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Newer Diameter Telephony Protocol Just As Vulnerable As SS7, Jul 2018
"Security researchers say the Diameter protocol used with today's 4G (LTE) telephony and data transfer standard is vulnerable to the same types of vulnerabilities as the older SS7 standard used with older telephony standards such as 3G, 2G, and earlier."

"The difference between these two is that while SS7 did not use any type of encryption for its authentication procedures, leading to the easy forgery of authentication and authorization messages, Diameter supports TLS/DTLS (for TCP or SCTP, respectively) or IPsec."

"4G operators often misconfigure Diameter"

"Researchers say that the Diameter misconfigurations they've spotted inside 4G networks are in many cases unique per each network but they usually repeat themselves to have them organized in five classes of attacks: (1) subscriber information disclosure, (2) network information disclosure, (3) subscriber traffic interception, (4) fraud, and (5) denial of service."
LTE  4G  cyber-spectrum  cybersecurity  Diameter  SS7 
21 days ago by pierredv
[1510.07563] Practical Attacks Against Privacy and Availability in 4G/LTE Mobile Communication Systems, Aug 2017
Altaf Shaik, Ravishankar Borgaonkar, N. Asokan, Valtteri Niemi, Jean-Pierre Seifert


Mobile communication systems now constitute an essential part of life throughout the world. Fourth generation "Long Term Evolution" (LTE) mobile communication networks are being deployed. The LTE suite of specifications is considered to be significantly better than its predecessors not only in terms of functionality but also with respect to security and privacy for subscribers.
We carefully analyzed LTE access network protocol specifications and uncovered several vulnerabilities. Using commercial LTE mobile devices in real LTE networks, we demonstrate inexpensive, and practical attacks exploiting these vulnerabilities. Our first class of attacks consists of three different ways of making an LTE device leak its location: A semi-passive attacker can locate an LTE device within a 2 this http URL area within a city whereas an active attacker can precisely locate an LTE device using GPS co-ordinates or trilateration via cell-tower signal strength information. Our second class of attacks can persistently deny some or all services to a target LTE device. To the best of our knowledge, our work constitutes the first publicly reported practical attacks against LTE access network protocols.
We present several countermeasures to resist our specific attacks. We also discuss possible trade-offs that may explain why these vulnerabilities exist and recommend that safety margins introduced into future specifications to address such trade-offs should incorporate greater agility to accommodate subsequent changes in the trade-off equilibrium.
IMSI-catchers  StingRay  4G  LTE  cyber-spectrum  Arxiv 
21 days ago by pierredv
LTE impacts on GPS | NIST, Feb 2017
This report describes the test methodology from “LTE impacts on GPS: Test and Metrology Plan” developed by National Advanced Spectrum and Communications Test Network (NASCTN), and data that are the result of executing the test method. The fundamental goals in developing the test plan development were: a transparent, reproducible, and well-calibrated test method, sound and statistically- valid data retrieval and processing methods, a clear path from measurement setup to data collection to processed results, and data to inform discussions between different interests on proper measurement requirements. The NASCTN team performed radiated testing to execute the test plan. These efforts amount to a test campaign intended to refine the test method and publish data for the stakeholder community. To this end, the team set out to: provide data of sufficient quality and relevance to support sound decision-making, articulate the importance of measurement uncertainty along with its relationship with the design and execution of the test method, and convey key implementation details that to support future execution of the test method.
june 2019 by pierredv
Researchers find 36 new security flaws in LTE protocol | ZDNet
"A group of academics from South Korea have identified 36 new vulnerabilities in the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) standard used by thousands of mobile networks and hundreds of millions of users across the world.

The vulnerabilities allow attackers to disrupt mobile base stations, block incoming calls to a device, disconnect users from a mobile network, send spoofed SMS messages, and eavesdrop and manipulate user data traffic."

"The research team's discoveries aren't exactly new. Several academic groups have identified similar vulnerabilities in LTE over the past years on numerous occasions --July 2018, June 2018, March 2018, June 2017, July 2016, October 2015 ... These vulnerabilities have been the driving force behind efforts to create the new and improved 5G standard --which, unfortunately, isn't that secure either, with some researchers already poking holes in it as well."

"They discovered this sheer number of flaws by using a technique known as fuzzing --a code testing method that inputs a large quantity of random data into an application and analyzes the output for abnormalities, which, in turn, give developers a hint about the presence of possible bugs."

"Because the flaws reside in both the protocol itself and how some vendors have implemented LTE in their devices, researchers believe many other flaws still exist in the real world."
cybersecurity  cyber-spectrum  spectrum-vulnerability  LTE  cellular  vulnerability  fuzzing  hacking 
april 2019 by pierredv
Breaking LTE on Layer Two -, 2019
Breaking LTE on Layer Two
David Rupprecht, Katharina Kohls, Thorsten Holz, and Christina Pöpper
Ruhr-Universität Bochum & New York University Abu Dhabi
security  LTE  spectrum-vulnerability  cyber-spectrum 
march 2019 by pierredv
LTE Speeds in the US are Really Pathetic – Droid Life Nov 2018
The folks at OpenSignal put out a state-by-state report today that ranks each in terms of download and upload speeds. The report is not something this country should take anything positive from. Now, we already knew that the US compares poorly in internet speeds to the rest of the world, but look at these sad numbers.
LTE  5G  cellular  broadband 
november 2018 by pierredv
Future of UK’s planned emergency services network could be in doubt | PolicyTracker, June 2018
"The future of the UK's planned Emergency Services Network (ESN)–the LTE-based communications system being developed for the country's police, paramedics and fire services–could be in doubt."
PolicyTracker  LTE  UK  public-safety 
june 2018 by pierredv
LTE and Bluetooth in-device coexistence with WLAN
Modern mobile phones can support cellular and non-cellular wireless communications standards at the same time. This means, however, that the subsystems must operate in very close proximity to each other within a single device (in-device coexistence). The resulting high level of reciprocal leakage can at time cause considerable interference.

Download the app note to learn more!
Rohde&Schwatz  LTE  Bluetooth  Wi-Fi  WLAN  coexistence  interference 
may 2018 by pierredv
LTE in the sky: trading off propagation benefits with interference costs for aerial nodes - IEEE Comm Mag, May 2016
The popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles has exploded over the last few years, urgently demanding solutions to transfer large amounts of data from the UAV to the ground. Conversely, a control channel to the UAV is desired, in order to safely operate these vehicles remotely. This article analyzes the use of LTE for realizing this downlink data and uplink control. By means of measurements and simulations, we study the impact of interference and path loss when transmitting data to and from the UAV. Two scenarios are considered in which UAVs act as either base stations transmitting in downlink or UEs transmitting in uplink, and their impact on the respective downlink and uplink performance of an LTE ground network is analyzed. Both measurements and simulations are used to quantify such impact for a range of scenarios with varying altitude, distance from the base station, or UAV density. The measurement sets show that signal-to-interference ratio decreases up to 7 dB for UAVs at 150 m compared to ground users. Simulation results show that a UAV density of 10/km2 gives an average degradation of the signal-to-interference ratio of more than 6 dB. It is concluded that interference is going to be a major limiting factor when LTE enabled UAVs are introduced, and that strong technical solutions will have to be found.
IEEE-CommMag  IEEE  LTE  UAS  drones  interference  UAV 
april 2018 by pierredv
[pdf] ECC Report 249 - Unwanted emissions of common radio systems: measurements and use in sharing/compatibility studies - Apr 2016
"The scope of this report is:

 To compare the measured characteristics of a limited number of equipment samples with the existing regulatory limits in order:

 To explore the current definitions of the limits used for the OoB and spurious domains given in ITU-R Recommendations and ETSI standards

 To compare the "safety-net" worst case characteristics of OoB emissions in Rec. ITU-R SM.1541 [1] and the measurements of the equipment samples

 To compare spurious domains emissions in ERC/REC 74-01 [2] Rec. ITU-R SM.329 Category B and the measurements of the equipment samples

 To characterise the unwanted emissions of various digital modulation technologies of broadband communication systems. It considers the boundary between the out-of-band (OoB) and spurious domains as well as the levels of unwanted emissions in a set of measurements on equipment samples.

 To develop possible concepts to better characterise the unwanted emissions of broadband systems using digital technology to enable a more efficient use of the radio spectrum in adjacent bands."

"It is observed that the measured emissions are typically lower than the limits in
recommendations and ETSI standards by a significant margin of several tens of dBs in the spurious domain,
except for the harmonic frequencies. This finding has an important implication for sharing and compatibility
studies which are typically based on the assumption that equipment would only just meet the limits set out in
standards. "

"Two questions are raised:

1 Should sharing/compatibility studies be based on typical performance of unwanted emissions rather than the limits?

2 Should those limits/levels in bands adjacent to the operating one (and boundary between the OoB and spurious domains) be redefined or be re-considered on a case-by-case basis to better reflect actual performance of equipment, and therefore allow for increased opportunities for sharing/compatibility and more efficient use of spectrum in future?"

"Regarding the out-of-band domain limits, the measurements have shown that the limits specified in ETSI standards are generally the relevant limits particularly tailored to the specific application; ITU-R SM.1541 [1] (containing only the "safety-net" limits which are mainly only based on services) consequently shows a large margin as expected."
ECC  CEPT  reports  spectrum-sharing  interference  *  resources  OOBE  spurious-emissions  LTE  DAB  GSM 
march 2018 by pierredv
Inmarsat On Track With EAN Roll-Out, Despite Challenges | Aviation Week Oct 2017
"Inmarsat still expects the European Aviation Network (EAN) to be operational by the end of the year, despite an attempt by rival satellite operators to block it. "

"Inmarsat and telecommunications company Deutsche Telekom are developing the broadband offering, which uses both satellite and Long-Term Evolution (LTE)-based ground networks to provide high-speed inflight internet over Europe. International Airlines Group (IAG) became the launch customer for the service in March, and has indicated plans to equip more than 300 of its airlines’ aircraft to use it."

"But two other satellite companies are asking regulators to stop the EAN roll-out, claiming Inmarsat is misusing its grant of 2GHz spectrum by primarily deploying an air-to-ground network.
California-based ViaSat filed a complaint against the European Commission (EC) in April, which Eutelsat joined in July. The two companies have a partnership to offer broadband services in the European market."
AviationWeek  Inmarsat  DeutscheTelekom  LTE  aviation  broadband  ViaSat  Eutelsat 
october 2017 by pierredv
Public Safety Advocate: Public Safety Grade | Andrew Seybold All Things FirstNet, Sep 2017
via Dale

"What he did not say and what I hope to show in this week’s Advocate is that there are differences between public safety grade for Land Mobile Radio (LMR) sites and an LTE network. It is important for LMR communications professionals to understand these differences and not hold AT&T to public safety grade for every cell site in the network. The methodology for hardening an LTE network is different but effective and it is these differences that need to be understood."
public-safety  LTE  AT&T  NPSTC  Andrew-Seybold  resilience 
september 2017 by pierredv
Qualcomm Technologies releases LTE drone trial results | Qualcomm May 2017
"Today, we are pleased to present the results of the first the first* comprehensive, systematic study of cellular system performance in networks serving low-altitude (400 feet above ground level and below) drones. The analysis supports the viability of 4G LTE commercial mobile networks for drones operating beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) at 400 feet above ground level (AGL) and below."

"testing key performance indicators (KPIs) such as coverage, signal strength, throughput, latency, and mobility under various scenarios on commercial LTE networks."

"The field trial demonstrated that LTE networks can support safe drone operation in real-world environments. Our findings showed that existing commercial cellular networks can provide coverage to drones at low altitudes up to 400 feet AGL. Our test drones also showed seamless handovers between different base stations during flights. "
Qualcomm  drones  UAS  4G  LTE 
june 2017 by pierredv
UK LTE PPDR project “marred from day one” — PolicyTracker, Apr 2017
"As another damning report from the influential UK Public Accounts Committee (PAC) into the progress of the project is released, we reveal some of the concerns we have heard from sources close to the project.

The PAC, a group of members of parliament, said last week that it was “extremely disappointing that the [Home Office’s] risk management and assurance arrangements did not pick up earlier the risk that emergency services communications could be unsupported from April to September 2020.”"

"The transition to the new network is now not due to start until July 2018, even though the Home Office - the government department in charge of the ESN - told the PAC in November that it would start this September. Significant delays were expected by many commentators, not least because much of the user equipment does not yet exist and key standards are still in development."
LTE  public-safety  PolicyTracker  risk-management  Motorola  Airwave  Vodafone 
april 2017 by pierredv
Impact of LTE Signals on GPS Receivers | NIST
The National Advanced Spectrum and Communications Test Network (NASCTN) has completed the Impacts of LTE Signals on GPS Receivers project and has released the NASCTN report LTE Impacts on GPS (link is external)  along with the measurement data associated with this project.
NIST  NASCTN  Ligado  GPS  LTE  receivers  testing 
march 2017 by pierredv
MWC 2017: IoT has no compelling need for 5G, so the focus was on competition between LTE variants - Comments - Content | EPiServer Site
"5G is failing to provide any compelling vision for IoT services, so the competition between LTE-M and NB-IoT to be the dominant IoT technology for LTE-based solutions became the focus of attention."
AnalysysMason  MWC  IoT  5G  LTE  LTE-M  NB-IoT  SigFox  LoRa  Nokia  Verizon 
march 2017 by pierredv
Europe's PPDR industry to stick with Tetra for next 10 years — PolicyTracker: Feb 2017
"Europe's PPDR industry is sceptical about the progress of the UK’s LTE PPDR network programme and is pursuing a more evolutionary approach to the development of critical communications technology."
PolicyTracker  LTE  public-safety  Tetra  Europe 
february 2017 by pierredv
Verizon and Charter: the Trump era heralds a wave of European-style cable–mobile consolidation - AnalysysMason Jan 207
"Seeing every Verizon move through the teleology of 5G misses the point; US mobile is shrinking and Verizon needs to spread its bets."

"In pursuing a mobile-first strategy, Verizon has progressively shrunk its wireline footprint. In the early part of last decade, the company was a proponent of FTTP, but found the capex burden intolerable, and of its 22% wireline coverage, only 15% has FiOS (FTTP) availability, with the rest on low-grade ADSL. Charter acquired the larger Time Warner Cable and the smaller Bright House Networks in 2015."

"Analysys Mason's view is that the USA is waking up to the same realities that hit Europe a few years ago: a mobile-first strategy no longer makes any 'industrial' sense, and the survival of mobile-only operators into the 5G era is in question. Market structure (with a geographical fragmentation of fixed but not mobile) has shielded the USA from this, as it has in other markets with a similar asymmetric structure such as Finland and Russia. While 5G-readiness is something to aspire to, the rationale for any merger is, from Verizon's point of view, much more immediate and banal: mobile revenue will come under increasing pressure; broadband/video has more growth potential than mobile; and fixed–wireless may not work."

"Analysys Mason forecasts rises in consumer wireline revenue and a decline in mobile revenue between now and 2021 in the USA."

"We believe that Verizon's interest in cable is at least in part motivated by the realisation that mmWave fixed–wireless (pre-standards 5G) is not the best way to address the great indoors."
AnalysysMason  Verizon  Charter  *  broadband  cable  mobile  cellular  LTE  Vodafone  mmWave 
february 2017 by pierredv
MulteFire Alliance wraps up Release 1.0 specification | FierceWireless Jan 2017
"The MulteFire Alliance is celebrating a big milestone with the completion of its Release 1.0 specification. Based on 3GPP Releases 13 and 14, Release 1.0 defines how LTE operates in unlicensed and shared spectrum, two places that wireless operators and others increasingly will be using spectrum."

"MulteFire enables any entity, regardless how small they are, to operate their own LTE network in unlicensed spectrum. "
MulteFire  LTE-U  LTE 
january 2017 by pierredv
Globalstar positions its 2.4 GHz as prime for LTE small cells | FierceWireless - Jan 2017
"With Globalstar having secured the FCC’s blessing to use its licensed 2.4 GHz satellite spectrum for terrestrial purposes, it’s setting out on an aggressive path in 2017 to put that spectrum to use—mainly in the name of small cells. Right before Christmas on Dec. 23, the FCC approved Globalstar’s request to pursue a terrestrial wireless network using 11.5 megahertz of its satellite spectrum at 2483.5-2495 MHz."

"Globalstar switched from an earlier plan using the 802.11 standard to one that uses an LTE-based protocol, providing economies of scale and the chance to work with wireless carriers or others. "
Globalstar  FierceWireless  LTE  2.4GHz  small-cells 
january 2017 by pierredv
Raspberry Pi gets LTE support with add-on chip | FierceWireless - Dec 2016
"In a first-of-its-kind trial, Altair Semiconductor demonstrated how its ALT1160 Cat-1 chipset can provide LTE connectivity for Raspberry Pi 3, providing another option besides Wi-Fi for Raspberry Pi connectivity."

cool, but makes jamming even easier
FierceWireless  RaspberryPi  LTE 
december 2016 by pierredv
Spending watchdog says UK government underestimated risks of LTE PPDR network — PolicyTracker - Sep 2016
"A National Audit Office (NAO) report concludes that it was a desire to save money that led the UK government to try something that with the exception of South Korea, which has a much better geographic LTE coverage, has not been tried anywhere else in the world – running an emergency services network (ESN) over a commercial supplier's network."
PolicyTracker  public-safety  LTE  UK  PPDR 
september 2016 by pierredv
CableLabs & Liberty Global Join MulteFire Alliance | Light Reading - Sep 2016
"Liberty Global, the world’s largest international TV and broadband company, andCableLabs, the innovation-focused R&D lab for the global cable industry, announced that they have joined the MulteFire Alliance"
"Other members of the Alliance include leading technology suppliers such as Qualcomm, Intel, Nokia and Ericsson."
LTE  LTE-U  MulteFire  CableLabs 
september 2016 by pierredv
IEEE Xplore Document - LTE/LTE-A jamming, spoofing, and sniffing: threat assessment and mitigation
Abstract: LTE is currently being proposed for use in a nationwide wireless broadband public safety network in the United States as well as for other critical applications where reliable communication is essential for safety. Unfortunately, like any wireless technology, disruption of these networks is possible through radio jamming. This article investigates the extent to which LTE is vulnerable to RF jamming, spoofing, and sniffing, and assesses different physical layer threats that could affect next-generation critical communication networks. In addition, we examine how sniffing the LTE broadcast messages can aid an adversary in an attack. The weakest links of LTE are identified and used to establish an overall threat assessment. Lastly, we provide a survey of LTE jamming and spoofing mitigation techniques that have been proposed in the open literature.
"more effective jamming methods can be realized by exploiting the specific protocol features of LTE"
"it is clear that LTE is highly vulnerable to adversarial jamming"
“even the most complex attacks can easily be implemented with widely available open source libraries, low-cost software radio hardware with a budget under $1500, and basic Linux programming skills.”
IEEE  IEEECommMag  LTE  jamming  spoofing  threat  SDR 
september 2016 by pierredv
Nokia, SK Telecom tout portable LTE network for public safety | FierceWireless
"SK Telecom and Nokia announced they have successfully developed a mission-critical LTE system for first responders, a portable all-in-one Public Safety-LTE (PS-LTE) network system that’s small enough to fit into a backpack."
LTE  public-safety  Nokia  FierceWireless 
august 2016 by pierredv
Mobile operators to shift from "pure Wi-Fi" to unlicensed services tied to LTE, says report — PolicyTracker: Jul 2016
"At least 90 per cent of mobile data will be carried over unlicensed bands anchored to variants of LTE by 2020, according to a report from research firm Mobile Experts. But it's still not clear whether there's any real need to aggregate unlicensed with licensed spectrum.
The report, "Carrier Wi-Fi and LTE-U 2016," predicts a "decisive transition" from "pure Wi-Fi" to the tying of unlicensed services to LTE in various ways."
"Around 80 per cent of mobile data is carried over Wi-Fi today, but that figure will rise to at least 90 per cent by 2020, said Mobile Experts analyst Joe Madden."
"What's really needed is "close cooperation between 3GPP, IEEE and regulators to develop a consensus on rules for hybrid band sharing and aggregation (fixed/mobile converged networks that combine licensed and licence exempt band use)," said Horvitz. And if not rules, he added, then there should at least be principles concerning technical and coexistence fairness issue"
PolicyTracker  Wi-Fi  LTE  LTE-U  cellular 
july 2016 by pierredv
12 Wireless Options for IoT/M2M: Diversity or Dilemma? | IoT content from Electronic Design
via Dale Hatfield
"A plethora of standards populate the wireless-communications field, all offering unique twists to fit specific connection needs."
IoT  M2M  802.15.4  ZigBee  LTE  Weightless  Bluetooth  Wi-Fi  SigFox 
june 2016 by pierredv
Feasibility Study on Licensed-Assisted Access to Unlicensed Spectrum - 3GPP specification: 36.889
From Andra Voicu, Dec 2015: 3GPP TR 36.889 V13.0.0 (Section 8.3.3 for adjacent channel interference)
3GPP  LAA  LTE  unlicensed 
december 2015 by pierredv
UPDATED: Wi-Fi Alliance presents coexistence guidelines; LTE-Forum revises specs to ensure LTE-U coexistence with Wi-Fi - FierceWirelessTech
"While the Wi-Fi Alliance conducted its first workshop aimed at harmonizing Wi-Fi and LTE-U yesterday, the LTE-U Forum, based on feedback from the Wi-Fi community, has revised its specifications for LTE-U to be "doubly sure" that LTE-U coexists with Wi-Fi and to provide a "smooth upgrade path" from LTE-U to LAA."
FierceWireless  Wi-Fi  LTE-U  lte  Wi-Fi  Alliance 
november 2015 by pierredv
Can LTE replace TETRA any time soon? - PolicyTracker Sep 2015
The PPDR community is calling for dedicated and harmonised broadband spectrum, but it is very nervous about pulling the plug on narrowband TETRA networks.
PolicyTracker  LTE  public-safety  TETRA 
september 2015 by pierredv
TD-LTE is deployed more often in emerging markets than in developed markets - Comments - Content | Analysys Mason July 2015
"The relatively low level of deployment of TD-LTE in developed regions suggests that a 'spectrum crunch' does not exist in those regions, or has been mitigated."
AnalysysMason  TD-LTE  LTE  spectrum-crunch 
august 2015 by pierredv
Euros Evans: 'Mission-critical is best built-in from design – not bolted on afterwards' - Land Mobile Apr 2015
"Exploring the operational models for deploying LTE for professional users, Evans [Airwave CTO] has shared his thoughts on the critical communications industry in preparation for CCW. In addition to this, he’s commented on the challenges and issues surrounding LTE for mission-critical communications and provided wider thoughts on the trends for data in this area. - See more at:"
land-mobile-radio  LMR  LTE  public-safety 
april 2015 by pierredv
UPDATED: NTIA suspends funds for Los Angeles' public-safety LTE network - FierceWirelessTech April 2015
"The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) said it has halted payments for Los Angeles' LTE network for public-safety workers after regulators there voted to halt the construction of the network."
FierceWireless  FirstNet  LTE  losangeles 
april 2015 by pierredv
UK LTE PPDR network progresses, but EU harmonisation is unlikely - PolicyTracker Feb 2015
Coverage of report to ECC by Simon Forge, Robert Horvitz and Colin Blackman, December 2014 SCF study Is Commercial Cellular Suitable for Mission Critical Broadband?.
PolicyTracker  LTE  public-safety  PPDR  ECC  SCT 
march 2015 by pierredv
Jury still out on reserving 2 x 3 MHz for M2M in 700 MHz band - PolicyTracker Feb 2015
"At a September 2014 meeting of an ECC (Electronic Communications Committee) sub-group that is trying to forge consensus on a future 700 MHz band plan, Ofcom submitted a proposal that sets out the rationale behind the initiative. According to the proposal, the downlink channel will be located in an accidentally occurring 3 MHz gap between the downlink channels in the 700 MHz, and 800 MHz bands (788–791 MHz). The uplink channel could be located in the 700 MHz band's large centre gap (733–736 MHz). . . Alternatively, the uplink channel could be located in the 800 MHz centre gap (829–832 MHz)."
ECC  IoT  M2M  LTE  700MHz  800MHz  Europe  Ofcom  Neul  Qualcomm  Ericsson  Nokia  PolicyTracker 
february 2015 by pierredv
More LTE-DTT interference reported in France than UK - PolicyTracker Jan 2015
"Ben Roome, the chief executive of At800, explains why the UK’s 800 MHz interference problem is less significant than expected and how the majority of interference cases the organisation deals with have nothing to do with LTE." "Of the 2.3 million households that could be affected by LTE, only forty per cent of them (900,000) relied on DTT for TV. In 2013, the figure for the households that could be affected was revised down from 900,000 to 90,000." "In the first 18 months of operating there were 200,000 phone calls and 12,000 home visits to deal with complaints of interference. In three quarters of these cases, a separate cause – usually badly installed equipment – is found to be the main cause of poor reception." "On a per base station basis, there are 10 times fewer cases of interference in the UK than in France. France’s spectrum agency ANFR sees 10-12 cases per mast, while At800 sees a cumulative average of 0.9 cases per mast."
PolicyTracker  LTE  DTT  DTV  At800  interference  UK  France  800MHz 
january 2015 by pierredv
TVTechnology: Investigating Interference Between 4G LTE and Broadcast
"There are a growing number of cases where there has been actual or alleged interference to 4G LTE installations. These situations have occurred largely at co-located transmitter sites where FM stations and wireless carriers share the same site or the same tower. I looked at some of the causes of this interference and to give some background about 4G LTE systems that are now being deployed."
LTE  FM  broadcast  TVTechnology  interference 
december 2014 by pierredv
Six LTE Receiver Measurements Every Wireless Engineer Should Know | 2014-11-15 | Microwave Journal
Reference Sensitivity Level Maximum Input Level Adjacent Channel Selectivity Blocking Characteristics Intermodulation Characteristics Spurious Emissions
LTE  receivers  cellular  RF 
november 2014 by pierredv
FM Broadcast -> 700 MHz LTE Interference Problem Reveals Basic FCC Spectrum Policy Problems | spectrum management, FCC Reform, incentive Auction, interference management | Marcus Spectrum Solutions LLC
"A major issue here is whether the above clear rule take precedent over the Commission’s general “first in time, first in right philosophy”** that is stated neither in the law nor as a general codified rule. We will leave it to our legal friends to parse case law on this issue. "
FM  LTE  interference  MarcusSpectrumBlog  700MHz 
september 2014 by pierredv
Infrastructure vendors battle over cellular Internet of Things standard - Aug 2014
"Leading public mobile network operators want to enter the Internet of Things (IoT) market, but they vehemently disagree over how this can be done. Nokia Networks and Ericsson argue that the IoT can be accommodated by LTE's evolving standards, whereas Huawei and Neul insist that a “clean-slate” approach would be more appropriate."
IoT  M2M  LTE  3GPP  LTE-M  Neul  Huawei  Ericsson  Nokia 
august 2014 by pierredv
New Technical Reports Evaluate Spectrum Sharing in 3.5 GHz Band, July 2014
"NTIA Technical Report TR-14-506, co-authored by Geoffrey A. Sanders, John E. Carroll, and Frank H. Sanders of NTIA’s Institute for Telecommunication Sciences in Boulder, Colorado, and Robert L. Sole of NTIA’s Office of Spectrum Management, presents the results of measurements and analyses of the effects of radar interference on prototype LTE equipment. NTIA Technical Report TR-14-507, co-authored by Frank H. Sanders, John E. Carroll, Geoffrey A. Sanders, Robert J. Achatz, and Robert L. Sole of NTIA and Lawrence S. Cohen of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, presents the results of measurements and analyses of the effects of LTE interference on a type of radar receiver that might eventually share spectrum with such systems."
NTIA  ITS  LTE  radar  3.5GHz 
july 2014 by pierredv
3GPP Conference: LTE in unlicensed spectrum, June 13, 2014, Sophia Antipolis
includes links to slides "Initial focus will likely be on Licensed-Assisted Carrier Aggregation operation to aggregate a primary cell, using licensed spectrum, to deliver critical information and guaranteed Quality of Service, and a co-located secondary cell, using unlicensed spectrum, to opportunistically boost datarate." "Fair coexistence between LTE and other technologies such as WiFi as well as between LTE operators is seen necessary." Dino Flore noted; “Initial results suggest that, when augmented with the appropriate coexistence mechanisms to operate in unlicensed spectrum, e.g. Listen-Before-Talk, LTE can effectively coexist with Wifi and outperform it in terms of spectral efficiency”
3GPP  LTE  unlicensed  conference 
july 2014 by pierredv
3.5 GHz: Debate continues on spectrum sharing, band plan and unlicensed use - FierceWirelessTech
Mostly a Nokia ASA/LSA pitch, with some reference to (non)harmonization US vs. current 3GPP band plan
LTE  3.5GHz  FCC  NPRM  FierceWireless 
july 2014 by pierredv
Sprint may need up to 40,000 new cell sites for 2.5 GHz, tower exec says - FierceWirelessTech May 2014
"Sprint (NYSE: S) will need to roll out an additional 30,000-40,000 transmission sites if the carrier wants its 2.5 GHz TD-LTE network to reach coverage parity with its 1.9 GHz networks, according to the head of American Tower."
Sprint  FierceWireless  propagation  2.5GHz  1.9GHz  LTE  TD-LTE 
may 2014 by pierredv
LTE-Unlicensed - The New WiFi? : HL International Spectrum Review
" Over the past few months, a debate has been quietly raging in the international standards group 3GPP over the possibility of using the 4G wireless technology LTE in unlicensed spectrum"
LTE  LTE-U  3GPP  HoganLovells  HLSpectrumReview 
may 2014 by pierredv
When it comes to interference, you can't beat real world experience - PolicyTracker Mar 2014
"... the organisation's initial estimates suggested that up to 900,000 TV households could be affected by the UK rollout of LTE. At800 notified 8.5 million households of possible disruption and sent out a million filters. ... The estimate of how many households could be affected has been revised down drastically, to 90,000. At800 says even that is “a conservative upper limit” of the potential scale of the problem. At current rates, the upper limit is likely to be more like 50,000." "At800 did some research in December into about 600 households that received a filter, and found that only 10 had noticed some disruption, inserted a filter and found that had improved the situation. “We found a further seven who had noticed some disruption, inserted a filter and there was no change to their TV,” Roome says."
Ofcom  At800  interference  DTV  LTE  DTT  PolicyTracker 
march 2014 by pierredv
Alcatel-Lucent exec: 'We can't wait for the master blueprint' - FierceWirelessTech Feb 2014
"He described three primary approaches to building capacity: Adding spectrum and/or base stations; adding spectral efficiency; and adding spatial efficiency. " "Schabel observed that Wi-Fi spectrum is "really important and useful" as a complement to licensed spectrum. He said Alcatel-Lucent "absolutely supports" Qualcomm's (NASDAQ:QCOM) effort to see LTE enabled for use on unlicensed bands such as Wi-Fi spectrum." Schabel: "If you go in and start operating LTE over a slice of the spectrum, Wi-Fi can adapt and it will adapt," he added. "You're compressing the Wi-Fi a little bit in certain cases, but you're also using the other portions of it in a much more efficient way, so you get a higher result."
Wi-Fi  LTE  Alcatel-Lucent  unlicensed 
march 2014 by pierredv
Ofcom | Public Sector Spectrum Release (PSSR): Technical coexistence issues for the 2.3 and 3.4 GHz award
"This consultation sets out our proposals for addressing technical issues related to the forthcoming award of 190 MHz of spectrum in the 2.3 and 3.4 GHz bands. It focuses in particular on the future coexistence between potential new users of the spectrum and existing users of adjacent frequencies."
Ofcom  2.3GHz  3.4GHz  interference  coexistence  LTE  Wi-Fi 
february 2014 by pierredv
Brazil's broadcasters question 700 MHz study - PolicyTracker Feb 2014
"Brazilian broadcasters' association ABERT has questioned the methodology and findings of a GSMA-commissioned report that purports to show that LTE and TV can co-exist in the 700 MHz band." "Although it concluded that the LTE can go ahead, the study set out a series of mitigation measures. For example, it says that ISDB-T transmitters should be fitted with filters to mitigate the high risk of interference to LTE base stations, which should also be fitted with filters. It also said that once the transition to digital broadcasting is complete, power levels in the upper parts of the UHF band for broadcasters should be limited."
DTV  LTE  coexistence  interference  PolicyTracker 
february 2014 by pierredv
LTE Drive: Test Test Types and Parameters for LTE Driving Testing
"Equipment for LTE drive tests, according to Emilio Franchy, senior product manager at test and measurement company Anritsu, generally includes a scanning receiver and multiple UEs, plus a laptop that is running software to record the data from the drive testing that can later be analyzed in a laboratory. Anritsu’s Link Master ML 87110A is the company’s multiband receiver or scanning receiver, with the 10 model designed for use in North America and the 20 model for international use. The UEs provide data on performance and interactions with the network, while the scanning receiver can pick up sources of interference that can hamper network performance. Franchy said that some sources of interference can include repeaters inside businesses meant to improve cellular network signals that actually interfere with the network; and more prosaic sources such as certain fluorescent lights that can generate strong interference signals"
LTE  Anritsu  drive  test 
february 2014 by pierredv
Verizon 700 MHz LTE cell site is latest victim of interference from fluorescent lights - FierceWirelessTech
"High-frequency radio emissions from fluorescent lights installed in a Los Angeles office building are allegedly interfering with a Verizon Wireless (NYSE:VZ) cell site, prompting the FCC to referee the dispute between Verizon and the building owner. In a citation and order released on Feb. 7, the FCC cited Brookfield Office Properties for operating industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) equipment that causes harmful interference at the Ernst & Young Plaza building, an L.A. high rise." According to Christopher Augustine, spokesman for GE Lighting: "Once we determined the cause of the interference, we immediately decided to recall all unsold, uninstalled ballasts to correct this potential issue. For those already sold and installed, GE provided steps to identify the affected ballasts by product and date code, and we provided instructions on how to exchange the units at no cost to the customer."
interference  LTE  Verizon  fluorescents  GE  Lighting 
february 2014 by pierredv
Qualcomm's unlicensed LTE could crush carrier Wi-Fi's momentum - FierceWirelessTech
"Qualcomm's (NASDAQ:QCOM) recently announced push to see LTE services deployed on unlicensed spectrum raises lots of questions, chief of which is how this might impact the carrier Wi-Fi market."
Qualcomm  LTE  Wi-Fi  unlicensed  FierceWireless 
february 2014 by pierredv
Google's Moto X tops LTE network connectivity test - FierceWirelessTech
"Google's (NASDAQ:GOOG) Motorola Mobile division scored a win as its Moto X smartphone impressively outperformed devices from Samsung, LG and HTC in tests of network connectivity undertaken by Signals Research Group." "noted the handset garnered more than 35 percent higher average throughput than the other devices across all correlated and uncorrelated test scenarios. In addition, the Moto X could sustain a data call at signal levels as much as 9 dB lower than levels for the other devices tested" "The disparity in the devices' performance was partly a reflection of how well the devices leveraged MIMO capabilities. "
Google  Motorola  FierceWireless  LTE  MIMO  devices 
january 2014 by pierredv
Time Warner Cable's TV channel shift draws interference from Verizon LTE smartphones - FierceWirelessTech
Reports of spectrum interference causing problems for LTE networks are growing more commonplace, with everything from fluorescent lights to electronic cash registers being implicated. In the latest twist, Verizon Wireless (NYSE:VZ) LTE data service is getting the blame for interfering with some channels delivered over the Time Warner Cable system in Raleigh, N.C. Noting that at least some of TWC's cable boxes apparently do not have the necessary shielding to block interference from other devices, Matheny called for boxes with better shielding to be built starting immediately to "accommodate the new reality of the 700 MHz band." However, wireless consultant and engineer Steven Crowley told Ars Technica that the more likely source of interference is RF energy being conducted into the cable box via power cable or coaxial cable connections.
cable  LTE  interference  Time  Warner  Verizon  FierceWireless 
december 2013 by pierredv
Qualcomm wants LTE deployed on unlicensed spectrum - FierceWireless
Quotes: Qualcomm (NASDAQ:QCOM) is interested in exploring the possibility of deploying LTE services on unlicensed spectrum, according to CEO Paul Jacobs. According to Electronics Weekly, Jacobs explained the reasons behind the move: "We paid for that very sophisticated LTE receiver in the devices, it's a better receiver than the receiver that's been used for Wi-Fi. That means you get better capacity and better coverage out of an LTE unlicensed deployment." It's unclear which bands could be used for unlicensed LTE services. One that has been bandied about is the 3.5 GHz band, which is being eyed for small cells in the United States.
Qualcomm  LTE  unlicensed  3.5GHz 
december 2013 by pierredv
MultiBrief: Detecting leaks in cable TV networks
"Unlike terrestrial television, cable TV continues to use the UHF band and overlaps with the new LTE networks. If leaks occur in cable TV networks, interference in LTE networks is inevitable. ... Many cable TV network operators still do not have measuring equipment capable of detecting radiated emissions in the UHF band. Measuring equipment for the VHF aeronautical radio band has been around for some time now, but it is narrowband and cannot detect UHF signals. However, this is necessary since leaks generate far more emissions at higher frequencies than at lower frequencies. Sometimes the field strength of radiated emissions from a poorly tightened screw connector can barely be measured in the VHF band, whereas in the UHF band it is significantly above the permissible limit."
LTE  cable  CATV  interference 
november 2013 by pierredv
4G LTE Cable = 1 BIG Problem | CBC View Nov 2013
700 MHz LTE causes interference to poorly shielded cable boxes. Via Lynn Claudy
cable  interference  LTE  shielding  700MHz 
november 2013 by pierredv
Harmonic Convergence? FM Interference to 700 MHz LTE Service : CommLawBlog
"700 MHz licensees (with some apparent FCC support) complain of FM interference to hypersensitive LTE gear – but must FM licensees foot the bill to correct the problem?"
CommLawBlog  interference-limits  interference  FM  LTE  700MHz 
october 2013 by pierredv
Editorial: Can LTE Broadcast deliver TV/mobile convergence? Oct 2013
"An academic paper by Ericsson scientists argues LTE Broadcast could be used to replace DTT transmissions to standard TVs, offering huge benefits in spectrum efficiency. Their proposal takes the example of the US and says that if cellular towers are reused to create a single frequency network “it is possible to support TV services with 84 MHz of spectrum via LTE… in contrast to the 300 MHz used by today’s ATSC TV broadcast system.” Europe is on the verge of making the 700 MHz band not just a broadcasting band but a co-primary band for broadcasting and mobile. There is a Europe-wide consultation on this subject, France and Germany have already decided to do so and the UK is consulting on the same proposal. "
broadcasting  single  frequency  networking  (SFN)  600MHz  LTE  PolicyTracker  700MHz  TV 
october 2013 by pierredv
Kumu claims its self-interference solution doubles capacity - FierceWireless:Tech Oct 2013
"Kumu Networks, a startup formed by Stanford University researchers, asserts it has found the key to "wireless full duplex".... The company claims there are some initial applications that can employ its approach without modifying existing technical standards. One area is backhaul, both for macro cells and small cells... According to Kumu, its self-interference cancellation can also improve Wi-Fi quality of service at crowded venues such as stadiums. Further, the technology can act as a "software configurable filter" to facilitate global LTE roaming and sharing of TV white space spectrum sharing. Yet another application involves jamming enemy radios, and only enemy radios, which are used to activate remote improvised explosive devices (IEDs)."
self-interference-cancellation  Kumu  wireless-backhaul  jamming  LTE  Wi-Fi  FierceWireless 
october 2013 by pierredv
Operators starting to plug LTE backhaul's security gap - FierceBroadbandWireless
"LTE transmissions have a massive security vulnerability in that backhaul traffic from the eNodeB to the IP core is unencrypted. Some operators have begun implementing IPsec to address this issue, but many have not because IPsec use is optional."
cellular  IPSec  LTE  security  backhaul  design  eNodeB  FierceWireless 
september 2013 by pierredv
Work to avert rail-mobile interference in Europe continues — PolicyTracker Sep 2013
The proximity of GSM-R and public mobile networks has already caused interference between UMTS users of these bands and GSM-R in around 250 locations across Europe. This happens because receivers are desensitised, blocked or overloaded. In principle, this could have happened for GSM but is set to accelerate when LTE is rolled out across the bands. Conversely, because LTE, like UMTS, is a wideband technology, it is predicted that public mobile networks will be worse affected than GSM-R. A series of possible solutions were set out in 2011 in ECC Report 162. These measures range from frequency hopping for public mobile networks to tilting antennas but ultimately it is completely down to the national governments, railway operators and mobile network operators to sort it out for themselves. ... are in general two prominent solutions; filters [for transmitters] and improved receivers"
GSM-R  UMTS  interference  LTE  3GPP  PolicyTracker  receivers 
september 2013 by pierredv
Deep packet inspection key in Intel network aggregation demo - FierceBroadbandWireless Sep 2013
"Leipzig, Germany-based ipoque said its deep packet inspection (DPI) software library can be used to help mobile operators classify Internet traffic at the application level, in turn enabling them to provide delay-sensitive apps--such as mobile video and VoIP--with all necessary bandwidth across Wi-Fi, 3G and LTE networks, simultaneously."
QoS  ipoque  deep  packet  inspection  DPI  LTE  Intel  Wi-Fi  3G  FierceWireless 
september 2013 by pierredv
Military Considers Sharing Radar Frequencies with Wireless Networks | MIT Technology Review
"While commercial wireless networks are congested, frequencies set aside for military purposes are lightly used. Now wireless researchers and the U.S. Navy will get a chance to see whether some of those airwaves can be shared, which could lead to innovative new services. In a test on Monday, the Navy will fire up an AN/SPY 1 radar—a powerful system that normally scans for incoming missiles and bombers—on an island off Virginia’s eastern shore. At the same time, visiting academic and corporate researchers will tune portable wireless transmitters to the same frequency to see what happens."
spectrum-sharing  3.5GHz  radar  LTE 
august 2013 by pierredv
UK regulator to release spectrum for unlicensed use — PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"Ofcom has decided that newly released spectrum in the 870-876 MHz and 915-921 MHz bands should be made available for licence exempt use. This new policy will give security of tenure to smart metering devices and other devices involved with the “internet of things”. However, there are fears that the 915-921 MHz band will be vulnerable to interference from future adjacent LTE networks. Robert Horvitz, director of the Open Spectrum Foundation, told PolicyTracker that 4G networks are likely to cause interference for non-licensed devices because of lax interface standards. He said that LTE handsets should have better transmit filters and that the planned power limits for licence exempt use of bands adjacent to LTE networks may not be enough to overcome radio frequency noise spillover from mobile phones."
Robert  Horvitz  smart  metering  900MHz  LTE  800MHz  PolicyTracker  Ofcom 
august 2013 by pierredv
at800 unveils accredited installer scheme - Land Mobile
"at800, the company working to address possible disruption of Freeview services by 4G at 800MHz, has announced its accredited installer scheme. The installers will help householders resolve disruption to Freeview services on their primary TV set."
Freeview  at800  DTV  DTT  professional-installation  UK  interference  800MHz  LTE 
july 2013 by pierredv
Ann Arbor and the future of V2V/V2I, part II | Telematics Update
"[With the possibility of NHTSA ruling at the end of the year], the ITS community should have every reason to be hopeful. The timing [of the FCC NPRM] is potentially disastrous for the ITS community. That’s because the current DSRC test beds, including the Ann Arbor Safety Pilot, were never designed to assess potential complications from signal interference that may accompany an open 5.9 GHz band. “The FCC’s decision suggests a high degree of skepticism at this point at the FCC,” says Roger Lanctot of Strategy Analytics. One of the main reasons is that V2V and V2I applications can now be achieved with technologies other than DSRC. The LTE Advanced standard is beginning to add proximity sensing, a Wi-Fi-related functionality that could be used for V2V communications."
NHTSA  Dedicated  Short-Range  Communications  (DSRC)  NPRM  LTE  FCC  ex  Telematics  Update 
july 2013 by pierredv
Help for LTE: Wi-Fi benefits and challenges for mobile operators - Insight - News | Analysys Mason Jul 2013
Nearly 70% of fixed and mobile operators we surveyed have deployed Wi-Fi to meet the data consumption and service requirements of their customers, yet most operators are finding it difficult to create a compelling business case for Wi-Fi.1 However, as the role for Wi-Fi in a mobile network becomes clearer, the monetisation options are becoming clearer as well... Wi-fi plays 4 key roles: = capacity and coverage extension = supplementary wireless data services = roaming support = service and brand differentiation "Monetisation options are largely limited to direct user charging, location-based services or charging the venue operator, sponsored content and retail partnering with stores such as Starbucks. We expect future monetisation options to include selling insight about Wi-Fi users' behaviour and usage as well as direct marketing activities such as couponing and tie-ins to loyalty programmes by retailers."
monetization  cellular  AnalysysMason  LTE  Wi-Fi  commerce 
july 2013 by pierredv
Is licensing to blame for LightSquared’s struggle to survive? — PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"The US regulator has given ailing LightSquared temporary permission to test 4G LTE terrestrial wireless operations in the 1675-1680 MHz range, but that may not stop the company from going under. Could a different approach to licensing have saved the situation?" Comments from William Webb and Tim Farrar on SURs and harm claim thresholds
LTE  PolicyTracker  harm-claim-thresholds  SURs  LightSquared  interference-limits 
june 2013 by pierredv
Innovation never stops …. | The Unwired People June 2013
"While each generation takes around 10 years to be standardized, it takes more than 40 years of fundamental research to accumulate sufficient technologies for each generation. "
trends  Jens  Zander  4G  LTE  innovation 
june 2013 by pierredv
TelecomTV | News | Shock result: WiFi beats LTE user experience
"The AWTG has this year launched an independent Mobile Network Benchmarking Service and its latest results illustrate, not only that WiFi (as the current instantiation of small cell) is playing an increasingly important role in mobile device access, but that mesh WiFi can already beat LTE at its own game."
benchmarks  performance  LTE  Wi-Fi 
may 2013 by pierredv
AWTG benchmarking measurements
"AWTG Ltd has carried out a series of Benchmarking measurements in Central London to evaluate the current ‘real customer’ experience of voice and data services of the UK Mobile Network Operators"
QoE  LTE  Wi-Fi 
may 2013 by pierredv
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