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A connected world will be a playground for hackers - Cyber security - The Economist, Sep 2019
"Few companies making connected gadgets have much experience with cyber security"

"AS WAYS TO break into casinos go, a fish tank is an unusual route. Yet that is what was used in an unnamed American gambling house in 2017. It had invested in a fancy internet-connected tank in which the temperature and salinity of the water were remotely controlled. Its owners were not naive: when they installed it, they isolated its controls on their own specific part of their company network, away from all their sensitive systems.

It made no difference. According to Darktrace, a computer-security firm, attackers from Finland managed to break into the tank’s systems, then used it as a stepping stone for the rest of the casino’s networks. They made off with around 10GB of data."
TheEconomist  cybersecurity  IoT  vulnerability 
11 days ago by pierredv
F-Secure - Attacks using IoT devices and Windows SMB escalate in 2019 , Sep 2019
"Cyber criminals upped the intensity of IoT and SMB-related attacks in the first half of 2019, according to a new F-Secure report, “Attack Landscape H1 2019”. The report underscores the threats IoT devices face if not properly secured when online, as well as the continued popularity of EternalBlue and related exploits two years after WannaCry."
F-Secure  IoT  cybersecurity 
4 weeks ago by pierredv
Ericsson's 5G Business Potential report - Ericsson
"5G presents an opportunity for telecom operators to tap into new revenue streams emerging from the digitalization of industries. Our report The 5G business potential shows operators can benefit from up to USD 619 billion market opportunity globally in 2026."
Ericsson  IoT  5G 
june 2019 by pierredv
Can “Internet-of-Body” Thwart Cyber Attacks on Implanted Medical Devices? - IEEE Spectrum
Via Keith Gremban

"Medtronic discloses medical device vulnerabilities, while Purdue University scientists propose countermeasure to block attacks"

"The U.S. Department of Homeland Security last week warned that numerous medical devices made by Medtronic are vulnerable to cyber attack. The vulnerabilities affect 17 of the company’s implantable cardiac device models and the external equipment used to communicate with them.

A Medtronic spokesperson told IEEE Spectrum that the company voluntarily disclosed the vulnerabilities ..."

"At risk are certain models of heart-regulating devices: implantable cardiac resynchronization therapy/defibrillators (CRT-Ds) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). CRT-Ds send electrical impulses to the lower chambers of the heart to help them beat together in a more synchronized pattern. ICDs deliver electrical impulses to correct fast heart rhythms. External computers program the devices and retrieve information.

Such devices emit radio frequency signals that can be detected up to several meters from the body. A malicious individual nearby could conceivably hack into the signal to jam it, alter it, or snoop on it, according to the Feds’ warning."

"For more than a decade researchers have repeatedly warned that medical devices could be turned into murder weapons. Scientists have demonstrated in written reports and live, at conferences, how to hack into an insulin pump, or a pacemaker, or even an entire hospital network."
cybersecurity  healthcare  IoT  IEEE-Spectrum 
may 2019 by pierredv
Telefónica launches IoT Cybersecurity Unit | FierceWireless apr 2019
"Recognizing the great threats posed to the IoT world, Telefónica has launched its own IoT Cybersecurity Unit, a new project that combines the company’s expertise in both cybersecurity and IoT."
FierceWireless  iot  cybersecurity 
april 2019 by pierredv
Senate Reintroduces IoT Cybersecurity Improvement Act | Global Policy Watch Mar 2019
On March 11, 2019, a bipartisan group of lawmakers including Sen. Mark Warner and Sen. Cory Gardner introduced the Internet of Things (IoT) Cybersecurity Improvement Act of 2019. The Act seeks “[t]o leverage Federal Government procurement power to encourage increased cybersecurity for Internet of Things devices.” In other words, this bill aims to shore up cybersecurity requirements for IoT devices purchased and used by the federal government, with the aim of affecting cybersecurity on IoT devices more broadly.To accomplish this goal, the Act puts forth several action items for the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) and the Office of Management and Budget (“OMB”). Details of these action items and their deadlines are discussed below.
Covington  IoT  cybersecurity  legislation 
march 2019 by pierredv
Hackers once stole casino database through lobby fish tank thermometer - Business Insider
= The CEO of the cybersecurity firm Darktrace says hackers are increasingly targeting unprotected "internet of things" devices, such as air-conditioning systems and CCTV, to get into corporate networks.

= She told the WSJ CEO Council Conference that in one incident, a casino was hacked through the thermometer in its lobby aquarium.

= A former director of the UK's Government Communications Headquarters also called for laws outlining minimum security standards for internet-of-things devices.
hacking  BusinessInsider  IoT 
march 2019 by pierredv
The Mirai botnet explained: How IoT devices almost brought down the internet | CSO Online Mar 2018
"On October 12, 2016, a massive distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack left much of the internet inaccessible on the U.S. east coast. The attack, which authorities initially feared was the work of a hostile nation-state, was in fact the work of the Mirai botnet.

This attack, which initially had much less grand ambitions — to make a little money off of Minecraft aficionados — grew more powerful than its creators ever dreamed possible. It's a story of unintended consequences and unexpected security threats, and it says a lot about our modern age."
IoT  cybersecurity  botnets  DDoS 
march 2019 by pierredv
Telecoms, media and digital economy prediction trends 2019 - AnalysysMason Jan 2019
Here are the headline predictions for 2019 from Analysys Mason Research:

5G: there will be many commercial 5G launches but consumers will not notice
IoT: the market for IoT connectivity will continue to develop and new models will appear
Enterprises: operators will buy IT operations to expand portfolios and there will be many SD-WAN launches
Small and medium-sized businesses: this market will streamline with DaaS and cloud apps
Homes: the battle for control of the emerging home ecosystem will intensify
Digital transformation: operators will offer mobile apps for customer care, and will push into edge computing and network slicing
Artificial intelligence: automation will lead operators to cut jobs and MSPs will capitalise on the needs of SMBs
Investor value: business simplification initiatives will enable telecoms operators worldwide to reduce headcount
AnalysysMason  prediction  IoT  5G  AI 
january 2019 by pierredv
AT&T strikes deal with Toyota, walks the line on C-V2X / DSRC debate, Jan 2019
"AT&T has slipped out a minor announcement about LTE connectivity on latest-model Toyota and Lexus cars and trucks in the US, starting from the fall, just as the technology and automotive markets appeared in a newly climactic embrace ahead of the 2019 Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Last Vegas this week."

"But near-term car connectivity is a sideshow this week, as autonomous driving comes into clearer view at CES. Amid the bluster, the declaration from Ford that cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) is the only way to go for driverless cars was notable."

"Competitor brands, meanwhile, including AT&T’s latest LTE-partner Toyota and Ford’s country rival General Motors, are backing Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) technology instead, in what the New York Times has described as the automotive sector’s VHS/Betamax moment."
IoT  AT&T  Toyota  Ford  DSRC 
january 2019 by pierredv
Ultra-Reliable IoT Communications with UAVs: A Swarm Use Case - IEEE Journals & Magazine Dec 2018
UAVs are powerful IoT components, offering sensing, communications and data analysis in the air. Recently, 3GPP TS 22.261, TR 22.862, and TR 36.777 have specified performance requirements for communications between multiple UAVs in the 5G domain. This article discusses communications reliability challenges in a UAV swarm context. Recommendations for designing an ultra-reliable communications system for UAV swarms are introduced with a focus on the software protocol stack and RF hardware. For the purpose of demonstration, we developed Easy- Swarm, an open-source UAV swarming platform that adopts the LoRa radio at the physical layer and a low-latency channel access protocol at the MAC layer. Real-life testbeds are built consisting of 10 UAVs and 20 robotic cars that produce background traffic. LoRa, WiFi and LTE networks are employed to provide broadband and cellular wireless network support. Results show that using LoRa leads to better reliability, in particular allowing for higher swarm density and longer coverage distance, than when WiFi is used. In addition, LTE provides the best reliability and latency for UAV swarms with good network connectivity.
december 2018 by pierredv
Broadband – and IoT opportunities for land mobile systems in 400 MHz: the regulatory framework for their introduction - ECC Newsletter December 2018
ECC is finalising the new regulatory framework for land mobile systems in the 400 MHz frequency ranges. This will provide harmonised technical conditions for various technologies, and will support possible technology moves and new network types - such as from CDMA to LTE or towards wide area data networks for M2M/IoT mission critical applications - while keeping the balance with the requirements for other PMR/PAMR radio applications.
ECC  spectrum  400MHz  LMR  IoT 
december 2018 by pierredv
AI for Weather Forecasting – In Retail, Agriculture, Disaster Prediction, and More
"This article will look at how big data and machine learning are transforming weather forecasting and what it means for businesses and governments. In this article we’ll explore:

How companies and government agencies are using AI to improve weather forecasting (including IBM, Panasonic, and the US Government)
Sector-specific machine learning applications for improving business performance (including Retail, Agriculture, Transportation)

Weather forecasting is a strong fit for machine learning. The incredible volume of relevant information — historical data and real-time data — that can be analyzed is simply too great for any group of unaided humans to even begin to process on their own. "

"GE Current has installed smart street lights in several cities that can monitor things like light, humidity, and air quality."

"Panasonic has been working on its own weather forecasting model for years, and it stepped up its effort with the purchase of AirDat in 2013. The company makes TAMDAR, a speciality weather sensor installed on commercial airplanes. "

"According to IBM, 90 percent of crop losses are due to weather events and 25 percent of weather-related crop losses could be prevented by using predictive weather modeling."
TechEmergence  AI  ML  weather  forecasting  IBM  Panasonic  satellite  GE  IoT  NOAA  Monsanto  agriculturevideo 
november 2018 by pierredv
A Price War Coming for Satcom IoT? - NSR Nov 2018
"on the horizon are many competing IoT network deployments that promise to significantly lower the cost of hardware and airtime costs associated with IoT and to open new markets. Given these new cut-price alternatives, where does that leave existing M2M operators, which have a higher cost base and higher service price?"

"New competition in this space includes the rise of small satellite constellations for IoT (despite some questionable business cases), Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) networks, and 5G connectivity, which is just around the corner. These new smallsat operators and LPWA networks intend to offer ARPUs of $1 per month, or even just a few euros per year. Low prices are also available on the terrestrial side, with Unabiz also announcing offerings as low as $1 per year. Sigfox even demonstrated a 20 cent terminal, which could bring in a new large market of disposable devices and tracking packages."

"By comparison, Iridium’s commercial IoT service ARPU was an order of magnitude higher at $13 per month in 2017, compared to $18 in 2012, indicating a decline in ARPU. "

"Will mass price cuts be unveiled once smallsat IoT constellations and LPWA networks are fully rolled out? The short answer: No"

"Like-for-like ARPUs will remain significantly higher than smallsats and terrestrial competitors, but taking into account MoUs and dual mode connectivity, overall satcom ARPUs will be lower."
NSR  satellite  IoT  Sigfox  Iridium  M2M  Globalstar  Orbcomm 
november 2018 by pierredv
Are the Police Using Smart-Home IoT Devices to Spy on People? - Schneier on Security
"IoT devices are surveillance devices, and manufacturers generally use them to collect data on their customers. Surveillance is still the business model of the Internet, and this data is used against the customers' interests: either by the device manufacturer or by some third party the manufacturer sells the data to. Of course, this data can be used by the police as well; the purpose depends on the country. "
Bruce-Schneier  IoT  public-safety 
november 2018 by pierredv
The ROI Challenge of IoT Smallsats - NSR, Oct 2018
"In the recently released M2M and IoT via Satellite, 9th Edition report, NSR projected over 3.7 million smallsat IoT in-service units by 2027; this will generate approx. $133 million in retail revenues during the same year, but it only represents an overall share of only 5% of total satellite M2M/IoT revenues. ARPUs will be low on smallsat IoT networks"

"To turn a profit on these small satellite constellations purely from IoT, millions of IoT devices will be required. On each constellation. With only several million connected devices to come online on smallsats over the coming decade, competition will be extremely fierce between the 15+ constellations for this purpose, with most either merging or never actually launching."

"Further, satellite renewals must be considered, as the average life span for these satellites is up to 3 years. Any launch failure would significantly impact latency and IoT performance. Nonetheless, NSR expects a few smallsat IoT constellations to reach positive ROIs within the next 10 years, assuming additional financing is available to maintain positive cash flow over the first few years of launch."

"Low data rates (a few bytes) per packet transferred are fine for now; however, this fails to consider the growth of data requirements coming from big data analysis. This results in additional levels of data that will be transmitted, despite more analysis being done at the ‘edge’ and not transmitted via satellite. This is where ‘bigsat’ constellations such as Iridium NEXT and Globalstar’s second generation network come into play."

Bottom line: "the ROI on comparatively low-cost CAPEX of smallsats is depressed by even lower ARPUs and end-user demand."
NSR  market-research  business  satellite  smallsats  IoT  M2M  investing  Kepler  Iridium  Globalstar 
october 2018 by pierredv
Insight-as-a-Service for Satellite Networks - NSR Sep 2018
"The terrestrial telecom industry is fast shifting towards 5G networks, with Software Defined Networks (SDN) and Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) forming key parts of major strategic efforts. This is seen in multiple market movements where organizations such as Verizon, AT&T and Ericsson have begun to shift towards adopting SDN/NFV approaches to manage increasingly complex networks. But what does this mean for satellite players, and how can they remain competitive?

With satellite operators beginning to unlock value behind pixels and bits, the industry is moving downstream towards a data-driven application business. Earth Observation (EO) and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) / Internet-of-Things (IoT) satcom stand at an inflection point. While most of the opportunity will remain in the application layer, a parallel story is emerging in the network layer as well."

"NSR’s Big Data Analytics via Satellite, 2nd Edition report establishes the revenue potential for satellite big data lies largely in the Transportation, Gov/Mil and Energy markets."

"A major driving force of this growth is the increasing complexity of networks."

"... in late 2017, SES used dynamic bandwidth allocation based on SDN principles on its O3b fleet."
NSR  satellite  5G  SDN  NFV  EO  remote-sensing  M2M  IoT  market-research  SES  O3b 
september 2018 by pierredv
M2M and IoT via Satellite, 9th Edition - NSR - Sep 2018
From press release in email 9/23, dd 9/25, "NSR Report: Smallsats to Accelerate M2M/IoT Satcom Market"

"NSR’s M2M and IoT via Satellite, 9th Edition report forecasts smallsat M2M/IoT constellations are set to propel market growth via low latency, low cost, albeit low ARPU, service. NSR’s first time forecast for this emerging smallsat market shows tremendous potential with 3.7 million M2M/IoT in-service units projected by 2027, representing 37% of overall satcom terminals."

"constellations such as Astrocast, Hiber, Kepler Communications and many more will target satcom M2M/IoT applications with ARPUs set to $1 per month or even lower"

"viability of new smallsat constellations in this market is more likely than their large LEO telecom counterparts due to much lower system CAPEX"
NSR  satellite  market-research  IoT  M2M  business 
september 2018 by pierredv
Astrocast on satellite mission to fill in coverage for IoT | FierceWireless Sep 2018
"Astrocast, a Lausanne, Switzerland-based company, is preparing to launch a constellation of satellites that could be used to “fill in” areas that cellular IoT technologies don’t cover."

“We are very low speed, low data rate, small data packets and designed for battery-operated small form factor devices,” said Bryan Eagle, U.S.-based vice president at Astrocast, in an interview with FierceWirelessTech. “That’s really our sweet spot. We’re much more an extension of NB-IoT, LoRa, Sigfox, than we are any relation to the OneWeb” or something of that nature.

"Fabien Jordan, CEO and founder to Astrocast, said the goal eventually is to have 64 operational nanosatellites to offer global coverage, and that likely will be complete in the end of 2020 timeframe."

"The company is using the L-Band, with spectrum ascertained through the Swiss national regulator."
FierceWireless  IoT  satellite  nanosatellites  smallsats 
september 2018 by pierredv
AI in telecommunications set to secure the ‘Augmented Human’ | Cambridge Consultants Feb 2018
"a new report, stating that the telecommunications sector will be an Artificial Intelligence (AI) pioneer, as many features of 5G networks and IoT networks will depend on AI techniques to reach their maximum potential"

"We expect to see data-led customisation: in healthcare with personalisation of treatments, in education with personalisation of teaching methods and curriculum, in entertainment with custom virtual reality games and maybe even in government. Of course, we also expect to see significant numbers of fully-autonomous vehicles on our roads and in our corridors transporting people and goods to where they are required."
ambridgeConsultants  AI  telecoms  spectrum  5G  IoT 
september 2018 by pierredv
5G experts discuss public vs private networks at URLLC event | PolicyTracker: Sep 2018
“The industry wants the control of a private network but the convenience of something that is managed as a service,” said Brendan Lynch...

"This provides a useful summary of the ongoing discussions between mobile providers and new market segments over how to roll out 5G verticals: public versus private networks. Although operators could ultimately benefit, given that they face a significant increase in the amount of data transmitted over their networks, opportunities could soon turn into challenges if they fail to address issues like liability, security or data protection."
5G  IoT  PolicyTracker 
september 2018 by pierredv
BlackIoT: IoT Botnet of High Wattage Devices Can Disrupt the Power Grid | USENIX
Via Bruce Schneier

"We demonstrate that an Internet of Things (IoT) botnet of high wattage devices–such as air conditioners and heaters–gives a unique ability to adversaries to launch large-scale coordinated attacks on the power grid. In particular, we reveal a new class of potential attacks on power grids called the Manipulation of demand via IoT (MadIoT) attacks that can leverage such a botnet in order to manipulate the power demand in the grid. We study five variations of the MadIoT attacks and evaluate their effectiveness via state-of-the-art simulators on real-world power grid models. These simulation results demonstrate that the MadIoT attacks can result in local power outages and in the worst cases, large-scale blackouts. Moreover, we show that these attacks can rather be used to increase the operating cost of the grid to benefit a few utilities in the electricity market. This work sheds light upon the interdependency between the vulnerability of the IoT and that of the other networks such as the power grid whose security requires attention from both the systems security and power engineering communities."
IoT  utilities  electricity  infrastructure  hacking  cybersecurity  botnets 
september 2018 by pierredv
Kepler Communications opens launch bids for Gen-1 LEO constellation -, aug 2018
"Kepler Communications announced Aug. 28 it is accepting bids from launch providers to orbit its first-generation constellation of up to 15 cubesats, but with the stipulation that the launches must happen within two years."

"Kepler plans to operate 140 satellites in low Earth orbit to provide Internet of Things connectivity to devices on the ground and to act as a relay network for other satellites by using intersatellite links. Mitry said Kepler intends to scale up fast, with the Gen-1 constellation in service by late 2020 or early 2021, a second generation of up to 50 satellites by the end of 2021, and the full 140-satellite constellation operational by the end of 2022. "

"Kepler has yet to sign a manufacturing agreement for the full 140 satellite constellation."

"Each satellite will have a mass of 12 to 15 kilograms ... the Gen-1 satellites will be slightly heavier than the prototypes because those lack intersatellite links"

"Kepler has also yet to determine if its fleet will have on-board propulsion, he said. From an altitude between 520 and 600 kilometers, Kepler’s satellites will have a design life of three to five years, he said. "
Kepler  NGSO  launch  satellite  IoT 
august 2018 by pierredv
Iridium posts sharply higher revenue, forecasts decade-long capex holiday - Aug 2018
"With seven of eight launches completed for Iridium Next, its $3 billion second-generation constellation, Iridium is poised to begin a 10-year “capex holiday,” CEO Matt Desch said during a call with investors, projecting a reduction to $35 million in annual spending after the final launch. McLean, Virginia-based Iridium spent $132 million in capital expenditures the past three months, most of it on Iridium Next."

"... reiterated that Iridium is on track to complete the full constellation of 75 in-orbit satellites this year. "

"Desch said 80 percent of Iridium’s telecom traffic is traveling over Next satellites, of which 65 are in orbit. ... The full Iridium Next constellation consists of 66 operational satellites, nine orbiting spares and six ground spares."

"Iridium subscribers totaled 1,047,000 at the end of June, up 15 percent year over year, with commercial IoT subscribers counting for 576,000, up 25 percent from the same time in 2017. "

"Desch declined to describe pricing for the new contract Iridium is working on, but hinted that Iridium is pitching Certus, its new higher throughput broadband offering, to the government in addition to traditional services of secure voice, push to talk, and IoT narrowband connectivity."
Iridium  business  space  satellite  broadband  IoT 
august 2018 by pierredv
Kepler to co-develop third satellite with UK’s Satellite Applications Catapult - Jul 2018
"Kepler Communications, a Canadian startup designing a network of 140 telecom cubesats, has teamed up with the Satellite Applications Catapult in the U.K. to build a third and final prototype before pressing on with the full constellation."

"Kepler plans to launch the prototype satellite during the summer of 2019, preceding the launch of the larger constellation later that year. "

"TARS will be the first satellite to include a narrowband communications payload to carry small amounts of data from numerous Internet of Things devices"

"Kepler’s Internet of Things focus is on devices that move around frequently and as a result have difficulty staying connected because of differences in cellular standards around the world. Instead of configuring those devices to work with multiple cellular networks, customers can use Kepler’s satellite system to stay connected regardless of location. "
Kepler  Canada  NGSO  business  satellite  IoT 
july 2018 by pierredv
Non-GEO Constellations: Surviving the Disruption - Northern Sky Research - May 2018
"The main industry segments most affected by Non-GEO constellations are HTS Communications, IoT and Earth Observation (EO). ... The main industry segments most affected by Non-GEO constellations are HTS Communications, IoT and Earth Observation (EO). Each of these segments presents its own set of challenges and therefore different barriers to success. NSR’s Satellite Constellations: A Critical Assessment report investigates for the first time what guarantees success for LEO constellations within these three segments and the associated disruption on the industry."

"higher revenue requires a higher market share, which further requires low latency and higher coverage. That is the main value proposition of mega-constellations. However, the bigger the constellation, the higher the capital investment needed, and the higher the complexity of manufacturing with (because of their architecture) higher replenishment cost."

"The new Non-GEO constellations are expected to cause the biggest disruption in the HTS segment, conspicuously in Consumer Broadband and Backhaul/Enterprise verticals."

"these new LPWAN IoT constellations, despite offering the highest innovative disruption value, are not likely to have a significant impact on the overall satellite industry - financially, contributing just over 2% of overall NGEO revenues by 2027."

"A combination of low revenues and insufficient market capture will restrain at least one EO constellation from closing its business case."

"New IoT constellations such as Hiber, Astrocast and Kepler have a unique business case based on providing low cost, low power IoT solutions. This market is currently addressed by companies like Sigfox and LoRA on the terrestrial side and – to a limited extent – Iridium, Globalstar and Orbcomm on the satellite side."
NSR  market-research  satellite  space  business  LEO  NGSO  IoT  EO  EarthObservation 
may 2018 by pierredv
Editor’s Corner—Private wireless networks are quietly becoming a thing | FierceWireless Apr 2018
"For years now, a number of wireless players have been promising that there is demand among enterprises and others for private wireless networks. The argument is that utilities, cities, manufacturing companies and others have specific applications that can’t or shouldn’t run over public wireless networks, and so they will need to build their own networks—and will spend money to do it."

Port of Los Angeles
Union Pacific Railroad

"Daniels said PACI is one of only a handful of companies that has obtained authorization from the FAA to conduct “non line of sight” flying, largely due to the company’s use of 700 MHz spectrum that won’t suffer from interference from other users. That means that PACI’s pilots will be able to install cameras on their drones and fly the drones by watching the real-time video (transmitted over PACI’s 700 MHz network) from the cameras."
FierceWireless  IoT  700MHz  drones  UAV  UAS  spectrum-leasing  spectrum-secondary-market  railroads 
april 2018 by pierredv
Iridium celebrates latest satellite launch as part of major tech upgrade in space | FierceWireless Apr 2018
When finished later this year, the $3 billion next-generation satellite network will consist of 75 Iridium Next satellites in orbit; it now has 50. Iridium’s Next system will provide global coverage for its Certus L-band broadband service and support Aireon’s aircraft surveillance and tracking—supporting real-time flight tracking for better efficiencies for airlines looking to cut fuel costs and plan more effective routes.

Last week, Iridium also announced a major milestone as it surpassed 1 million active subscribers, fueled in large part by growth in IoT.
FierceWireless  Iridium  IoT  satellite  aviation 
april 2018 by pierredv
Megaconstellations: Recipe for Disaster or Biggest Opportunity Yet? | Via Satellite, April 2018
"within this enthusiasm for large, powerful LEO constellations and the applications they’ll deliver, the voices of caution are growing louder, tempering much of the fervor around pushing fleets of fresh satellites into the skies. Some of the biggest concerns orbit around the topic of space debris"

"Since 2014, space industry consulting firm Northern Sky Research (NSR) has tracked $2.1 billion in investments for broadband megaconstellations (such as LeoSat and OneWeb), plus an additional $1.5 billion in SpaceX. Additionally, since 2016, NSR has tracked $23.7 million invested in satellite Internet of Things (IOT) startups. "

"Over the last several years, the company has spent more than $3 billion on a massive undertaking — refreshing the company’s existing fleet of satellites with a new constellation known as Iridium Next, an architecture consisting of 66 small, interconnected mobile satellites (plus nine on-orbit spares and six ground spares), which will reportedly cover 100 percent of the Earth’s surface, including oceans and polar regions. "

"One of the younger companies in this space, LeoSat Enterprises, is positioning itself as filling the space between traditional satellite and fiber-optic networks."

"But while LEO possesses latency advantages, Steve Collar [SES O3b mPower] says the cost of deployment is too prohibitive. SES plans to launch seven next-generation MEO satellites in 2021"

"The University of Southampton's debris simulation model, Debris Analysis and Monitoring Architecture to the GEO Environment (DAMAGE), offers scientists a glimpse of the worst-case scenario — whereupon a hypothetical large constellation operator disregards existing space debris mitigation guidelines, leading to series of collisions."

"While international guidelines currently recommend that operators remove spacecraft from LEO within 25 years of the end of the life of the spacecraft, Holger Krag [ESA's Space Debris Office] reportedly told attendees at 2017’s European Conference on Space Debris that only 60 percent of operators actually do that."

"a growing number of startups whose business case is based on their power to mitigate debris [e.g. Singapore-based Astroscale] raised $25 million [in 2017, for a] total raise to $53 million"
orbital-debris  ViaSatellite  LEO  satellite  space  LeoSat  Iridium  IoT  SES  NSR  investing 
march 2018 by pierredv
FCC Accuses Stealthy Startup of Launching Rogue Satellites - IEEE Spectrum Mar 2018
"Federal Communications Commission (FCC) had dismissed Swarm’s application for its experimental satellites a month earlier, on safety grounds."

"On Wednesday, the FCC sent Swarm a letter revoking its authorization for a follow-up mission with four more satellites, due to launch next month. A pending application for a large market trial of Swarm’s system with two Fortune 100 companies could also be in jeopardy."

"An unauthorized launch would also call into question the ability of secondary satellite ‘ride-share’ companies and foreign launch providers to comply with U.S. space regulations."

"Swarm would provide solar-powered gateways that would collect data from nearby IoT devices using Bluetooth, LoRa, or Wi-Fi, then beam them up to an orbiting SpaceBee using VHF radio. When the SpaceBee passed over a ground station that was connected to the Internet, it would beam the data down again, and on to its end user."
FCC  enforcement  satellite  IoT  launch  space-debris 
march 2018 by pierredv
Eutelsat Exec Discusses Possibility of Full LEO Constellation - Via Satellite - Mar 2018
"Eutelsat’s LEO for Objects (ELO) spacecraft will be used to assess the potential of LEO satellites in providing narrowband connectivity for objects. Jean-Hubert Lenotte, Eutelsat’s chief strategy officer, spoke to Via Satellite about the plans for the satellite, scheduled to launch in 2019, and how this could lead to Eutelsat looking to have a full constellation in LEO at some point in the future."

"We are targeting one specific application which is the Internet of Things (IOT) and we have chosen to use a LEO satellite because we think LEO will be well suited for such applications. Indeed IOT requires low bit rate connectivity and does not require a high concentration of capacity, meaning small satellites can be used. Therefore, we think there might be a business case for LEO in IOT."

"The satellite will be launched in the first half of 2019."

"For video, we only really see GEO satellites serving this market. For broadband, we don’t see today the potential opportunity for LEO satellites."
ViaSatellite  Eutelsat  LEO  IoT  broadband  interviews 
march 2018 by pierredv
Editor’s Corner—CES recap: 5G steals some of the spotlight | FierceWireless
"the wireless industry has a lot more work ahead if it’s truly going to bring other industries into the 5G fold"

"5G, at least in my mind, will require far greater strides and tighter integration than ever before, and that’s going to require some innovative ways to get these other folks into the discussion"

"The industry must come together and make sure 5G provides valuable and unique opportunities for industries."

"I wouldn’t be surprised if the next big 5G panels include not only wireless companies but also their partners in other industries to show just how great an impact 5G is having on them. But until the industry builds some serious bridges with these other industries, it’s still just going to be a dog and pony show. If there’s anything that could go wrong with 5G, it might be the failure to bring these other industries fully on board."
FierceWireless  Monica-Alleven  5G  ETSI  3GPP  IoT  M2M 
january 2018 by pierredv
Providing spectrum to support machine-to-machine communications - ECC Newsletter December 2017
"In a special edition of the ECC newsletter in April 2016, we reported on the outcome of a CEPT workshop to determine spectrum, numbering and harmonisation needs for M2M. ... So, what are the recent developments in these and other areas?"

= Harmonisation of dedicated spectrum for M2M
= M2M in dedicated land mobile networks
= Opportunities for mobile cellular networks to support M2M
= Satellite connectivity for M2M
ERO  ECC  ECO  News  M2M  IoT  400MHz  satellite 
december 2017 by pierredv
[pdf] GAO - FCC Should Track Growth to Ensure Sufficient Spectrum Remains Available
Highlights of GAO-18-71, a report to congressional requesters

What GAO Found

The stakeholders GAO spoke with identified two primary spectrum-related challenges for the internet of things (IoT)—the availability of spectrum and managing interference. Although not considered an immediate concern, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) staff and some stakeholders noted that rapid increases in IoT devices that use large amounts of spectrum—called highbandwidth devices—could quickly overwhelm networks, as happened with smart phones. Stakeholders and FCC staff also indicated that managing interference is becoming more challenging as the number of IoT and other wireless devices grows, particularly in bands that do not require a spectrum license

What GAO Recommends

FCC should track the growth in (1) high-bandwidth IoT devices and (2) IoT devices that rely on unlicensed spectrum. FCC did not believe these actions are necessary but noted that it would ask its TAC to periodically review and report on IoT’s growth. GAO continues to believe the recommendations are valid.
november 2017 by pierredv
November/December 2017 - Inmarsat CEO and the $1 Billion Target | Via Satellite Nov 2017
"Can Inmarsat create a $1 billion dollar revenue stream in aviation? Inmarsat CEO Rupert Pearce is confident the company can do this in around 10 years’ time. It is an ambitious projection, but recent deals with the likes of Qatar Airways and Avianca underline there is still huge potential in this business for Inmarsat and others."

"But aviation is more than just In-Flight Connectivity (IFC) for Inmarsat. The company has three other aviation businesses — government, business and general aviation — and its safety business. What matters to Inmarsat in the medium term is free cash flow generation, meaning that gross margin, net profit margin and capital expenditure levels are vital to the trajectory of its business."

IOT: “The utility for satellite is that you can put connectivity through a very small device on your car or on your train and the applications are many and various. For trains, you are looking at next generation signaling, safety management and operation of the cargo. For cars, you are looking at Over-the-Air (OTA) updates to patch software and protect the vehicle,” he says. “You are also looking at a new era of telematics and treating cars as a large community that you can track and draw situational awareness from.”
ViaSatellite  aviation  broadband  Inmarsat  In-Flight-Connectivity  IFC  IoT 
november 2017 by pierredv
Iridium explores LPGAN tech for space-based IoT | FierceWireless, Sep 2017
"Iridium Communications has signed a deal with Magnitude Space, an emerging small satellite company, signaling Iridium's interest in exploring collaborative partnerships with players in the small satellite low-power arena. . . the companies will begin discussions on how to collaboratively expand opportunities for space-based IoT services with the development of reliable, Low-Power Global-Area Network (LPGAN) technologies."

"Magnitude Space, headquartered in Amsterdam, is planning to build a network of 18-24 small satellites that will deliver LPGAN connectivity to remote areas of the world. "
FierceWireless  Iridium  IoT  satellite  NewSapce  LEO 
september 2017 by pierredv
Review of latest developments in the Internet of Things - Ofcom March 2017
"The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of devices, including everyday consumer devices, that are connected to the internet to provide a range of new and innovative services and applications. Many of these have the potential to deliver significant benefits to consumers, including improved healthcare and better energy and transport services. Given this, we commissioned this study to look at key developments in the IoT over the last two years and focus on the applications, enablers and barriers in the IoT across different sectors.

The study forecasts that IoT connections across 12 industry sectors in the UK will grow to more than 150 million by 2024. The report suggests that despite the challenges currently present in the IoT, applications are starting to deliver measurable benefit to consumers and businesses, and the IoT is likely to move rapidly from niche to mainstream, especially in sectors such as automotive, utilities and consumer goods."
Ofcom  IoT 
april 2017 by pierredv
MWC 2017: IoT has no compelling need for 5G, so the focus was on competition between LTE variants - Comments - Content | EPiServer Site
"5G is failing to provide any compelling vision for IoT services, so the competition between LTE-M and NB-IoT to be the dominant IoT technology for LTE-based solutions became the focus of attention."
AnalysysMason  MWC  IoT  5G  LTE  LTE-M  NB-IoT  SigFox  LoRa  Nokia  Verizon 
march 2017 by pierredv
Internet of Things Teddy Bear Leaked 2 Million Parent and Kids Message Recordings - Motherboard
"A company that sells “smart” teddy bears leaked 800,000 user account credentials—and then hackers locked it and held it for ransom."
privacy  security  cybersecurity  IoT 
february 2017 by pierredv
Go Ahead, Hackers. Break My Heart | WIRED
"I realized that my heart was now wired into the medical Internet of Things, and this was done without informing me or asking for my consent."

"Part of the problem with doing security research in this field is that the medical devices appear as black boxes. How can I trust the machine inside my body when it is running on proprietary code and there is no transparency? . . . A significant battle was, however, won when the DMCA exemptions for medical device security research were granted in October of last year."

"The medical device industry got a wake-up call last year when researcher Billy Rios demonstrated that drug infusion pumps had vulnerabilities that would allow unauthorized firmware updates that could give patients lethal medication dosages."
Wired  IoT  hacking  healthcare  medical-devices  DMCA  cybersecurity 
february 2017 by pierredv
Security and Privacy Guidelines for the Internet of Things - Schneier on Security - Feb 2017
"Lately, I have been collecting IoT security and privacy guidelines. Here's everything I've found:"
privacy  security  IoT  Bruce-Schneier 
february 2017 by pierredv
Successful deployment of NB-IoT will depend on spectrum choices - Analysys Mason - Jan 2017
Standardisation of “narrowband IoT” (NB-IoT) occurred rapidly during 2016, and major mobile operators such as Deutsche Telekom and Vodafone are planning wide-scale roll-out. This article discusses the spectrum options for NB-IoT and their commercial implications. Noting that there are three options for deployment – namely in-band deployment alongside LTE traffic, ‘guard-band’ deployment at the edges of existing LTE carriers, and use of separately assigned spectrum – the article discusses the trade-offs involved and the factors determining the best deployment choice.
AnalysysMason  IoT  NB-IoT 
january 2017 by pierredv
Semiconductor Engineering .:. IoT Security Risks Grow
via Dale hatfield
Sounds like a panel discussion, focusing on foundries and risks
IoT  cybersecurity 
january 2017 by pierredv
Regulation of the Internet of Things - Schneier on Security - Nov 2016
"The technical reason these devices are insecure is complicated, but there is a market failure at work. "
"Regardless of what you think about regulation vs. market solutions, I believe there is no choice. Governments will get involved in the IoT, because the risks are too great and the stakes are too high. "
Bruce-Schneier  IoT  regulation  market-failure 
november 2016 by pierredv
IoT security attacks: A timeline of the internet of things' darkest hours
"While it isn’t possible to know every single breach that has occurred within the IoT security space (either they haven’t been found, or enterprises are wanting to keep them a secret) we have compiled a troubling timeline of some of IoT’s darkest hours."
IoT  RCRWireless  history  hacking 
november 2016 by pierredv
Utility hack led to security overhaul | Computerworld - Feb 2006
Apprehending a notorious hacker rarely involves a car chase or a team of dedicated private investigators, but in the case of Vitek Boden, life imitated a Hollywood script.

Boden had waged a three-month war against the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system of Maroochy Water Services in Australia beginning in January 2000, which saw millions of gallons of sewage spill into waterways, hotel grounds and canals around the Sunshine Coast suburb. He was caught only after a team of private investigators hired by Maroochy Water Services alerted police to his location.
SCADA  IoT  Computerworld  history  hacking 
november 2016 by pierredv
IoT worm can hack Philips Hue lightbulbs, spread across cities • The Register
Researchers have developed a proof-of-concept worm they say can rip through Philips Hue lightbulbs across entire cities – causing the insecure web-connected globes to flick on and off.

The software nasty, detailed in a paper titled IoT Goes Nuclear: Creating a ZigBee Chain Reaction [PDF], exploits hardcoded symmetric encryption keys to control devices over Zigbee wireless networks. This allows the malware to compromise a single light globe from up to 400 metres away.
Philips  ZigBee  IoT  hacking 
november 2016 by pierredv
No “5G moment” in 2020 say experts — PolicyTracker: - Oct 2016
The almost unanimous view of assembled vendors, operators and other experts at the first Cambridge Wireless 5G debate was that there will be, in the words of chair William Webb, no “5G moment in 2020”.

This comes after Ericsson revised down its forecast of the number of connected devices, from 50 billion to 26 billion and comments from the chief technology officer of Vodafone that the industry needs to be more careful what it promises with regard to 5G.

On the subject of the Internet of Things’ role in 5G, which Europe is banking on as a cornerstone of 5G deployment, the panel was far from enthusiastic about developments.
5G  PolicyTracker  IoT 
october 2016 by pierredv
We Need to Save the Internet from the Internet of Things | Motherboard
via Blake Reid
"Our computers and smartphones are as secure as they are because there are teams of security engineers working on the problem. Companies like Microsoft, Apple, and Google spend a lot of time testing their code before it's released, and quickly patch vulnerabilities when they're discovered. Those companies can support such teams because those companies make a huge amount of money, either directly or indirectly, from their software—and, in part, compete on its security. This isn't true of embedded systems like digital video recorders or home routers. Those systems are sold at a much lower margin, and are often built by offshore third parties. The companies involved simply don't have the expertise to make them secure."
"There is no market solution because the insecurity is what economists call an externality: it's an effect of the purchasing decision that affects other people. Think of it kind of like invisible pollution. What this all means is that the IoT will remain insecure unless government steps in and fixes the problem. "
cybersecurity  IoT  Brian-Krebs 
october 2016 by pierredv
The Internet of Fewer Things - IEEE Spectrum - Sep 2016
"Early predictions of 50 billion connected devices by 2020 are being scaled back"
IEEE-Spectrum  projections  trends  forecasts  IoT 
october 2016 by pierredv
Largest DDoS attack ever delivered by botnet of hijacked IoT devices | Network World Sep 2016
"Securing the internet of things should become a major priority now that an army of compromised devices – perhaps 1 million strong - has swamped one of the industry’s top distributed denial-of-service protection services. A giant botnet made up of hijacked internet-connected things like cameras, lightbulbs, and thermostats has launched the largest DDoS attack ever against a top security blogger, an attack so big Akamai had to cancel his account because defending it ate up too many resources."
cybersecurity  DDOS  botnets  IoT  Akamai 
september 2016 by pierredv
ASUS Settles FTC Charges That Insecure Home Routers and “Cloud” Services Put Consumers’ Privacy At Risk | Federal Trade Commission - Feb 2016
Via Andy Sayler
"Taiwan-based computer hardware maker ASUSTeK Computer, Inc. has agreed to settle Federal Trade Commission charges that critical security flaws in its routers put the home networks of hundreds of thousands of consumers at risk. The administrative complaint also charges that the routers’ insecure “cloud” services led to the compromise of thousands of consumers’ connected storage devices, exposing their sensitive personal information on the internet."
FTC  Wi-Fi  cybersecurity  vulnerability  IoT  security 
september 2016 by pierredv
Madden: What if there is no 'Next Big Thing'? | FierceWireless - Aug 2016
"In the IoT market, there is rapid growth toward billions of devices. We’ve built up a forecast that looks fairly solid for 6 billion devices in 2021, and we can see the possibility of 20 billion as many people predict. But the average service revenue per device will be pitiful. Many of these devices will carry service revenue of between $1 and $5 per year. By 2025, total IoT service revenue may reach $50 billion-$100 billion. That’s likely to be a great success case for some companies but it’s still only 5-10 percent of today’s mobile market.

The market for 5G broadband has similar problems. Faster data is always appreciated, but additional ARPU is very unlikely in the saturated smartphone market.    That’s why operators are viewing 5G differently: not as another always-everywhere service, but as a way to support fixed broadband services. Mobile operators will compete with cable operators and fiber-to-the-home. The business case will be very limited, to regions with two attributes: High revenue potential and limited competition. "
FierceWireless  IoT  5G  opinion  trends 
august 2016 by pierredv
2-DAY TRAINING 2: Hacking the IoT with Software Defined Radio « HITBSecConf2016 – Amsterdam
"One of the key attributes of the Internet of Things (IoT) is that it makes heavy use of wireless communications to allow for mobility and easy-of-installation. It is important to note this is not just Wi-Fi, but all manner of other Radio Frequency (RF) protocols: Bluetooth, BTLE, ZigBee, Z-Wave – to name just a few. The increasing ubiquity of such devices and networks promises to make life easier (smart fridges, …), however manufactures often overlook the security in the implementation of this RF communication systems.

This course will teach you the fundamentals of how to use Software Defined Radio (SDR) to analyse, demodulate and decode RF signals used in the wireless IoT, and then how you can perform your own research and penetration testing to test whether a system is secure, or vulnerable to attack."
IoT  hacking  SDR  training 
july 2016 by pierredv
Nest Thermostat Glitch Leaves Users in the Cold - The New York Times Jan 2016
"Matt Rogers, the co-founder and vice president for engineering at Nest, blamed a software update from December. “We had a bug that was introduced in the software update that didn’t show up for about two weeks,” Mr. Rogers said apologetically."
"Making matters worse is the lack of recourse. Buried deep in Nest’s 8,000-word service agreement is a section called “Disputes and Arbitration,” which prohibits customers from suing the company or joining a class-action suit. Instead, disputes are settled through arbitration."
Nest  IoT  fail 
july 2016 by pierredv
If managing PCs is still hard, good luck patching 100,000 internet things • The Channel July 2016
via Dale
"Amazon Web Services' (AWS') ... APAC technology head Glenn Gore recently told El Reg AWS likes the idea of dumb things collecting data at the edge, then sending all the information they collect into a cloud for processing."
"Intel, which fancies x86-powered boxen on the edge"
Includes examples of both architectures
TheRegister  IoT  architecture  Intel  Amazon  Cisco 
july 2016 by pierredv
12 Wireless Options for IoT/M2M: Diversity or Dilemma? | IoT content from Electronic Design
via Dale Hatfield
"A plethora of standards populate the wireless-communications field, all offering unique twists to fit specific connection needs."
IoT  M2M  802.15.4  ZigBee  LTE  Weightless  Bluetooth  Wi-Fi  SigFox 
june 2016 by pierredv
More Radio Spectrum for the Internet of Things | Ofcom Sep 2015
"Ofcom is today consulting on plans to encourage investment and innovation in the Internet of Things by using 10 MHz of existing spectrum for new applications."

Andreas recommended the response from Maxxwave:
Ofcom  IoT 
may 2016 by pierredv
Nissan Disables App That Let You (And Everyone Else) Remotely Access Leafs - IEEE Spectrum Feb 2016
“What’s weird about this, as Hunt discovered, is not so much that the Nissan app had poor security: it’s more that the security was utterly nonexistent, to the extent that Hunt and his colleagues think it must have been a conscious choice by Nissan.”
iot  cybersecurity  hacking  automobile  IEEE-Spectrum 
march 2016 by pierredv
IoT security threats are skyrocketing, AT&T reveals - FierceWireless Feb 2016
"Cyber attackers are turning their attention to the growing Internet of Things (IoT) space and exploiting potential security vulnerabilities at an alarming rate. According to a report on IoT security commissioned by AT&T, the company has seen a 458 percent increase in vulnerability scans of IoT devices in the last two years."
FierceWireless  IoT  AT&T  cybersecurity 
february 2016 by pierredv
Operators’ strategies for IoT are guided by three main motives - Analysys Mason Quarterly - News | Analysys Mason Feb 2016
Motive 1: Use IoT to generate new connectivity revenue, especially in automotive Motive 2: Use IoT to support and defend existing business Motive 3: Use IoT to enter new vertical markets
AnalysysMason  IoT  cellular 
february 2016 by pierredv
Bypassing Rolling Code Systems - CodeGrabbing/RollJam -
"A while back we posted about Samy Kamkars popular “RollJam” device, which was a $32 home made device that was able to defeat rolling code based wireless security systems such as those used on modern cars. Wireless security researcher Andrew Macpherson became interested in RollJam and has now written up a post showing how to create a similar device using the YardStickOne and RFcat wireless tools. In his post Andrew shows how he automates the replay attack side of things using a Python script and two RFcat devices"
SDR  cyberspace  IOT  automobile  hacking 
february 2016 by pierredv
The Internet of Things Will Be the World's Biggest Robot - Schneier on Security
via Blake Reid “it'll be here before we know it. Whatever changes it means for society, we don't want it to take us by surprise.”
Bruce-Schneier  IoT  automation  AI 
february 2016 by pierredv
3GPP settles on “harmonised” Internet of Things work item - PolicyTracker Oct 2015
Global telecoms standardisation body the 3GPP has decided on its approach to a narrowband Internet of Things (IoT) solution for mobile operators. NB-IoT, as it is known, will be able to operate in three modes: = Stand-alone operation = Guard band operation = In-band operation. All three of these modes will use a bandwidth of 180 kHz, with 15 kHz sub-carrier spacing – and all of them will be based on OFDM (orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing) in the downlink.
PolicyTracker  3GPP  IOT  NB-IoT 
october 2015 by pierredv
Using Samsung's Internet-Enabled Refrigerator for Man-in-the-Middle Attacks - Schneier on Security
"When I think about the security implications of the Internet of things, this is one of my primary worries. As we connect things to each other, vulnerabilities on one of them affect the security of another. And because so many of the things we connect to the Internet will be poorly designed, and low cost, there will be lots of vulnerabilities in them. Expect a lot more of this kind of thing as we move forward."
Samsung  iot  cybersecurity  Bruce-Schneier  BruceSchneier 
september 2015 by pierredv
A Temporary Tattoo That Senses Through Your Skin - IEEE Spectrum - BioStamp
Via Ken Carrigan - "These tests—and more—could be accomplished by means of sensors so light, durable, and comfortable that you could wear them on your body for weeks at a time. " - "A Biostamp is built out of stretchable circuits supported by an extremely thin sheet of rubber. " - "A Biostamp powers itself by harvesting energy from near-field communication (NFC) radio signals, typically from the wearer’s cellphone."
sensors  IoT  NFC 
july 2015 by pierredv
Jury still out on reserving 2 x 3 MHz for M2M in 700 MHz band - PolicyTracker Feb 2015
"At a September 2014 meeting of an ECC (Electronic Communications Committee) sub-group that is trying to forge consensus on a future 700 MHz band plan, Ofcom submitted a proposal that sets out the rationale behind the initiative. According to the proposal, the downlink channel will be located in an accidentally occurring 3 MHz gap between the downlink channels in the 700 MHz, and 800 MHz bands (788–791 MHz). The uplink channel could be located in the 700 MHz band's large centre gap (733–736 MHz). . . Alternatively, the uplink channel could be located in the 800 MHz centre gap (829–832 MHz)."
ECC  IoT  M2M  LTE  700MHz  800MHz  Europe  Ofcom  Neul  Qualcomm  Ericsson  Nokia  PolicyTracker 
february 2015 by pierredv
Some RF Infrastructure Implications of IoT - LBA Group blogs, David Horn
"As the evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT) network infrastructure plays out, three important concerns emerge: security, radio frequency (RF) interference, and RF safety. " “Making IP enabled wireless sensors talk to each other without reliability issues will require robust interference cancelling schemes,”
IoT  LBA  RF  infrastructure  interference 
january 2015 by pierredv
Ofcom | Ofcom sets out plans to support the Internet of Things
From email: "Ofcom has identified several priority areas to help support the growth of the IoT. Following feedback from stakeholders in 2014, these areas include spectrum availability, data privacy, network security and resilience, and network addresses."
ofcom  iot  internet-of-things  spectrum 
january 2015 by pierredv
SHODAN - Computer Search Engine
"Shodan is the world's first computer search engine that lets you search the Internet for computers. Find devices based on city, country, latitude/longitude, hostname, operating system and IP."
security  iot  device  internetofthings  hacking 
december 2014 by pierredv
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