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Iridium posts sharply higher revenue, forecasts decade-long capex holiday - Aug 2018
"With seven of eight launches completed for Iridium Next, its $3 billion second-generation constellation, Iridium is poised to begin a 10-year “capex holiday,” CEO Matt Desch said during a call with investors, projecting a reduction to $35 million in annual spending after the final launch. McLean, Virginia-based Iridium spent $132 million in capital expenditures the past three months, most of it on Iridium Next."

"... reiterated that Iridium is on track to complete the full constellation of 75 in-orbit satellites this year. "

"Desch said 80 percent of Iridium’s telecom traffic is traveling over Next satellites, of which 65 are in orbit. ... The full Iridium Next constellation consists of 66 operational satellites, nine orbiting spares and six ground spares."

"Iridium subscribers totaled 1,047,000 at the end of June, up 15 percent year over year, with commercial IoT subscribers counting for 576,000, up 25 percent from the same time in 2017. "

"Desch declined to describe pricing for the new contract Iridium is working on, but hinted that Iridium is pitching Certus, its new higher throughput broadband offering, to the government in addition to traditional services of secure voice, push to talk, and IoT narrowband connectivity."
Iridium  business  space  satellite  broadband  IoT 
august 2018
Picking Cherries in Science: The Bio-Initiative Report – Science-Based Medicine
The Bio-Initiative Report is the basis for AlignandShineDesign's claims about energems
health  science  medicine 
august 2018
Europe works on evolved LSA to accommodate 5G verticals’ needs | PolicyTracker: Aug 2018
Mueck claims eLSA is more similar to CBRS than to its older relative LSA. Like the US model, he says, it has included a new target user. “The prime focus has shifted from MNOs [mobile network operators] to verticals. It aims to make spectrum available to industries which are not able to afford current prices.”

"Wilzeck told PolicyTracker that many verticals would like to deploy 5G networks on their own without dependency on an MNO because local area applications do not really benefit from being in a mobile network."
LSA  ASA  spectrum-sharing  CBRS  PolicyTracker  ETSI 
august 2018
MEO startup Methera plans “high density” HTS constellation - aug 2018
"In medium Earth orbit, the only system providing satellite broadband today is SES Networks’ constellation of 16 O3b satellites. A British startup with its own 16-satellite constellation idea wants to change that. Methera Global Communications estimates it needs $500 million to build and launch a constellation of satellites each equipped with 40 gigabits of capacity to beam down Ka-band connectivity to highly concentrated areas. If successful, Methera will launch its first spacecraft in 2022, with service starting that same year."

" “Instead of trying to put a thin veneer of coverage around the globe, what we’re doing is looking at a small number of targets where we will put lots of capacity,” [CEO Chris McIntosh] said. Methera’s 700-kilogram satellites — the same mass as the first-generation O3b satellites — will hone capacity on extremely specific locations, targeting a small number of high-value customers "

"But positioning the satellites in medium Earth orbit means customers of Methera’s system will need advanced antennas that can track the satellites as they move relative to the Earth’s surface. ... O3b faced the same challenge and, finding flat panel, electronically steerable antennas commercially unavailable, started service in 2014 with terminals using two dishes ensuring a constant link for uninterrupted service. ... Methera is focusing initially on parabolic antennas as well"

"Methera has a pending application with the U.K.’s telecom regulator Ofcom to license its low-latency satellite system, McIntosh said. The company has not applied for market access in the U.S. with the Federal Communications Commission because the U.S. is not an area of initial focus, he said. "

"16 satellites in 18,000-kilometer polar orbits — about 2,000 kilometers below the U.S. Air Force’s GPS satellites"
SpaceNews  Methera  UK  NGSO  MEO  satellite  broadband  O3b  antennas  Ofcom 
august 2018
LightSquared Triggers Agreement With Inmarsat to Expand Spectrum - Via Satellite -
LightSquared has triggered a cooperation agreement signed with Inmarsat more than two years ago to acquire spectrum for LightSquared’s planned 4G-LTE satellite and mobile broadband network, the companies announced Aug. 18 [2010]
LightSquared  Inmarsat  Viasatellite 
august 2018
Why the Private Spaceflight Industry Needs More Lawyers (Op-Ed) Jul 2018
"We need law schools to prepare students for this infinite realm of property law regarding physical property, like the construction and use of spacecraft, space stations and even to attempts to colonize the moon and Mars. That preparation also extends to the vast universe of intellectual property. Law students also need to learn the mechanics of laws governing aviation and space travel, as well as personal liability and insurance. And existing lawyers need to expand their knowledge of these subjects, lest the commercial quest for space have nowhere to go because too many questions go unanswered."
opinion  space  law  education 
august 2018
FCC establishes procedures for 28, 24 GHz auctions, tees up 39 GHz for 2019 | FierceWireless, Aug 2018
The FCC established bidding procedures for the upcoming 28 GHz and 24 GHz auctions and proposed the next steps in getting the upper 37, 39 and 47 GHz bands ready for a single auction in the second half of 2019.
FCC  mmwave  FierceWireless  spectrum-auctions 
august 2018
The Silencing of Prison Legal News | The Crime ReportThe Crime Report, June 2018
Last month, the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals, which covers Alabama, Georgia and Florida, upheld the state’s decision to ban Prison Legal News (PLN), on the grounds that it carries ads for services that are prohibited in Florida correctional facilities.
law  prison  justice  PLN  press  journalism  FirstAmendment 
august 2018
Regulatory Monitors by Rory Van Loo :: SSRN
via Blake Reid, Jul 2018


Like police officers patrolling the streets for crime, the front line for most large business regulators — Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) engineers, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) examiners, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) inspectors, among others — decide when and how to enforce the law. These regulatory monitors guard against toxic air, financial ruin, and deadly explosions. Yet whereas scholars devote considerable attention to police officers in criminal law enforcement, they have paid limited attention to the structural role of regulatory monitors in civil law enforcement. This Article is the first to chronicle the statutory rise of regulatory monitors and to situate them empirically at the core of modern administrative power. Since the Civil War, often in response to crises, the largest federal regulators have steadily accrued authority to collect documents remotely and enter private space without any suspicion of wrongdoing. Those exercising this monitoring authority within agencies administer the law at least as much as the groups that are the focus of legal scholarship: enforcement lawyers, administrative law judges, and rule writers. Regulatory monitors wield sanctions, influence rulemaking, and create quasi-common law. Moreover, they offer a better fit than lawyers for the modern era of “collaborative governance” and corporate compliance departments, because their principal function — information collection — is less adversarial. Yet unlike lawsuits and rulemaking, monitoring-based decisions are largely unobservable by the public, often unreviewable by courts, and explicitly excluded by the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). The regulatory monitor function can thus be more easily ramped up or deconstructed by the President, interest groups, and agency directors. A better understanding of regulatory monitors — and their relationship with regulatory lawyers — is vital to designing democratic accountability not only during times of political transition, but as long as they remain a central pillar of the administrative state.
SSRN  enforcement  regulation  law 
august 2018
Satellite Constellations: Too Much of a Good Thing? - Northern Sky Research, Aug 2018
"LEO constellations, theoretically, benefit from economies of scale [but] it is crucial to recognize the point where the variable costs start to outweigh the fixed cost benefits, and the cost save turns into cost disadvantages, also known as diseconomies of scale."

"To support the production of satellite constellations ... will most definitely result in bottlenecks within the industry with further increase in internal diseconomies of scale for operators as well as for the suppliers."

"At a certain point, the additional satellites for the larger constellation continue to increase the costs but are unable to produce revenues at the same rate, resulting in a lower ROI for the 4,425-satellite [SpaceX] constellation."
NSR  space  satellite  constellations  economics  business  SpaceX 
august 2018
Commercial space bill clears Senate committee - Aug 2018
"The Senate Commerce Committee approved a bill Aug. 1 that would streamline commercial launch and remote sensing regulations but also includes language conflicting with a House bill. The committee favorably reported S. 3277, the Space Frontier Act of 2018, on a voice vote without any members speaking out against it. "

"The revised version leaves in place a section that gives the Department of Transportation, though the Federal Aviation Administration, the ability to use the payload review portion of the launch licensing process to authorize non-traditional space activities that are not overseen by other agencies. "

"The second [approved amendment], by Sen. Gary Peters (D-Mich.), calls on the U.S. government to develop “consistent standards across Federal agencies” to minimize the risks posed by orbital debris. "
SpaceNews  legislation  space  commerce  orbital-debris 
august 2018
Telesat picks Airbus Defence and Space as second constellation design partner - aug 2018
"Telesat awarded a second constellation design contract Aug. 1, choosing Airbus Defence and Space to begin studies on the company’s proposed system of 117 low Earth orbit communications satellites.

The contract follows a similar deal awarded July 30 to a team of Maxar Technologies and Thales Alenia Space."

"Airbus is already under contract to build 900 small telecom satellites for OneWeb, producing the first 10 in France before shifting production to a new $85 million factory in Florida."

"It is not clear what role OneWeb Satellites could play in building satellites for Telesat. Erwin Hudson, vice president of Telesat LEO, told SpaceNews earlier this summer that the satellites Telesat envisions will be materially larger than the 145-kilogram satellites OneWeb plans."

“They are more substantial, larger, more complex satellites than some of the other LEO constellations because we’ve got phased array antennas and onboard processing in addition to the [inter-satellite link] terminals,” Hudson said of Telesat LEO.
SpaceNews  Telesat  Airbus  space  broadband  satellite  business  antennas 
august 2018
National Space Council officials to attend WRC-19 spectrum conference -
"Michael Beavin, senior policy adviser at the National Space Council, confirmed the council “is planning to send folks” next fall to the four-week conference, referred to as WRC-19, in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt."

"The satellite industry fared better than expected at the previous WRC in 2015, protecting the majority of the 800 MHz C-band from mobile operators wanting the spectrum for cellular networks. The satellite industry also flustered the U.S. Federal Communications Commission by uniting against U.S.-led efforts to examine satellite Ka-band spectrum’s potential for 5G cellular networks. . . . Francois Rancy, director of the ITU’s radiocommunication bureau, said last November that C- and Ka-band look like prime targets for cellular 5G ‘harmonization,’ or coordinating the spectrum on a regional or global basis for a single purpose."

"FCC Commissioner Michael O’Rielly echoed the importance of satellite communications, but said he remained frustrated with the satellite industry’s deflection on Ka-band at WRC-15."
NationalSpaceCouncil  WRC-19  SpaceNews  space  spectrum  ITU-R 
july 2018
Telesat selects Thales-Maxar team for LEO constellation design work - Jul 2018
"Telesat on July 30 selected Thales Alenia Space and Maxar Technologies’ Space Systems Loral division to collaborate on the design of its low Earth orbit broadband satellite constellation."

"Telesat’s schedule for manufacturing and service activation has slipped by about a year. The company now plans to have the constellation in service in 2022, instead of 2021 as originally envisioned."

"Telesat says its LEO constellation will offer multiple terabits of secure throughput with latency low enough to rival fiber. Targeted applications include broadband to aircraft, boats and land vehicles, corporate networks, governments and rural connectivity. "

"Thales is the manufacturer for the 81 LEO satellites in Iridium Next, integrating the spacecraft with Northrop Grumman, and has a study contract with startup LeoSat for its proposed constellation of 84 broadband satellites. Maxar’s MDA division in Canada is a supplier to OneWeb for the company’s 900-satellite constellation. "
SpaceNews  Telesat  space  satellite  broadband  LEO  business  Thales  Maxar 
july 2018
Watch a Hacker Install a Firmware Backdoor on a Laptop in Less Than 5 Minutes - Motherboard Jul 2018
"This demo shows that “evil maid attacks,” hacks where an attacker has physical access to a target computer, are not as complicated as you may think. "

"In early July, security firm Eclypsium posted a video showing how Mickey Shkatov, one of its researchers, hacks into a laptop by opening it up, connecting a device directly to the chip that contains the BIOS, and installing malicious firmware on it—all in just over four minutes"
cybersecurity  vulnerability  hacking 
july 2018
Voting for
"VotingforJudges is a nonpartisan, impartial source of information about judicial elections in the state of Washington. The site was established in 2006 to provide information to voters in connection with the appellate judicial contests that year, and it has expanded to cover all judicial elections throughout the state. All of Washington's 2018 elections will be reported."
elections  voting  resources  judges  WA 
july 2018
Satellite EOL: Not One Size Fits All - Northern Sky Research Jul 2018
"A satellite launched in the 1990s was designed to operate for an average 12 years, a life expectancy that by the 2000s increased to 15 years. Many continue to operate for 18 years or more, but 15 remains the prevailing design life. Yet with operators seeking new strategies in today’s challenging market, and technology advancing at an ever-faster pace, could the 15-year GEO satellite life be a standard of the past?"

"NSR’s Satellite Manufacturing and Launch Services, 8th Edition, found that commercial GEO communications satellites in-orbit today have an average age of 8.9 years. Only 17.2% of current satellites are in the process of being replenished, indicating that a slate of new orders – or decisions to not replace aging satellites – are coming in the next few years."

"Many elements contribute to a satellite reaching EOL or experiencing a reduction in capabilities, but exhaustion of fuel most commonly drives the 15-year design life. As operators increasingly turn to electric propulsion, this driver will ease, enabling satellites to remain in station-kept orbit longer than with chemical designs. A more near-term solution to lengthen satellite lifetimes is to use in-orbit servicing vehicles, either for refueling or as a tug to provide station keeping."

"Interest in short, 7-8-year lifetimes has also emerged."
NSR  market-research  satellite  business  space  GEO 
july 2018
EO Investment Picture: Worth More Than a Thousand Words - Northern Sky Research Jul 2018
"The Earth Observation (EO) market has been in constant evolution and recently, it has transitioned from costly, large EO satellites to smaller, more nimble ones flying as part of constellations. Using many small satellites is enabling real-time earth monitoring and observation, and with this, increasingly large amounts of data are being produced every day. Additionally, medium resolution imaging (1 m. to 5 m.) is abundant, and its price relatively low and declining."

"This combination of price decrease and data profusion has created a business opportunity favoring the entrance of new players and the application of digital technologies into new business models,"

"Small satellite constellations with new sensor technologies have enabled data and imaging of the Earth in large amounts, thereby allowing for a new set of companies to arise at the intersection of low-priced imagery and digital technologies: data analytics.

And it is not by coincidence that NSR’s research found almost 90% of new space companies dedicated to EO are for data analytics; inexpensive imagery and digital technologies can deliver high value intelligence applications at a much cheaper cost."

"45% of new EO companies were founded in North America and captured 84% of total investments."

"Diving deeper into 2017, and more particularly into the dynamic North American market, NSR’s analysis shows most investor attention was focused on two companies: Orbital Insights and Descartes Labs. "
NSR  satellite  space  EarthObservation  remote-sensing  business  market-research  data-analytics  investing  EO  OrbitalInsights  DescartesLabs 
july 2018
Senate introduces bill to streamline commercial space regulations -, Jul 2018
"Three senators introduced legislation July 25 to reform commercial space regulations, including a provision that conflicts with language in a bill passed by the House. The Space Frontier Act, S. 3277, primarily focuses on reforms to regulation of commercial launches and remote sensing. It includes language calling for streamlining of processes for licensing launches and reentries as well as for licensing remote sensing spacecraft."

"Many of the bill’s provisions are in line both with Space Policy Directive (SPD) 2, signed by President Trump in May, and the American Space Commerce Free Enterprise Act, a bill that the House approved in April. "

"The Senate, though, differs with the House and the White House in one area, authorization of so-called “non-traditional” commercial space activities... The House bill gives that authority to the Commerce Department while SPD-2 endorsed more generally the creation of a “one-stop shop” for most commercial space regulations in that department. The Senate bill, though, would give that authority to the FAA, though the Department of Transportation."

"The Senate bill does have the support of the leadership of the House Transportation Committee."
SpaceNews  legislation  space  commerce  FAA  DoC 
july 2018
Google's Loon brings internet-by-balloon to Kenya - BBC News, Jul 2018
Google's sister-company Loon has announced its first commercial deal: partnering with Telkom Kenya to deliver connectivity to the region.
HAPS  broadband  Google  Loon  Kenya  BBC 
july 2018
FAA to Hold First Drone Advisory Meeting Since Recharter, Chairman Resignation - Avionics, Jul 2018
"The FAA Drone Advisory Committee will host its first meeting since rechartering Tuesday at the Santa Clara Convention Center in California. In mid-June, the FAA's advisory committee that provides advice on key unmanned aircraft system (UAS) integration issues was reestablished with a designated federal officer providing administrative support. The meeting comes after the group has faced a leadership shakeup and lawsuit."

"n the committee's new charter order, FAA Acting Administrator Daniel Elwell said meeting records and minutes will be available to the public subject to the Freedom of Information Act. Historically, while the main committee meetings had been open to the public, task group meetings were not."
Avionics  aviation  UAS  drones  FACA 
july 2018
Bridgesat and Nasa Sign Space Act Agreement for Laser Communications - Satellite data collection, bandwidth, ground network services , Mar 2018
"BridgeSat today announced an industry-first agreement with NASA designed to develop a commercialized laser-based free space optical communication system that could support the agency’s future missions as they transition to optical communications. "
BridgeSat  NASA  satellite  Communications 
july 2018
The Perils of Empathy - WSJ, Paul Bloom, Dec 2016
Dr. Bloom is the Brooks and Suzanne Ragen Professor of Psychology at Yale University. This essay is adapted from his new book, “Against Empathy: The Case for Rational Compassion,” which will be published next week by Ecco, an imprint of HarperCollins (which, like The Wall Street Journal, is owned by News Corp).

Appeared in the December 3, 2016, print edition as 'The Empathy Trap.'
psychology  morality  empathy  WSJ 
july 2018
A survey of the existence of GPS interference in Europe « Electronic Environment
"One of the objectives of STRIKE3 is the deployment and operation of an international GNSS interference monitoring network to capture the scale and dynamics of the problem, and to work with international GNSS partners to develop, negotiate, promote and implement standards for threat reporting and receiver testing."

"This article presents measurement results from a survey of the existence of GPS interference and jammers within Europe. The measurement started in the late March 2016 and ended in the beginning of July 2016. Interference detection equipment were deployed ‘as is’ in seven European countries; Sweden, UK, France, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Finland, see fig. 1. In total eleven different site locations are covered among these countries."

"there is a huge variation in the number of weekly events at each site, with some sites having only a few detections per week whereas others have several hundred ... The most active sites appear to be those next to major roads or in city center locations. These are also the busiest sites in terms of vehicles (which may carry jammers) and other sorts of activity"

", the greatest number of chirp type events (which are likely to be intentional and are associated with vehicle jammers) are seen at site 8 and site 10, with a significant number also seen at site 5. Those three sites are close to busy roads and hence that probably explains the high number of these types of events."
EU  Horizon2020  GNSS  GPS  cybersecurity  vulnerability  measurement  jamming  spectrum 
july 2018
A $225 GPS spoofer can send sat-nav-guided vehicles into oncoming traffic * | Ars Technica Jul 2018
Paper at

"A new proof-of-concept attack demonstrates how hackers could inconspicuously steer a targeted automobile to the wrong destination or, worse, endanger passengers by sending them down the wrong way of a one-way road. The attack starts with a $225 piece of hardware that’s planted in or underneath the targeted vehicle that spoofs the radio signals used by civilian GPS services. It then uses algorithms to plot a fake “ghost route” that mimics the turn-by-turn navigation directions contained in the original route. Depending on the hackers’ ultimate motivations, the attack can be used to divert an emergency vehicle or a specific passenger to an unintended location or to follow an unsafe route. The attack works best in urban areas the driver doesn’t know well, and it assumes hackers have a general idea of the vehicle’s intended destination."

"While the proof-of-concept attack is attention-grabbing, a variety of things significantly limit its effectiveness in the real world. "
1) "physical spoofer be in close proximity to the navigation device"
2) " works best when attackers have a general idea of the targeted vehicle’s intended destination"
#) "attacks aren’t nearly as successful in rural or suburban areas or against people who are familiar with the area in which they’re traveling"
ArsTechnica  GPS  spoofing  cybersecurity  navigation  spectrum-vulnerability  cyber-spectrum 
july 2018
Airlines to Take IFC Controls - Northern Sky Research Jul 2018
"NSR forecasts in its Aeronautical Satcom Markets, 6th Edition that the total satellite connectivity opportunity for IFC will reach $4.7 B in retail revenues annually by 2027 and most of it, roughly $3.8 B, will be generated from commercial passenger markets"

"To ‘share the load’ of IFC, airlines are taking more control over the interface where passengers (and sometimes 3rd party third-party payers in the hybrid model) are increasingly tapped to generate revenues. As service providers look to retreat from the expenses of paying for IFC in order to become more profitable, it is likely that the burden of costs will shift to airlines. "
NSR  satellite  market-research  broadband  IFC  aviation 
july 2018
LandSpace Unveils Highly Ambitious New Rocket - Via Satellite - Jul 2018
"The rocket was defined as China’s first medium-size liquid oxygen-methane launch rocket, and is designed to launch a 4000kg payload into 200km LEO, or a 2000kg payload into 500km Sun-Synchronous Orbit (SSO)."

"LandSpace ZQ-2 will be focusing on high efficiency and high cost performance, which LandSpace sees as the main concerns of the current aerospace market. "
China  satellite  launch  ViaSatellite 
july 2018
Earth observation startup Planet trims workforce by "less than ten percent" - Jul 2018
"Planet, the startup that operates the world’s largest constellation of Earth imaging satellites, laid off dozens of workers July 13. One source put the number at 38."

Per Jeff Foust, seem to be "shifting from developing its imaging satellite constellation to creating new commercial products based on the images those satellites provide"

"Planet was founded in 2010 with a small team and a big idea: to deploy an enormous constellation of cubesats to offer daily, global Earth imagery. The San Francisco startup, which grew to employ nearly 500 people, achieved that goal late last year with 200 satellites, including its own cubesats and larger spacecraft it acquired when it took control of BlackBridge’s RapidEye fleet in 2015 and Google’s Terra Bella constellation in 2017."
SpaceNews  space  remote-sensing  satellite  business  EO  EarthObservation 
july 2018
Epistemic uncertainty –
excerpt from John Ridgway's book review of "Waltzing with Bears", which is about software project risk management

"Do yourself a favour, ignore what the book says about risk analysis [for software projects] and go and buy a good book on Bayesian Methods and Decision Theory. You don't have to take my word for this, just type in 'epistemic uncertainty and Monte Carlo' into your Internet search engine and take it from there. In the meantime, here are some background notes to help explain my remark"

"epistemic uncertainty results from gaps in knowledge"

"Frequentist probability theory is used to analyse systems that are subject to aleatory uncertainty. Bayesian probability theory is used to analyse epistemic uncertainty."

"When Monte Carlo is used to model schedule risk, the [software] schedule uncertainties are being treated as if they are aleatory, even though they are predominantly epistemic. This is now considered to be unrealistic and is known to give incorrect results."

"Bayesian methods are appropriate in situations where there are gaps in information (i.e. where there is epistemic uncertainty). They involve the creation of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) to model causal relationships. Data is fed into the model to enable the probability of specified outcomes to be calculated given the current body of knowledge."
Bayesian  BayesianMethods  uncertainty  MonteCarlo  risk-management 
july 2018
Scenario Planning and Strategic Forecasting, Jay Ogilvy, Jan 2012
"Scenarios are alternate futures in which today's decisions may play out. They are stories with beginnings, middles and ends. Good scenarios have twists and turns that show how the environment might change over time."
Forbes  planning  scenarios 
july 2018
Enabling a GEO-NGEO Hybrid System - Northern Sky Research, Jul 2018
"The Military segment has, historically, primarily been served by GEO satellites for execution of critical applications, including intelligence gathering, navigation and communication. GEO systems, by nature, offer the advantage of significant coverage via a single satellite, especially with the advent of GEO-HTS satellites. On the other hand, latency and significant CAPEX have always been limitations of the GEO architecture. These drawbacks have given rise to the emerging trend of LEO and MEO constellations (NGEO) that can offer low latency and lower cost per satellite. However, constellations have their own set of constraints, with system complexity, ground infrastructure costs and frequency spectrum coordination, to name a few. Considering both, the shortcomings as well as the strengths of each system, could this perhaps be the start of an integration between GEO and LEO/MEO operators with a hybrid GEO-NGEO system on the rise? "

"Keeping the overall system costs low, however, is where it gets complex for NGEO framework. Although the manufacturing and launch costs per satellite are relatively lower, the need for a considerable number of satellites, the associated replenishment costs and the ground infrastructure expenses – all intensify the overall system cost."

"NSR estimates just over 1% of total revenues for gov/military will come from Non-GEO constellations by 2027."

"[TCO] is a key driver for NGEO constellations, military and otherwise, and is as well one of the biggest challenges for the operators presently. Simply put, either the expenses, mostly CAPEX, need to drop or the revenues need to grow for the business case to sustain. This is where a GEO-NGEO Hybrid architecture could prove pragmatic."

"Intelsat’s and OneWeb’s unsuccessful attempt towards a strategic alliance was one example of this hybrid system. GEO operators JSAT and Hispasat have similarly announced strategic investment in LEO constellations including LeoSat."

"Another level of integration, perhaps more technically innovative, and therefore challenging, is a system where GEO satellites can handle the TT&C operations for LEO constellations and act as the base station control system of the network."
NSR  GEO  NGSO  Intelsat  OneWeb  LeoSat  SES  O3b  satellite  constellations  military  DARPA  business  market-research 
july 2018
Quantum Amplitudes, Classical Ignorance & Quantum Information Processing | Saturday Mornings of Theoretical Physics, June 2018
Saturday, June 30, 2018 - 10:30
Martin Wood Lecture Theatre, Clarendon Laboratory

A major theme in current theoretical physics is understanding the implications of quantum mechanics for the dynamics of composite systems. When sub-systems interact, they naturally become correlated. In the 1980s it was realised that by exploiting the correlations between quantum sub-systems it should be possible to (i) break current cryptographic systems by rapidly decomposing large numbers into their prime factors, and (ii) exchange confidential information in the secure knowledge that messages have not been intercepted. As we have become ever more dependent on the internet these explosive implications of quantum mechanics for cryptography have driven efforts to build quantum communication channels and quantum computers.

On June 30, to mark the completion of the Beecroft Building, the members of the Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, who occupy the building above ground, and the members of the Quantum Information Technology hub (NQIT), who are installing kit in many of its subterranean laboratories, will join forces to explain the basic principles underlying the quantum dynamics of composite systems and to describe the challenge of implementing quantum computation and cryptography practically.

In the afternoon there will be three talks from NQIT, which is led by Oxford University. A general introduction to the programme will be followed by two talks about using ion traps and photonics to build a quantum computer. There will also have a chance to see the new labs via exclusive video and an opportunity to questions NQIT researchers.
Oxford  physics  quantum-mechanics  lectures 
july 2018
[pdf] Stimson SWF - roundtable report on space insurance, Jan 2018
“The suppliers of space insurance face steep competition and limited demand, so they currently compete to gain customers”

“… it seems that the structure of the space insurance market currently precludes any incentivizing from the insurers onto the operators”

“The British government has required such insurance and the power of the UK insurance industry to dictate behavior has been increased.”
SWF  StimsonCenter  space  insurance 
july 2018
Kepler to co-develop third satellite with UK’s Satellite Applications Catapult - Jul 2018
"Kepler Communications, a Canadian startup designing a network of 140 telecom cubesats, has teamed up with the Satellite Applications Catapult in the U.K. to build a third and final prototype before pressing on with the full constellation."

"Kepler plans to launch the prototype satellite during the summer of 2019, preceding the launch of the larger constellation later that year. "

"TARS will be the first satellite to include a narrowband communications payload to carry small amounts of data from numerous Internet of Things devices"

"Kepler’s Internet of Things focus is on devices that move around frequently and as a result have difficulty staying connected because of differences in cellular standards around the world. Instead of configuring those devices to work with multiple cellular networks, customers can use Kepler’s satellite system to stay connected regardless of location. "
Kepler  Canada  NGSO  business  satellite  IoT 
july 2018
Muddled meanings hamper efforts to fix reproducibility crisis : Nature News & Comment
Various definitions:
1. “Reproduction is taking the idea of a scientific project and showing that it is robust enough to survive various sorts of analysis”
2. "a finding is reproducible if another researcher gets the same results when doing exactly the same experiment"
3. "a reproducible experiment is merely one that has been published with a sufficiently complete description — such as detailed methods — for another scientist to repeat it"

“Reproducibility is shorthand for a lot of problems,” -- Jon Lorsch

"researchers at the Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford in California proposed three [expanded terms]: methods reproducibility, results reproducibility and inferential reproducibility, mapping roughly onto the three concepts described by Fang [above]."

"Victoria Stodden, a data scientist at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, makes the distinction between ‘empirical’ reproducibility (supplying all the details necessary for someone to physically repeat and verify an experiment) and ‘computational’ and ‘statistical’ reproducibility, which refer to the resources needed to redo computational and analytical findings"

"a white paper by the American Society for Cell Biology in Bethesda dismissed reproducibility as a catch-all term, and introduced a four-tier definition instead. According to this paper, “analytic replication” refers to attempts to reproduce results by reanalysing original data; “direct replication” refers to efforts to use the same conditions, materials and methods as an original experiment; “systematic replication” describes efforts to produce the same findings using different experimental conditions (such as trying an experiment in a different cell line or mouse strain), and “conceptual replication”, which refers to attempts to demonstrate the general validity of a concept, perhaps even using different organisms"

"a paper that aimed to distil best practices for neuroimaging outlined 10 levels of reproducibility in such experiments across three categories, called ‘measurement stability’, ‘analytical stability’ and ‘generalizability’."
reproducibility  definitions  semantics  scientific-method  NatureJournal 
july 2018
Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science | Science, Aug 2015,
"Reproducibility is not well understood because the incentives for individual scientists prioritize novelty over replication. Innovation is the engine of discovery and is vital for a productive, effective scientific enterprise. ... The claim that “we already know this” belies the uncertainty of scientific evidence. Innovation points out paths that are possible; replication points out paths that are likely; progress relies on both. Replication can increase certainty when findings are reproduced and promote innovation when they are not."
reproducibility  replication  psychology  ScienceMag  scientific-method 
july 2018
Chad Jones on Paul Romer's Contribution to Growth Theory
"The essential contribution of Romer (1990) is its clear understanding of the economics of ideas and how the discovery of new ideas lies at the heart of economic growth. The history behind that paper is fascinating."

"Here is the key insight: ideas are different from essentially every other good in that they are nonrival. ... The key is that nonrivalry gives rise to increasing returns to scale."

"Once you've got increasing returns, growth follows naturally. Output per person then depends on the total stock of knowledge; the stock doesn't need to be divided up among all the people in the economy. Contrast this with capital in a Solow model. ... It is very easy to get growth in an aggregate in any model, even in Solow, because of population growth. More autoworkers mean that more cars are produced. In Solow, this cannot sustain per capita growth because we need growth in cars per autoworker. But in Romer, this is not the case: more researchers produce more ideas, which makes everyone better off because of nonrivalry."
economics  history  Paul-Romer  growth 
july 2018
Antenna-makers Produce Multi-band Antennas To Serve Inflight Broadband | Aviation Week Jul 2018
"In June electronically-steered antenna (ESA) developer Phasor announced a partnership with Astronics AeroSat to produce scalable, dual-beam ESA-based aeronautical terminals that will operate seamlessly with existing geostationary (GEO) satellites and under-development non-geosynchronous satellites such as low Earth orbit (LEO) constellations."

“Our ESA aperture has the ability to be single-beam or dual-beam, so you can have a second, independent beam pointing at a different satellite, which gives all kinds of flexibility,” says Helfgott. “You can look at two satellites at the same time or, with the LEOs, you can do a make-before-break where you track a LEO satellite and create a second channel for a different LEO satellite traveling in a different direction.”

"A few days before the Phasor/Astronics announcement, ThinKom Solutions, whose mechanically steered antennas form the basis of Gogo’s 2Ku inflight connectivity service, said its technology is now “fully interoperable” with GEO, LEO and MEO (medium-Earth orbit) satellites."
AviationWeek  Phasor  antennas  satellite  broadband  GEO  LEO  ThinKom 
july 2018
Fixing planet plastic: How we'll really solve our waste problem | New Scientist May 2018
"Five countries in Asia – China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam – are responsible for 55 to 60 per cent of all the plastics that leak from land to ocean, according to a 2015 report by Ocean Conservancy and the consultants McKinsey. Another study in 2017 found that around 90 per cent of river-borne plastic was coming from just 10 rivers, eight of them in Asia."
NewScientist  plastic  recycling 
july 2018
Satellite operators view antennas as weak link in broadband business plans - Jul 2018
"As new high-tech satellite antennas start hitting the market, several satellite operators expressed concern that existing and future antennas won’t meet their needs."

"Last year Kymeta, the front-runner in flat panel antennas, started shipping its first units. Phasor anticipates starting production of flat panel antennas late this year or in the first half of next year, CEO David Helfgott told SpaceNews by email July 6. And several other companies intend to follow in 2019.

[Imran Malik, SES Networks vice president for the Asia Pacific] said he is confident that flat panel antennas will help take satellite communications from niche applications to a mainstream means of connectivity. Others didn’t share his view, however. "

"“Flat panels are nice to have, but the main problem is the throughput that you can achieve,” said Ken Loke, Eutelsat Asia’s chief commercial officer.” It’s great for airplanes, great for trains, great for cars also, but the amount of data you can put through it is limited based on the uplink capability. And of course, the price point is probably $1,500 to $2,000 per [unit], the cheapest you can get.”

Loke said Eutelsat is able to provide 70-centimeter antennas systems, including the modem and other components, for around $350. "

"SES in March announced investments into three companies — Viasat, IsoTropic Systems and Alcan Systems — to build flat panel antennas compatible with its next-generation O3b mPower constellation. Malik said SES’s goals for mPower are “to reduce the cost per megabit by tenfold, reduce the cost per terminal by fivefold, and also increase the throughput by at least tenfold.”"
SpaceNews  antennas  satellite  SES 
july 2018
Appreciator | Define Appreciator at
"To appreciate is to exercise wise judgment, delicate perception, and keen insight in realizing the worth of something. To esteem is to feel respect combined with a warm, kindly feeling."

"Examples from the Web for appreciator - Historical Examples" see especially "The Gate of Appreciation", Carleton Noyes"
"For the artist it is creation by expression; for the appreciator it is creation by evocation."
"Art exists not only for the artist's sake but for the appreciator too."

British Dictionary definitions for appreciator: "to feel thankful or grateful for, <i>to appreciate a favour</i>"
words  language  quotations 
july 2018
More Recycling Won't Solve Plastic Pollution - Scientific American Blog Network - Matt Wilkins, Jul 2018
The real problem is that single-use plastic—the very idea of producing plastic items like grocery bags, which we use for an average of 12 minutes but can persist in the environment for half a millennium—is an incredibly reckless abuse of technology. Encouraging individuals to recycle more will never solve the problem of a massive production of single-use plastic that should have been avoided in the first place.
recycling  environment  ScientificAmerican  plastic  politics  externalities 
july 2018
The rise of 'pseudo-AI': how tech firms quietly use humans to do bots' work | Technology | The Guardian
"It’s hard to build a service powered by artificial intelligence. So hard, in fact, that some startups have worked out it’s cheaper and easier to get humans to behave like robots than it is to get machines to behave like humans.""In 2016, Bloomberg highlighted the plight of the humans spending 12 hours a day pretending to be chatbots for calendar scheduling services such as and Clara. The job was so mind-numbing that human employees said they were looking forward to being replaced by bots. "
TheGuardian  AI  employment  start-ups  technology  business 
july 2018
National Academies Report Rips FAA’s Risk-Averse Regulatory Culture 
What the National Academies report is really saying here is that there can be no reward without some risk. This is something I have spent a great deal of time writing about in my last book, a recent book chapter, and various other essays and journal articles over the past 25 years.
TechLiberationFront  Adam-Thierer  risk  NationalAcademies  FAA  drones 
july 2018
Google Analytics Opt-out Browser Add-on Download Page
To provide website visitors the ability to prevent their data from being used by Google Analytics, we have developed the Google Analytics opt-out browser add-on for the Google Analytics JavaScript (ga.js, analytics.js, dc.js).
privacy  advertising  opt-out  tools  browser  marketing  cookies  tracking  Google 
july 2018
Your Online Choices | EDAA
Welcome to a guide to online behavioural advertising and online privacy.

On this website you'll find information about how behavioural advertising works, further information about cookies and the steps you can take to protect your privacy on the internet.

This website is written and funded by the internet advertising industry and supports a pan-European industry initiative to enhance transparency and control for online behavioural advertising. See here for further details.
privacy  advertising  opt-out  tools  browser  cookies 
july 2018
Solved: MF Toolbox doesn't work on Windows 10 - Canon Community
Re: MF Toolbox doesn't work on Windows 10

‎08-05-2015 08:15 AM

I Upgraded to Win 10 today, so I had this problem too.....however......

OK, so this isn't an exact substitute for the Toolbox....I have an MF4770n.

I did find Win 10 Drivers on this site, so maybe they are new additions.

Download and install the latest drivers for your MF4770n from this site. Restart your PC. Test printing.

Then go to the Windows App store, search "scan", find "Windows Scan" app, install.

At MF4770n load a doc to scan, select Remote Scanner,

At the PC, open Windows Scan App - it found the 4770n instantly on my system.

Use the drop down menus to select source, output etc. You can preview platen scans, not auto feeder docs.

Doc feeder worked to scan a 5 page PDF first try!

Works for me, hope it does for you.

Canon  howto  troubleshooting 
july 2018
July 2018 - On the EU's Space Program and new EU Agency for Space Proposal | Via Satellite
"The European Commission (EC), seeking to assert more control over European space policy, regulation and governance, has published a proposal for a regulation establishing the EU space program and the EU Agency for the Space Program."
ViaSatellite  EC  EU  space  ESA  Europe  EuropeanCommission 
july 2018
South Korea’s 5G auction stands up well to international benchmarks | PolicyTracker: Jul 2018
"Winners of the 3.5 GHz frequencies received a 10-year licence, while the 28 GHz frequencies have just a five-year term, both significantly less than is usually the case for 3G or 4G licences. However, the short terms do not appear to have acted as a brake on bidding."

"The 3.5 GHz result is equivalent to $0.19 per MHz per pop, comparable to the $0.15 per MHz per pop raised in the recent sale of 3.4 GHz spectrum in the UK. That was a contest in which the four incumbents faced competition from an outsider."

"Given the lack of precedent for mmWave band auctions, benchmarking is harder for 28 GHz, but not impossible. The Korean sale is equivalent to $0.0045 per MHz per pop. By comparison, the US Federal Communications Commission is proposing to sell off frequencies at 28 GHz in mid-November this year with a minimum opening bid of $0.002 per MHz per pop, half the amount raised in Korea."
PolicyTracker  South-Korea  5G  28GHz  3.5GHz 
july 2018
Blockchain Isn’t a Revolution – Member Feature Stories – Medium Jun 2018
The three communities share a basic set of design principles and technological foundations — but the people, goals, and prospects are almost completely distinct. Those involved don’t help much by sniping constantly about which is the “real” movement. So, let me try to clarify things.

There is cryptocurrency: the idea that networks can securely transfer value without central points of control.
There is blockchain: the idea that networks can collectively reach consensus about information across trust boundaries.
And there are cryptoassets: the idea that virtual currencies can be “financialized” into tradable assets.

The first truly is a revolutionary concept… but the jury is still out on whether the revolution will succeed. The second and third are game-changing innovations on the path to significant adoption… which are nonetheless essentially evolutionary.
Medium  bitcoin  blockchain  Kevin-Werbach 
july 2018
Statement: Review of spectrum used by fixed wireless services - Ofcom Jul 2018
This document sets out our decisions and forward plan for spectrum used by fixed wireless links for the next 5 years following extensive engagement and consultation with stakeholders. This sector already delivers a range of important benefits and this plan sets out our approach to continue to support growth in this sector and our priorities to facilitate future uses of fixed wireless links.

We are taking immediate steps to make changes to the regulatory regime in the 57–66 GHz range as well as making new spectrum available at 66–71 GHz.
Ofcom  mmwave 
july 2018
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