage.
Music  chicago  Money  race  labor 
25 days ago by oripsolob
Emmett Till’s Murder, and How America Remembers Its Darkest Moments - The New York Times
He walked into a store and it changed civil rights. That crumbling store has come to symbolize the struggle to address the nation’s racial violence.

MONEY, Miss. — Along the edge of Money Road, across from the railroad tracks, an old grocery store rots.

In August 1955, a 14-year-old black boy visiting from Chicago walked in to buy candy. After being accused of whistling at the white woman behind the counter, he was later kidnapped, tortured, lynched and dumped in the Tallahatchie River.

The murder of Emmett Till is remembered as one of the most hideous hate crimes of the 20th century, a brutal episode in American history that helped kindle the civil rights movement. And the place where it all began, Bryant’s Grocery & Meat Market, is still standing. Barely.
race  history  inequalities  Video 
26 days ago by oripsolob
From Blackface To Blackfishing : NPR: Mickey Mouse
Mickey's early appearances were just layered with markers of blackface minstrelsy.

SAMMOND: His facial characteristics, the gloves he sometimes wears, the way that he acts, his bodily plasticity, his ability to take punishment all are kind of markers of the minstrel that are actually - had - were kind of established by the time he came on the scene in the late 1920s.

"Turkey in the Straw"

Nicholas said these cartoons were not just inspired by minstrelsy. They were quite literally minstrels in cartoons that had the same structure as minstrel shows with real people. And the audience that's watching those shorts in those days, they understood them as minstrel shows. By the time Mickey Mouse debuts, vaudeville is already on the wane. But blackface didn't die. It just left the stage and moved over to this new medium.

...

Nicholas told me that in the script for "Dumbo," the lead crow was actually called Jim Crow.

...
"Coal Black And De Sebben Dwarfs," by the way, that short is part of what's now called the Censored Eleven - a bunch of Warner Brothers cartoons that have since been taken out of syndication for being too racist. So Coal Black was happening alongside Mickey Mouse and Bugs Bunny and Felix the Cat. But Nicholas said this newer version of blackface with these much more markedly racist caricatures, it's, like, so obviously racist that people just stopped paying attention to how racist Mickey Mouse and Felix the Cat were.

...
After World War II, the nascent civil rights movement and the advent of television changed the terrain for blackface again. "Amos 'N' Andy," that long-running blackface radio show, tried to make the jump to TV in 1951 only with an entire cast of black actors in those lead roles. But the show's blackface reputation preceded it. And civil rights groups, including the NAACP, successfully petitioned CBS to cancel the show. So it was gone after three seasons. The weird twist to that is there wouldn't be another TV show with a majority black cast for another two decades. That's "Sanford And Son" in case you were wondering.
...
And this isn't just about blackface. This is about the white fantasy of black culture generally, right? So I mean, that's where I see this coming from. It's that there's this is deep, deep fetishistic desire for temporary blackness or the benefits of blackness that then triggers an equally deep shame on the other side of it because they - people know it's wrong at some level, you know? I mean, how else do you explain something that just has been roundly condemned for generations and just keeps happening.

DEMBY: Which brings us to this phenomenon that people are referring to as a new form of blackface - blackfishing, you know, like catfishing
race  history  humor  NPR  Music  sociology  Social  Media 
27 days ago by oripsolob
'Unexampled Courage' Tells The Story That Inspired Integration Of U.S. Armed Forces : NPR
Isaac Woodard, Judge Jay Waties Waring (aristocratic descendant of slaveowners), and Harry Truman

Waring: "I had to decide whether I was going to be ruled by white supremacy or be a federal judge and decide the law."

Dissented in the landmark 1951 Briggs v. Elliott case.

Though the plaintiffs lost the case before the three judge panel which voted 2-1 for the defendants, Waring's eloquent dissent, and his phrase, "Segregation is per se inequality" set the stage for 1954 Brown v. Board.
race  politics  history  inequalities  War  NPR 
4 weeks ago by oripsolob
Female slaveholders profited as much as men, according to a new book.
Married women, who under the legal doctrine of coverture were not commonly allowed to hold property once they had husbands, petitioned courts to gain economic rights to the enslaved people they had owned before marriage—and judges often agreed with their pleas.

The stories from WPA narratives show that from the perspective of the enslaved, female slaveholders weren’t much different from their male counterparts. Many of them were just as physically cruel as men, and they didn’t hesitate to make decisions to “sell away” enslaved people or their relatives. Stories of women who whipped enslaved people with nettleweed or fed enslaved children spoiled meat, and an entire heartbreaking chapter about the practice of separating enslaved women from their infants so that they could act as wet nurses for their mistresses’ offspring, make it clear that Southern women who owned people weren’t kind “mothers” making the best of a bad situation. “If we look carefully at slave-owning women’s management styles, we find that these differed little from those used by slaveholding men—and they rarely treated enslaved people as their children,” Jones-Rogers writes.
women  history  race  inequalities 
4 weeks ago by oripsolob
Bondage and Freedom | The Yale Review
Thus “goaded almost to madness,” and savagely brutalized, Douglass created a vision in which only violence could result, a condition in which he soon argued the entire nation would find itself. In Bondage and Freedom, Douglass still claimed that he fought Covey only from a defensive posture. But this time he attacked with a “fighting madness” and left no doubt that Covey deserved to be bloodied or even killed. This violence was for the good of the slave’s own soul, not merely a matter of natural right. “I was a changed being after that fight,” said Douglass the completely recovered Garrisonian. “I was nothing before; I was a MAN NOW. It recalled to life my crushed self-respect … A man without force is without the essential dignity of humanity.”
race  history  writing  Books 
4 weeks ago by oripsolob
The Faces of Racism | BackStory with the American History Guys
Nathan talks with historian Rhae Lynn Barnes about Virginia Governor Ralph Northam’s 1984 yearbook page and its link to a long and disturbing history of blackface minstrelsy. They discuss how white civic organizations used minstrel shows for fundraising, why the era known as Jim Crow is named after a minstrel character, and what must happen to prevent people from donning blackface going forward.
race  history  NPR  Podcast 
5 weeks ago by oripsolob
Ralph Northam interview: Virginia governor tells Gayle King "I'm not going anywhere" in face of calls to resign - CBS News
GAYLE KING: I know this has been a very difficult week for you in the state of Virginia. So where would you like to begin?

GOV. RALPH NORTHAM: Well it has been a difficult week. And you know if you look at Virginia's history we are now at the 400 year anniversary, just 90 miles from here in 1619. The first indentured servants from Africa landed on our shores in Old Point Comfort what we call now Fort Monroe and while--

GAYLE KING: Also known as slavery.

GOV. RALPH NORTHAM: Yes. And while we have made a lot of progress in Virginia, slavery has ended. Schools have been desegregated. We have ended the Jim Crow laws, easier access to voting. It is abundantly clear that we still have a lot of work to do and I really think this week raised a level of awareness in the Commonwealth and in this country that we haven't seen certainly in my lifetime. So--
history  race  mythology 
5 weeks ago by oripsolob
Smart Justice: An Animated Series on Vimeo
Three short videos: 1) Life w/o parole, 2) Life after incarceration, and 3) Bail
prisons  race  women  gender  inequalities  videos 
5 weeks ago by oripsolob
AP Explains: Racist history of blackface began in the 1830s
In 1848, after watching a blackface act, abolitionist Fredrick Douglass called the performers “the filthy scum of white society” in The North Star newspaper.

Blackface performers, he said, “have stolen from us a complexion denied to them by nature ... to make money and pander to the corrupt taste of their white fellow-citizens.”
history  race 
5 weeks ago by oripsolob
How Slavery Became the Economic Engine of the South - HISTORY
$1500 for an individual enslaved person becomes $250,000 in today's dollars, accounting for inflation.
history  Economics  Money  race 
6 weeks ago by oripsolob
Slavery in Antebellum Georgia | New Georgia Encyclopedia
As it turned out, slaveholders expected and largely realized harmonious relations with the rest of the white population. During election season wealthy planters courted nonslaveholding voters by inviting them to celebrations that mixed speechmaking with abundant supplies of food and drink. On such occasions slaveholders shook hands with yeomen and tenant farmers as if they were equals.

Nonslaveholding whites, for their part, frequently relied upon nearby slaveholders to gin their cotton [if they had any] and to assist them in bringing their crop to market. [They avoided relying too much on the volatile price of cotton, tobacco, etc]. These political and economic interactions were further reinforced by the common racial bond among white Georgia men. Sharing the prejudice that slaveholders harbored against African Americans, nonslaveholding whites believed that the abolition of slavery would destroy their own economic prospects and bring catastrophe to the state as a whole.
race  Economics  history 
6 weeks ago by oripsolob
Owned, A Tale of Two Americas | Gene Siskel Film Center
The dark side of the middle class ideal of home ownership, a bedrock component of the
American Dream, is explored with briskly-paced verve, giving this twisty tale of myth-making,
entrenched racism, and financial manipulation an urgent vibrancy.  The explosive growth of
post-WWII suburbia, exemplified by developments like Levittown, launched legions of returning
white G.I.s into a class upgrade that made them lords of the lawnmower and backyard grill,
while minorities were simultaneously being barred from the giddy prosperity party of the Fifties
by practices that included extensive redlining and covenant deeds that mandated racial and ethnic
exclusions.  Director Angelini (producer of MY FRIEND DAHMER) moves forward through
the decades to link house flipping, the McMansion craze, underwater mortgages, and the 2008
crash with the widening gap between the haves and have-nots.  DCP digital.
housing  sociology  race  inequalities 
8 weeks ago by oripsolob
Inside the GM plant where nooses and 'whites-only' signs intimidated workers - CNN
Boyd and other workers of color learned there was a coded language to talk about them, according to the lawsuit. White employees kept calling them "Dan." They thought some people didn't respect them enough to learn their names. But other colleagues told them it was a slur, an acronym for "dumb ass nigger."

The N-word was a regular part of life at Toledo Powertrain, where components are made for various Chevrolet, Buick, GMC and Cadillac vehicles, Boyd said. A white woman seen walking with him later found "Nigger lover" written on her pizza box.

It wasn't just Boyd and Brooks complaining. Another employee made a police report about the nooses and conversations about guns being brought to work. Others filed complaints with the Ohio Civil Rights Commission.

The commission, which enforces state laws against discrimination, announced the findings of a nine-month investigation last March: GM *did* allow a racially hostile environment.
race  sociology  Corporation  inequalities 
8 weeks ago by oripsolob
‘Super PAC’ Plan to Link Obama to Rev. Wright - Document - NYTimes.com
2012: A group of high-profile Republican strategists has put forward a plan that calls for running commercials linking Mr. Obama to incendiary comments by his former spiritual adviser, the Rev. Jeremiah A. Wright Jr., whose race-related sermons made him a highly charged figure in the 2008 campaign. What follows is the full proposal.

RICKETTS
election  race  politics 
december 2018 by oripsolob
Peter van Agtmael’s Eye on America - The New York Times
“There’s this pressure that war can be a shortcut to becoming a man that was appealing,” he explained. “I understood war was screwed up, but I also liked the idea of being respected for bravery,” he said, adding, “along with other dark and immature reasons.”

In his early stints, he said, he looked at the war mainly from the perspective of an American on the front lines. But he soon realized that the war was more about America in the Middle East and the people who lived there. Those people, he said, were the ones affected by it, the ones “who we generally refuse to see as three-dimensional human beings.”

As the wars continued, he said, he grew more interested in knowing what it was about America that made it “keep on fighting these reckless wars in reckless ways.”

In truth, he knew little about his own country.

“I started discovering America while on embeds in Iraq and Afghanistan because I was suddenly seeing a cross culture of race and class in American society that I hadn’t been exposed to growing up,” he said.
photography  conference  2018  War  gender  race  class 
december 2018 by oripsolob
How white racism destroys black wealth - The Washington Post
In the end, they were left with one number: $48,000.

That’s the amount the average home in a majority-black neighborhood is undervalued, relative to an identical home in an identical all-white neighborhood once you properly adjust for all the other structural and neighborhood characteristics that could plausibly affect that number. That’s the “cost of racial bias,” as the authors put it, “amounting to $156 billion in cumulative losses” accruing to black homeowners.
housing  race  inequalities  sociology 
november 2018 by oripsolob
Artist Vincent Valdez Made a Painting So Provocative This Texas Museum Waited a Year to Unveil It. Now It's a National Sensation.
As reported by the New York Times, the museum was extra cautious in presenting the piece, which it knew was potentially inflammatory. In order to prepare the community for the work, the Blanton and its faculty met with the Anti-Defamation League and the Austin school district and held roundtable discussions about the piece. It also reached out to local social justice groups, politicians, and other community leaders. (In an apparent oversight, however, it didn’t consult with the local NAACP chapter until earlier this month.)

“The painting calls us to gaze into the faces of evil and in so doing to gaze at ourselves—our capacity for hate and for violence, our collective history, and our fraught contemporary,” wrote Mónica A. Jiménez, from the school’s department of African and African diaspora studies. “Here is our American sublime: beautiful and terrible. We want to frantically turn away, but we cannot.”
art  history  race 
november 2018 by oripsolob
Walking-to-Work Stories: Heartwarming or Harmful? | On the Media | WNYC Studios
We begin this week's transit-oriented theme show with a story of Good Samaritans and gratitude. Specifically, the beloved, "heartwarming" media trope of the person who walks miles and miles and miles to work — usually out of heartbreaking necessity — and is rewarded for their perseverance with a car, or a bike, or at least an appearance on the 5 o'clock news. Uplifting as these tales may sometimes be, they are also "terrible," as Streetsblog national reporter Angie Schmitt explained to Brooke.
story  race  class  car  sociology  inequalities  NPR  Podcast  radio  Media 
november 2018 by oripsolob
Drunk History: "Charleston" :: Comedy :: Reviews :: Drunk History :: Paste
He’s recounting the truly inspirational story of Robert Smalls (Brandon T. Jackson), a former slave who leads a takeover of a Confederate ship and later enlists thousands of black soldiers for the Union army. (
history  Video  War  race 
november 2018 by oripsolob
Frederick Douglass in Full - The New York Times
Dependent upon abolitionist charity for his family’s daily bread, Douglass nonetheless chafed under a stifling Garrisonian orthodoxy that required adherents to embrace pacifism and abstain from politics. He charted a course away from all that by starting his own newspaper and openly embracing as household saints blood-drenched figures like the slave-rebellion leader Nat Turner and the white revolutionary John Brown, both of whom he classed with the founders.
Books  history  race  politics  War 
november 2018 by oripsolob
Opinion | What America Owes Frederick Douglass - The New York Times
Editorial by David W. Blight

"The very thing Your Excellency would avoid” — a race war — “in the Southern states can only be avoided by the very measure that we propose,” i.e., black suffrage, Douglass said. As the delegation walked out, the president was overheard saying: “Those damned sons of bitches thought they had me in a trap. I know that damned Douglass; he’s just like any nigger, and would sooner cut a white man’s throat than not.”

Douglass left a timeless maxim for republics in times of crisis: “Our government may at some time be in the hands of a bad man. When in the hands of a good man it is all well enough.” But “we ought to have our government so shaped that even when in the hands of a bad man we shall be safe.” Politics, he insisted, mattered as much as the air he breathed.
history  race  War  constitution  politics 
november 2018 by oripsolob
Schoolbooks and Slavery in 1864: Lessons in the North and South
When you visit Black Citizenship in the Age of Jim Crow, two of the first objects you’ll see are books: The First Dixie Reader, used in the South, and The Gospel of Slavery: A Primer of Freedom, used in the North. Both were likely used in schools to teach children to read; both were published in 1864, during the American Civil War; and both discuss slavery. However, the lessons on slavery in each book are completely different.

[digital copies of each are available]
history  race  Books  children 
november 2018 by oripsolob
How Black Citizenship Was Won, and Lost - The New York Times
“Black Citizenship in the Age of Jim Crow,” an exhibition about Reconstruction and its aftermath at the New-York Historical Society through March 3, doesn’t draw explicit parallels to today’s politics. But perhaps it doesn’t have to.

“The struggle over who has the right to citizenship and who belongs has been at the heart of American life over centuries,” Marci Reaven, vice president of history exhibitions at the museum, said on a recent afternoon.

Reconstruction can be a challenging story to tell, given how it cuts against deeply held American ideas about steady moral progress. It can also seem like a very abstract story, dominated by Constitutional amendments, legal battles and court decisions.
race  history  inequalities  constitution 
november 2018 by oripsolob
African Burial Ground Digital Diaries - New York National Parks
PBS film 55 minutes long

From the 1690s until the 1790s, both free and enslaved Africans were buried in a 6.6 acre burial ground in Lower Manhattan, outside the boundaries of the settlement of New Amsterdam, later known as New York. Lost to history due to landfill and development, the grounds were rediscovered in 1991 as a consequence of the planned construction of a Federal office building. A memorial at the African Burial Ground National Monument honors the memories of the estimated 15,000 enslaved and free Africans who were interred in the burial ground.
history  race  mythology  Video 
october 2018 by oripsolob
Large Majorities Dislike Political Correctness - The Atlantic
With the exception of the small tribe of devoted conservatives, progressive activists are the most racially homogeneous group in the country.

One obvious question is what people mean by “political correctness.” In the extended interviews and focus groups, participants made clear that they were concerned about their day-to-day ability to express themselves: They worry that a lack of familiarity with a topic, or an unthinking word choice, could lead to serious social sanctions for them. But since the survey question did not define political correctness for respondents, we cannot be sure what, exactly, the 80 percent of Americans who regard it as a problem have in mind.
politics  race  sociology 
october 2018 by oripsolob
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