recentpopularlog in

pierredv : aviationweek   33

FAA Mulls Recommendations For Planned GPS Interference | Aviation Week Aug 2018
"The FAA says it is studying the recommendations a special committee issued earlier this year to better notify aircraft operators of planned GPS signal interference events caused by Defense Department testing."

"Loss of GPS in an aircraft equipped to report its position by automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) “Out,” a capability the FAA requires by 2020, causes that aircraft to be lost as a target for onboard ADS-B “In” systems, affects aircraft depending on satellite-based augmentation systems for precision approaches and presents a problem for the FAA’s strategy to decommission some secondary surveillance radars (SSR) as ADS-B becomes its primary means of surveillance. The FAA is considering decommissioning 80% of terminal radars as ADS-B equipage by aircraft operators increases, the TOC says."

"In May 2017, the FAA asked the TOC, a committee managed by standards organization RTCA, to provide recommendations on improving practices related to “intentional” GPS interference caused by military testing events. The committee did not consider other sources of GPS interference such as solar weather, illegal jamming or signal spoofing."
AviationWeek  FAA  DoD  GPS  aviation  air-traffic-control 
august 2018 by pierredv
Antenna-makers Produce Multi-band Antennas To Serve Inflight Broadband | Aviation Week Jul 2018
"In June electronically-steered antenna (ESA) developer Phasor announced a partnership with Astronics AeroSat to produce scalable, dual-beam ESA-based aeronautical terminals that will operate seamlessly with existing geostationary (GEO) satellites and under-development non-geosynchronous satellites such as low Earth orbit (LEO) constellations."

“Our ESA aperture has the ability to be single-beam or dual-beam, so you can have a second, independent beam pointing at a different satellite, which gives all kinds of flexibility,” says Helfgott. “You can look at two satellites at the same time or, with the LEOs, you can do a make-before-break where you track a LEO satellite and create a second channel for a different LEO satellite traveling in a different direction.”

"A few days before the Phasor/Astronics announcement, ThinKom Solutions, whose mechanically steered antennas form the basis of Gogo’s 2Ku inflight connectivity service, said its technology is now “fully interoperable” with GEO, LEO and MEO (medium-Earth orbit) satellites."
AviationWeek  Phasor  antennas  satellite  broadband  GEO  LEO  ThinKom 
july 2018 by pierredv
NextGen Reality Check: Problems Persist As FAA Installs Framework | Aviation Week, May 2018
"The infrastructure piece of the FAA’s NextGen air traffic control (ATC) modernization is “nearly complete,” Acting Assistant Administrator Pamela Whitley told an Air Traffic Control Association (ATCA) conference in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Other speakers described a U.S. national airspace system that has ongoing traffic-flow and congestion problems."

"Deployment of the nationwide ground infrastructure for automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) is complete. DataComm, a capability that enables controllers and pilots to communicate by text messages, is operational at 57 airport towers; it now is being deployed to en route centers. SWIM (system-wide information management)—a data-sharing backbone the FAA uses to make flight, traffic flow, weather and other information available to subscribers—continues to add services, Whitley notes."
AviationWeek  FAA  ATC  aviation  ADS-B 
may 2018 by pierredv
Startup Bringing Plasma Propulsion Technology To Smallsat Crowd | Aviation Week Ma 2018
"The miniaturization and commercial proliferation of cheap, high-fidelity electronics—everything from computers to cameras and GPS receivers—are revolutionizing the satellite industry, but a few components remain unique to space operations, including propulsion."

Combined, the broadband constellations would include about 9,000 satellites. Those, plus hundreds of smaller cubesat networks operated by remote sensing, tracking and data analytics companies like Planet and Spire, spurred King’s interest in developing a fuel-efficient, lightweight and low-cost Hall effect thruster for satellites in the 50-400-kg (110-880-lb.) range. "
AviationWeek  smallsats  satellite  space  propulsion 
march 2018 by pierredv
Biometric facial recognition boarding changing airport experience | Aviation Week, Feb 2018
The biometric facial recognition trial at Boston Logan International Airport (BOS) has proven so successful and popular that US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is actively exploring how widely facial recognition can be used at airports, a senior CBP official said.
AviationWeek  biometrics  surveillance  identification  aviation  travel 
february 2018 by pierredv
Based On Group's Recommendations On How To Remotely ID And Track | Aviation Week Dec 2017
"The FAA will craft a proposed regulation from the recommendations of a broad-based advisory group that met this summer to consider ways to remotely identify and track drones. However, the group ultimately could not agree on a weight or capability threshold that would trigger the tracking requirement. The group identified several technologies that small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) could use to transmit their positions, either by direct broadcast for local reception or through a network.

The agency released the final report of its UAS Identification and Tracking aviation rulemaking committee (ARC) on Dec. 19. "

"The process generated eight proposals for technology alternatives, which fell into two broad categories as either direct-broadcast or “network-publishing” solutions for position reporting."
AviationWeek  drones  UAS  FAA  identification 
january 2018 by pierredv
Eight Satellite Constellations Promising Internet Service From Space | Aviation Week, Dec 2017
"A number of in-development constellations of satellite telecommunications from low and medium Earth orbit (LEO and MEO) are set to pass milestones in 2018."
AviationWeek  Iridium  Boeing  LeoSat  OneWeb  SpaceX  Samsung  O3b  Telesat 
january 2018 by pierredv
ADS-B Out ‘Non-Complying Emitters’ Occupy FAA | Commercial Aviation content from Aviation Week
"Two years out from its 2020 mandate to equip for automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast “Out” (ADS-B Out) position reporting, the FAA is grappling with a significant number of avionics that were installed improperly. And aircraft operators are lagging in equipping for the requirement, presaging a rush on repair stations as the mandate nears."

"By Jan. 1, 2020, aircraft flying above 18,000 ft. or internationally must be equipped with GPS and Mode S Extended Squitter (1,090 MHz) transponders and lower-flying airplanes in domestic airspace must have GPS and 978 MHz universal access transceivers to regularly broadcast their position—the function called ADS-B Out. Thus far, the FAA has not mandated ADS-B In, the ability to display air traffic on the flight deck, which requires costly software and display modifications."

"In response to a petition by trade group Airlines for America on behalf of its member carriers, the FAA in August 2015 issued Exemption 12555, which allows airlines to operate through 2024 using GPS receivers that do not meet required navigation accuracy and integrity performance standards. But they still must install Version 2 ADS-B Out transponders by the 2020 deadline. "
AviationWeek  ADS-B  aviation  air-traffic-control  location  GPS 
december 2017 by pierredv
Aerospace Cybersecurity Challenges Need To Be Identified, Addressed | Connected Aerospace content from Aviation Week
via Dale Hatfield

"The situation illustrates the level of reliance that integral parts of the aviation ecosystem are placing on network connectivity, and the importance of ensuring those networks are both reliable and secure as the industry’s digitalization gains momentum."

"Aviation’s emphasis on systems safety through risk identification and mitigation is well-established."

Pete Cooper, Atlantic Council senior fellow: “Previously, aviation systems were relatively secure due to the bespoke nature of their design, isolation from other systems, and little in the way of communication protocols.”

"Among the [Atlantic Council] study’s key takeaways: Aviation’s march toward an increasingly digital future is opening it up to significant cybersecurity threats, and the industry must move purposefully and quickly to ensure that systemic challenges do not increase an already formidable risk."

"But the consensus among cybersecurity experts and aviation IT specialists is that, while secure systems are the goal, breaches are inevitable. That places the onus on recovery."
AviationWeek  aviation  cybersecurity  risk-assessment  risk-management  AtlanticCouncil 
november 2017 by pierredv
Drones More Dangerous Than Birds, FAA Collision Study Says | Aviation Week Nov 2017
The stiff structures and concentrated masses of batteries and cameras on small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will inflict more damage to aircraft structures than flexible birds, says the study by a consortium of universities under the Alliance for System Safety of UAS through Research Excellence (Assure).
AviationWeek  drones  FAA  UAS  collision 
november 2017 by pierredv
Inmarsat On Track With EAN Roll-Out, Despite Challenges | Aviation Week Oct 2017
"Inmarsat still expects the European Aviation Network (EAN) to be operational by the end of the year, despite an attempt by rival satellite operators to block it. "

"Inmarsat and telecommunications company Deutsche Telekom are developing the broadband offering, which uses both satellite and Long-Term Evolution (LTE)-based ground networks to provide high-speed inflight internet over Europe. International Airlines Group (IAG) became the launch customer for the service in March, and has indicated plans to equip more than 300 of its airlines’ aircraft to use it."

"But two other satellite companies are asking regulators to stop the EAN roll-out, claiming Inmarsat is misusing its grant of 2GHz spectrum by primarily deploying an air-to-ground network.
California-based ViaSat filed a complaint against the European Commission (EC) in April, which Eutelsat joined in July. The two companies have a partnership to offer broadband services in the European market."
AviationWeek  Inmarsat  DeutscheTelekom  LTE  aviation  broadband  ViaSat  Eutelsat 
october 2017 by pierredv
The Rise Of Two Brothers: The Slatterys’ Careers In Aerospace | Commercial Aviation content from Aviation Week
Few people ever make it to the top of large corporations; it is even less common to see two brothers rise to the top in the same industry. The Slattery brothers did: John is now president and CEO of Embraer Commercial Aircraft—the first non-Brazilian to run the company’s commercial aircraft business—and many predict he will one day also be the first non-Brazilian to run Embraer as a whole. Domhnal is the CEO of Avolon, which is well on its way to becoming the world’s largest aircraft lessor just seven years after he founded the company. Both are still relatively young CEOs: Domhnal turned 50 recently, and John is 48. They will have many more years in the industry, if they wish.
AviationWeek  stories  biography  people  aviation 
october 2017 by pierredv
Elon Musk Ready To Bet It All On BFR | Space content from Aviation Week, Oct 2017
plans to phase out his company’s successful Falcon rockets and Dragon capsules in favor of a reusable, two-stage, multipurpose super-heavy-lift launcher that not only can take on the satellite delivery and station resupply flights that keep SpaceX financially viable, but also fly crews and cargo to the Moon and Mars. The system, called BFR (an acronym for big f***g rocket) also could be used for suborbital, point-to-point travel between destinations on Earth.
Elon-Musk  SpaceX  space  AviationWeek 
october 2017 by pierredv
New Sensors, Payloads Expanding Small UAS Capabilities | Aviation Week, Sep 2017
Having widely deployed small tactical unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) across its forces, the U.S. military is moving to increase their usefulness through sensor upgrades and new payloads. The most numerous are Insitu’s ScanEagle, Textron Systems’ RQ-7 Shadow and AeroVironment’s RQ-11 Raven and RQ-20 Puma. And while the procurement peak is past, upgrades are continuing.
AviationWeek  UAS  military  DoD 
october 2017 by pierredv
Orbital ATK Sale To Northrop Marks Turning Point | Aviation Week, Sep 2017
"Orbital ATK is known for being ahead of its time, but for once it might be right on the money. Iconoclastic, visionary, sober, failed, successful—these and many other adjectives have aptly described the Dulles, Virginia-based aerospace and defense company founded 35 years ago. And for its stakeholders, including cofounder and CEO David Thompson, another will be added to the list: valuable. On Sept. 18, Northrop Grumman and Orbital announced that the former will buy the latter in a $9.2 billion deal. "

"Thompson and two Harvard Business School classmates founded Orbital Sciences Corp. on April 2, 1982, with the goal of making space technology more affordable and accessible. ... But during the late-1990s, big bets made on space-based imagery and data communications proved disastrous. Orbital-backed Orbimage and Orbcomm ventures were forced to seek bankruptcy protection ..."
AviationWeek  space  launch  people  stories  history 
october 2017 by pierredv
Intelsat General Corp. President On Epic’s Military Uses | World Satellite Business Week content from Aviation Week
"The launch of the fifth in the Epic constellation of Boeing-made satellites, designed for maximum flexibility with the ability to interconnect between three different bands, will also be able to transmit full-motion video from small UAVs used by militaries"

"Butler explains that Epic, a Boeing 702MP satellite, can connect spot beams to other spot beams rather than connecting through a gateway. “You can just pick two beams anywhere on the footprint of the satellite and say, ‘I want to go from here to here,’” Butler notes. "

"Ultimately, that means users such as the U.S. military can offer more services with the same amount of capacity as in a traditional wide-beam architecture. In addition, these high-throughput satellites are able to reduce the threat of jamming. "
AviationWeek  Intelsat  Boeing  UAS  UAV  surveillance 
september 2017 by pierredv
ANALYSIS: Administration's sloppy ATC rhetoric hurts chance for reform | Opinions content from ATWOnline, Sep 2017
"The ATC entity would be independent, like the US Postal Service (certainly no one’s idea of a private corporation), and be removed from the federal government’s annual appropriations process. That way, it could make large investments in modernization that may not necessarily pay off immediately, but would generate huge benefits down the line. And it could make course corrections along the way as technology evolved and changed without cumbersome legislative alternations. It is not turning ATC over to a private, for-profit corporation. And FAA would become the regulator of the ATC entity and no longer be in the odd position of regulating itself managing ATC. This is basically how ATC works in most of the industrialized world."

"There are two main groups opposed to spinning off ATC from FAA: 1) good-government liberals who are against “privatizing” what they see as key government functions and 2) the general aviation community, given voice by the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA)."
AviationWeek  opinion  FAA  ATC  aviation 
september 2017 by pierredv
Stratolaunch Completes Initial Engine Tests | Space content from Aviation Week, Sep 2017
"Stratolaunch Systems, the space launch carrier aircraft venture backed by billionaire Paul Allen, has completed the first phase of engine tests, marking a key step toward the start of taxi and flight tests in the coming months."

"It remains unclear if Stratolaunch is still targeting first flight by year’s end. When the project was launched in 2011, flight tests were due to start in 2015. But development has taken significantly longer than expected, and depending on the progress of ground tests, flight testing may not begin until early 2018."
AviationWeek  space  launch  Stratolaunch  NewSpace 
september 2017 by pierredv
Boeing Taps ArianeGroup For Next-Gen Satellite Propulsion | World Satellite Business Week content from Aviation Week
"Boeing and ArianeGroup will jointly develop a new generation of electric thrusters to increase a satellite’s payload and reduce the time necessary for orbit-raising. ArianeGroup’s Orbital Propulsion department, based in Lampoldshausen, Germany, is developing a dual-mode, radio-frequency ion thruster (RIT 2X) ..."

"The radio-frequency ion thruster uses a high-frequency electromagnetic field, as opposed to an anode and a cathode, to ionize xenon gas atoms."

"Thus far, Boeing has used more conventional xenon-ion propulsion, which is lightweight but can take seven months to raise the orbit of a geostationary telecommunications satellite."
Boeing  satellite  ArianeGroup  GSO  AviationWeek 
september 2017 by pierredv
Pilotless Commercial Aircraft? Follow the Money | Aviation Week, Aug 2016
"The flying public may not be so interested in it—yet—but pilotless commercial airplanes could be a boon to the aerospace industry and some financial analysts see a natural evolution in that direction coming.

“Meaningful savings can be generated via mission optimization, greater predictability and reduced flight crew and training costs,” a new report from UBS aerospace, airlines and logistics sector analysts."

"Technically, remotely controlled aircraft for carrying passengers and cargo could appear by around 2025, UBS surmised. But analysts admit it would take heavy lifting in rewriting regulations, and an even greater turn in consumer sentiment."
AviationWeek  aviation  UBS 
august 2017 by pierredv
Living Room Connectivity at 24,000 ft | Things With Wings, Aviation Week Jul 2017
"Inmarsat’s Ka-band broadband service, called GX Aviation, and Honeywell’s receiving equipment (the antenna and associated electronics), known as JetWave. "

"Inmarsat’s I-5 satellites, which provide the backbone for GX, have a theoretical maximum of 50 Mbps for each Ka-band receiver that hooks up. "

"On the crown of the aircraft is the Ka-band steerable antenna (see picture below - looking down from above, without the dome), which rotates 0-90 degrees around one axis and 360 degrees around the other, making it be able to point anywhere in the hemisphere above the aircraft. Mounted below the antenna and also under the dome are two receivers (allowing Honeywell to track two I-5 spot beams simultaneously in areas where the beams overlap, always staying connected) and a power amplifier with up-converter and down-converter. "
HTS  satellite  broadband  Inmarsat  Ka-band  AviationWeek 
july 2017 by pierredv
Adding Japanese ‘Shisa Kanko’ Techniques To Modern Cockpits | Aviation Week Jul 2017
"The next time you board a train in Japan, you might notice a technique well suited for your cockpit. Known by various names, including “Shisa Kanko,” the Japan Railway standard procedure can be translated to mean: Pointing and Calling."
AviationWeek  Japan  railroads  safety 
july 2017 by pierredv
USAF Wants Authority To Down Drones After F-22 Near Miss | Defense content from Aviation Week
"As drone technology becomes cheaper and more commercially available, the U.S. Air Force is increasingly worried about the threats posed by small UAS such as quadcopters. But while the service is developing the tools to defend against these systems—from jamming their electronics to shooting them down—it lacks the legal authority to use them, says Gen. James Holmes, commander of Air Combat Command."

"Dealing with commercial drones near protected facilities is a complicated legal issue. The FAA is responsible for all U.S. airspace, and has already established no-fly zones over every U.S. military base so any drone flight there is illegal. But determining when it is OK for the military to disable or destroy UAS that wander into its facilities is still something of a gray area. Outside the Pentagon and FAA, multiple government agencies are involved, including the Department of Homeland Security and even the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which mandates that only government agencies can use jamming against drones."
USAF  drones  UAS  AviationWeek  enforcement  Interference 
july 2017 by pierredv
Europe’s Complex UAV Studies Delivering Tangible Results | Aviation Week Jun 2017
"Europe’s reliance on fleets of U.S. and Israeli-produced unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has been a source of irritation for European aerospace over the last decade.

Despite billions of euros being spent across the continent to generate the technology to meet expected military needs, governments have flowed their money for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance requirements into programs such as the U.S. Reaper or the Israeli Heron.

But change is in the air, with a number of key studies defining the future of Europe’s unmanned military capabilities now reaching maturity."
AviationWeek  drones  UAS  Europe 
june 2017 by pierredv
ISS Demonstrates Possibilities Of Low-cost Launch | Aviation Week, May 2017
"If Mueller, Musk and their colleagues achieve their goal of cutting the cost of space launch a hundredfold, the research on ISS today truly is—as Mueller suggests—just the beginning of a new “paradigm” in space."

"For the NYU astronomy students, Mueller described how SpaceX is tackling every ounce of weight on its launchers, building in-house whenever possible to avoid vendors trained in the government’s oversight-heavy procurement process, and working toward a methane-fueled launch vehicle because methane is cheap, and it can be generated on the red planet that Musk hopes to colonize in his lifetime. Mainly, though, the company is working toward total reusability to cut the cost of launch. "
AviationWeek  NewSpace  space  SpaceX 
may 2017 by pierredv
Inmarsat’s Ka-Band Satcom Paradigm Shift | EBACE 2017 content from Aviation Week, May 2017
"Inmarsat’s Jet ConneX Ka-band satcom service is soaring, with this week’s announcements by Bombardier, Dassault and Embraer about equipping their aircraft with the high-speed satcom systems. Suddenly, L-Band and Ku-band hardware seem passé. Jet ConneX typically provides 15 Mbps download speeds for business aircraft, with others providing a mere 6 Mbps or even just 1."

"Inmarsat has three fifth-generation I-5 satcom satellites parked over Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean regions. Each provide 89 spot beams, providing global satcom coverage up to 82-deg. latitude. A fourth, recently launched I-5 is being positioned to boost capacity even further. Inmarsat plans to launch two additional Ka-band-capable satellites in the early 2020s to add even more capability."
AviationWeek  Inmarsat  HTS  satellite  aviation  broadband  Ka-band 
may 2017 by pierredv
Do Large Unmanned Aircraft Have A Commercial Market? | Technology content from Aviation Week
"Where is the commercial market for large unmanned aircraft systems (UAS)? When the aviation community began thinking about how to open the skies to unmanned aircraft, it was assumed they would be large, long-endurance machines sharing controlled airspace with manned aircraft.

But the market went in a different direction. Small UAS, or drones, weighing less than 55 lb.—many much less—became the name of the game. Instead of a handful of established aircraft manufacturers, startups by the score emerged to push regulators to open up access to uncontrolled airspace below 400 ft."

"The presenters were from AeroVironment, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Northrop Grumman and NASA­—all of which were once on the government-backed Access 5 project that aimed to enable safe and routine access to the U.S. national airspace system (NAS) for high-altitude, long-endurance UAS. Although Access 5 ended in 2006 after two of a planned five years, government-supported research on airspace access for UAS has until recently tended to focus on larger, higher-flying aircraft. NASA’s UAS in the NAS project is centered on the command-and-control (C2) and detect-and-avoid (DAA) systems needed for UAS to operate in controlled airspace. Although not explicitly linked to large UAS, these systems are not designed for small drones."

“Low-altitude UAS are coming up in capability, and large aircraft are miniaturizing,” says UAS in the NAS Deputy Program Manager Davis Hackenberg.

"AeroVironment is still pushing its SkyTower concept of persistent solar-powered UAS flying at 60,000-80,000 ft. to provide communications services (see photo). Facebook’s Aquila is a similar concept, as is Airbus’s Zephyr, but while these machines are large, they are not heavy. "

"Missions could include communications relay, long linear inspections of rail, power and pipelines, border security and fisheries protection. Other missions for more specialized large UAS could include crop spraying and cargo carrying. “Freight is where I see the industry going,” says McNall. But for now, he admits, “We are not seeing a market pull to large UAS.” "
AviationWeek  UAS  AeroVironment  NASA  DAA  RTCA  Facebook  Airbus 
may 2017 by pierredv
Meet The World’s Most Advanced Telecom Satellite | Aviation Week Apr 2017
"ViaSat-1 was a technical marvel when it entered service over North America five years ago, with 10 times the capacity of any Ka-band satellite previously launched. But its beams filled up quickly. Boeing-built ViaSat-2, which was supposed to launch from Kourou on April 25, will have a throughput of 300 Gbps, offering more than double the capacity and seven times the coverage area of ViaSat-1."

"And as it prepares for the $600 million ViaSat-2 to come online later this year, the company already has embarked on an ambitious development of ViaSat-3, a family of three 1,000-Gbps satellites aimed at taking its network global by the early 2020s."
AviationWeek  ViaSat  satellites  broadband 
may 2017 by pierredv
Meet The World’s Most Advanced Telecom Satellite | Connected Aerospace content from Aviation Week
"ViaSat-1 was a technical marvel when it entered service over North America five years ago, with 10 times the capacity of any Ka-band satellite previously launched. But its beams filled up quickly. Boeing-built ViaSat-2, which was supposed to launch from Kourou on April 25, will have a throughput of 300 Gbps, offering more than double the capacity and seven times the coverage area of ViaSat-1. ... And as it prepares for the $600 million ViaSat-2 to come online later this year, the company already has embarked on an ambitious development of ViaSat-3, a family of three 1,000-Gbps satellites aimed at taking its network global by the early 2020s."

"EchoStar’s HughesNet, a competing satellite-based broadband service, serves more than one million households. Its network capacity more than doubled with the December 2016 launch of EchoStar XIX—now the world’s highest-capacity satellite—on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V. While Viasat-2 will have even more capacity, its rival has a head start of six months. "

"the OneWeb startup is aiming to provide internet access to rural areas and the developing world via a constellation of 648 small satellites. "
AviationWeek  satellite  ViaSat  EchoStar  OneWeb 
april 2017 by pierredv
Islamic State Now Using Off-the-Shelf Drones | Aviation Week March 2017
"The conflicts in Iraq and Syria have seen the rise of a new form of unmanned warfare, the large-scale use of weaponized consumer drones. Islamic State group militants have also built a significant micro-UAV capability, and continue to grow that by leveraging commercial technology."

"Islamic State militants started using drones to film suicide attacks for recruitment videos in 2014 and soon moved to battlefield reconnaissance. A drone video of a Syrian military base was followed by suicide bombings at the base’s weak points. Islamic State drones guide armored truck bombs to their targets; in Mosul they locate targets and help adjust the aim of mortar fire."

"ISIS documents reveal a coordinated drone effort rather than local initiatives. The most common munition is a 40-mm grenade warhead in a finned aerodynamic body, produced in large numbers."
drones  AviationWeek  UAS  UAV  ISIS 
march 2017 by pierredv

Copy this bookmark:

to read