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pierredv : geo   17

We could find advanced aliens by looking for their space junk | New Scientist Mar 2018
"Technologically advanced aliens could be revealed by the space junk around their planets."

"Many satellites work best in geosynchronous orbits, where the satellite matches the planet’s rotation so it stays over the same general location on the surface. This is key for surveillance and telecommunications satellites. These orbits are all at about the same altitude – on Earth, around 35,800 kilometres up. So, geosynchronous satellites form a ring around the planet, known as the Clarke belt.

Socas-Navarro calculated that the opacity of Earth’s Clarke belt has increased exponentially over the past 15 years. He found that if this trend continues, it will be observable from nearby alien worlds around the year 2200."
orbital-debris  space-debris  space-junk  NewScientist  GEO 
10 weeks ago by pierredv
The FSS sector and the LEO-GEO stalemate - SpaceNews.com Sep 2018
"Orders for traditional geostationary satellites have fallen precipitously over the past three years. Industry counts show orders dropped from 26 GEO orders in 2014, to 15 in 2016 and seven in 2017. Most observers don’t believe 2018 will be much better. There are many reasons for the decline, ranging from a plateau in satellite video distribution to rapidly evolving high-throughput satellite (HTS) and digital payload technology that has created overcapacity in some segments and makes operators anxious about ordering long-life satellites that may soon be obsolete. These risks might be manageable if not for the planned low Earth orbit (LEO) constellations, with their promises of lower pricing, amplifying pricing and capacity concerns."

"The lack of clarity over the satellite industry’s future has led to an incredible standoff. On the one hand, the satellite industry is in a situation where investment in geostationary satellites is stalled due to uncertainties over the long-term industry outlook, particularly when LEO constellations enter. On the other hand, investment in LEO constellations is stalled due to shorter-term concerns about the availability of affordable consumer hardware."

"Will a LEO antenna manufacturer emerge to meet the performance and price targets needed to break this deadlock or will there be a realization that the technical challenges are insurmountable? "
LEO  GEO  opinion  NGSO  satellite  antennas  Armand-Musey 
11 weeks ago by pierredv
Milking the “Cow” or Shooting for the “Stars” - Northern Sky Research Aug 2018
"While HTS attracts the hype and promises rapid revenue growth, the truth is that today, FSS, and most specifically video, continues to be the bread and butter of satellite operators. According to NSR’s Global Satellite Capacity Supply and Demand, 15th Edition report, cumulative satellite capacity revenues over the next 10 years will surpass $189 billion, with widebeam FSS still driving 53% of these revenues. How should satellite operators balance growth and revenues?"

"Several HTS payloads have been slow in attracting customers as the operators underestimated the effort to develop sales channels. Similarly, network management for a widebeam satellite is much simpler than for an HTS satellite."
NSR  satellite  HTS  GEO  FSS  business  market-research 
august 2018 by pierredv
Satellite EOL: Not One Size Fits All - Northern Sky Research Jul 2018
"A satellite launched in the 1990s was designed to operate for an average 12 years, a life expectancy that by the 2000s increased to 15 years. Many continue to operate for 18 years or more, but 15 remains the prevailing design life. Yet with operators seeking new strategies in today’s challenging market, and technology advancing at an ever-faster pace, could the 15-year GEO satellite life be a standard of the past?"

"NSR’s Satellite Manufacturing and Launch Services, 8th Edition, found that commercial GEO communications satellites in-orbit today have an average age of 8.9 years. Only 17.2% of current satellites are in the process of being replenished, indicating that a slate of new orders – or decisions to not replace aging satellites – are coming in the next few years."

"Many elements contribute to a satellite reaching EOL or experiencing a reduction in capabilities, but exhaustion of fuel most commonly drives the 15-year design life. As operators increasingly turn to electric propulsion, this driver will ease, enabling satellites to remain in station-kept orbit longer than with chemical designs. A more near-term solution to lengthen satellite lifetimes is to use in-orbit servicing vehicles, either for refueling or as a tug to provide station keeping."

"Interest in short, 7-8-year lifetimes has also emerged."
NSR  market-research  satellite  business  space  GEO 
july 2018 by pierredv
Enabling a GEO-NGEO Hybrid System - Northern Sky Research, Jul 2018
"The Military segment has, historically, primarily been served by GEO satellites for execution of critical applications, including intelligence gathering, navigation and communication. GEO systems, by nature, offer the advantage of significant coverage via a single satellite, especially with the advent of GEO-HTS satellites. On the other hand, latency and significant CAPEX have always been limitations of the GEO architecture. These drawbacks have given rise to the emerging trend of LEO and MEO constellations (NGEO) that can offer low latency and lower cost per satellite. However, constellations have their own set of constraints, with system complexity, ground infrastructure costs and frequency spectrum coordination, to name a few. Considering both, the shortcomings as well as the strengths of each system, could this perhaps be the start of an integration between GEO and LEO/MEO operators with a hybrid GEO-NGEO system on the rise? "

"Keeping the overall system costs low, however, is where it gets complex for NGEO framework. Although the manufacturing and launch costs per satellite are relatively lower, the need for a considerable number of satellites, the associated replenishment costs and the ground infrastructure expenses – all intensify the overall system cost."

"NSR estimates just over 1% of total revenues for gov/military will come from Non-GEO constellations by 2027."

"[TCO] is a key driver for NGEO constellations, military and otherwise, and is as well one of the biggest challenges for the operators presently. Simply put, either the expenses, mostly CAPEX, need to drop or the revenues need to grow for the business case to sustain. This is where a GEO-NGEO Hybrid architecture could prove pragmatic."

"Intelsat’s and OneWeb’s unsuccessful attempt towards a strategic alliance was one example of this hybrid system. GEO operators JSAT and Hispasat have similarly announced strategic investment in LEO constellations including LeoSat."

"Another level of integration, perhaps more technically innovative, and therefore challenging, is a system where GEO satellites can handle the TT&C operations for LEO constellations and act as the base station control system of the network."
NSR  GEO  NGSO  Intelsat  OneWeb  LeoSat  SES  O3b  satellite  constellations  military  DARPA  business  market-research 
july 2018 by pierredv
Antenna-makers Produce Multi-band Antennas To Serve Inflight Broadband | Aviation Week Jul 2018
"In June electronically-steered antenna (ESA) developer Phasor announced a partnership with Astronics AeroSat to produce scalable, dual-beam ESA-based aeronautical terminals that will operate seamlessly with existing geostationary (GEO) satellites and under-development non-geosynchronous satellites such as low Earth orbit (LEO) constellations."

“Our ESA aperture has the ability to be single-beam or dual-beam, so you can have a second, independent beam pointing at a different satellite, which gives all kinds of flexibility,” says Helfgott. “You can look at two satellites at the same time or, with the LEOs, you can do a make-before-break where you track a LEO satellite and create a second channel for a different LEO satellite traveling in a different direction.”

"A few days before the Phasor/Astronics announcement, ThinKom Solutions, whose mechanically steered antennas form the basis of Gogo’s 2Ku inflight connectivity service, said its technology is now “fully interoperable” with GEO, LEO and MEO (medium-Earth orbit) satellites."
AviationWeek  Phasor  antennas  satellite  broadband  GEO  LEO  ThinKom 
july 2018 by pierredv
July 2018 - Evolutionary Antenna Tech Inspires the Future of Satellite Constellations | Via Satellite June 2018
"Following seven years of development, Phasor’s electronically steered antennas began testing in commercial use cases this year. These antennas are barely 2.5 centimeters thick, and are designed to be conformal in order to look at a wider angle 180 degrees, with dual-beam technology making them LEO and GEO interoperable."

"LeoSat, for example, sees itself as a disruptor in the defense market — which has traditionally relied upon GEO systems."

"By their own admission, Phasor will never be at the bottom of the food chain. And, while the super yachts of the world number in the thousands, fishing boats number in the millions"

"Isotropic Systems aims to be one of the leaders working to connect smaller maritime vessels and flight routes in India, Africa and Latin America. One way to achieve that, they believe, is by reducing the price point of terminal systems by 70 to 90 percent."
satellite  antennas  C-Com  Phasor  LEO  GEO  AvL  LeoSat  ThinKom  aviation  maritime  IsotropicSystems 
june 2018 by pierredv
AGI establishes commercial deep space radar tracking system - SpaceNews.com
"AGI and Thoth Technology said they have set up a radar system on a 46-meter antenna at the Algonquin Radio Observatory in Ontario. The system is capable of tracking objects out to distances of 50,000 kilometers, and can detect objects about two meters across on GEO."

“We want to get down to 20 centimeters or less.”

"Johnson said that combining the radar observations with existing optical observations of GEO belt objects improves the accuracy of positions of those objects to 150 meters, compared to 250 meters using optical observations alone"
SpaceNews  AGI  SSA  space  radar  GEO  orbital-debris 
may 2018 by pierredv
SpaceDataHighway Achieves 10,000 Successful Laser Connections - Via Satellite - May 2018
"The SpaceDataHighway system, a public-private partnership between the European Space Agency (ESA) and Airbus, has achieved 10,000 successful laser connections. The reliability rate has reached 99.8 percent, and during the first one and a half years of routine operations, these successful connections have downloaded more than 500 terabytes of data."

"The system’s satellites are designed to lock on to low-orbiting satellites via laser and collect their data as they travel in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) scanning the Earth. From its position in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), the SpaceDataHighway acts as a relay, transmitting the large quantities of data down to Earth in near-real time, at a speed of 1.8 Gbit per second."

"Each day, the SpaceDataHighway is able to relay up to 40 terabytes of data acquired by observation satellites, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), or aircraft to Earth."
ViaSatellite  space  Communications  ESA  Airbus  reliability  optical-communications  LEO  GEO 
may 2018 by pierredv
Astranis Targets Cellular Backhaul with GEO Smallsats - Via Satellite - Mar 2018
"NewSpace startup Astranis is sending its smallsats all the way out to Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) to deliver broadband internet. From there, the company intends to work alongside other satellite operators and Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) to meet demand for cellular backhaul."

"Each smallsat will clock in at around 300 kg, and will carry four to six Ka-band spot beams and broader Ku-band beams."

"Astranis’ primary business case rests on using its satellite bandwidth for cellular backhaul. Gedmark believes it comes down to a matter of cost: the reason MNOs are lacking coverage in many regions is because it’s economically unfeasible to build fiber out to far-flung cell towers."
space  start-ups  GEO  GSO  cellular  smallsats 
march 2018 by pierredv
LEO and MEO broadband constellations mega source of consternation - SpaceNews.com Mar 2018
"the rush to HTS is driving down bandwidth prices so fast that some fairly low-mileage satellites are struggling to keep up."

“At the moment there is a potential scramble for who is going to be the third player between Telesat, LeoSat and SpaceX,” said Farrar. “It’s probably going to be clear in the next 12 months which of those is out ahead.”

"Perhaps the biggest variable in calculating demand is figuring out what consumers will have to pay for the user terminal—the receiver and antennas customers will use to connect to the constellation."

"Farrar is among analysts who doubt consumer broadband will be the biggest application for LEO constellations. Bridging the digital divide is a laudable goal, but backhaul — using satellites to help cellular networks to increase coverage and improve service — is an early market they can dominate with or without cheap antennas."
SpaceNews  NGSO  LEO  MEO  GEO  HTS  broadband  satellite  Tim-Farrar  Armand-Musey  NSR  antennas  Kymeta  Phasor  commerce  trends 
march 2018 by pierredv
Firing It Up at Both Ends? New Launch Vehicles Extend Mass Range - Via Satellite - Mar 2018
"Falcon Heavy has nearly doubled the launch range from a former 14.2 tons to Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO), via Delta 4 Heavy, to a whopping 26.7 tons. It has also globalized SpaceX’s addressable market, previously limited to Falcon 9’s capability of 8.3 tons to GTO (and a much smaller 4.5 tons when Falcon Heavy was first announced). Turning to the market’s other new entrant, Rocket Lab’s Electron launch vehicle addresses payloads with a nominal mass of 150 kg and up to 225 kg, reducing the lower limit of the orbital class market by several hundred kilograms."

"With a market Northern Sky Research (NSR) expects to double in the next five years, and a trend of increasing mass from sub-10 kg cubesats to 50 kg-plus microsatellites, Electron’s relevance to the market is evident.

The significance of extended heavy-lift capacity to the market is less clear. "

"Headwinds in the commercial GEO market have gutted demand for manufacturing and launch, with operators striving more than ever for capital expenditure efficiency via delayed procurements and cost-saving designs. Rates of adoption of electric propulsion and digital payloads have surged, reducing average satellite mass. Current demand is thus well addressed by existing launch services, with even new appeal of dual launches on Proton and triple launches on Ariane 5 to further reduce capex with mid-sized GEOs."
ViaSatellite  launch  satellite  SpaceX  RocketLab  GEO  NSR  CarolynBelle 
march 2018 by pierredv
[pdf] Satellite vulnerability to space debris risk - Denis Bensoussan, World Space Risk Forum 2012
Average current risk of collision at GEO is 1 every 135 years

LEO: Probability that any given satellite at 800-900km will be hit by debris larger than 1 cm approaching 3% over 5 to 10 year lifetime (est. NASA) (Failure risk due to debris impact remains a substantially lower
probability than risks of launcher or satellite mechanical failure)
satellite  space  space-debris  risk-assessment  GEO  LEO  insurance 
january 2018 by pierredv
2018 Could Be a Revolutionary Year for Smallsats - Via Satellite -Via Satellite Jan 2018
"2017 was a banner year for the satellite industry in many respects. 2018 could prove to be even more momentous, as the smallsat megaconstellations that have been under development for years finally emerge — along with the dedicated smallsat launch vehicles that will serve them. In an interview with Via Satellite, Northern Sky Research (NSR) analyst Carolyn Belle laid out her expectations for the year ahead"

"Overall, 2017 was a “very good year” for smallsat launch rates, Belle said, with the industry orbiting 329 smallsats (between 1 and 500 kg) in total. This is the highest number launched in one year to date, easily outstripping the mere 130 orbited in 2016."

Demand for Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites have plummeted in recent years, culminating in just nine orders in 2017. “That was a more significant decline than anything we’ve seen before,” Belle said. “That was the lowest number in more than a decade. Global capacity pricing continues to sink like an anchor, making operators very cautious about their investments, Belle said.”
ViaSatellite  smallsats  cubesats  satellite  NorthSkyResearch  launch  NGSO  GEO  interviews 
january 2018 by pierredv
Satellite Internet in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: a Reality Check | LinkedIn, Eric Anderson, Sep 2017
"Here are my partly-informed observations based on several short visits to one small area of rural sub-Saharan Africa since 2010. In summary:
1. Satellite coverage is beginning to appear, but it’s spotty, expensive and limited,
2. Mobile terrestrial network use is widespread and growing and
3. There are other more immediate challenges unrelated to internet access."

"One intriguing offering is hybrid terrestrial-satellite connectivity with intelligent switchover and appropriate utilization of download and upload capacities as promoted by companies like Forsway, and in the thinking of larger entities like Facebook and OneWeb."
satellite  Africa  GEO  MEO  LEO  OneWeb  Kenya 
november 2017 by pierredv
November/December 2017 - RSCC Exec Doubts Success of New Constellations | Via Satellite Oct 2017
[RSCC Director General Yuri] Prokhorov is concerned that the industry is dashing headlong into an unknown market where the Return on Investment (ROI) could be far from guaranteed. “When I talk personally to these executives who are developing these new systems and I ask questions related to frequency coordination, and ask about the customer equipment and business plans, I do not receive clear answers to some simple questions. But these are critical questions. So now I start to doubt the profitability and viability of these systems. Are they commercially viable or not? For us it seems like the LEO system cannot provide an ROI in the short term,” he comments.

...

Given these comments and talk of “unhealthy hype” around these new constellations, I ask Prokhorov directly whether he thinks a company like OneWeb will succeed. “We still don’t know where the market is, and that is the main issue,” he says. “I might say there are many executives of satellite operators which have a lot of capacity in GEO, and they can provide services right now, and much cheaper than LEO or MEO constellations. OneWeb may be relevant in two years, but it isn’t now?”
SatelliteToday  GEO  LEO  commerce 
october 2017 by pierredv

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