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Are new auction designs strange or simply evolutionary? - PolicyTracker: spectrum management news, research and trainingPolicyTracker: Jul 2019
"Several recent spectrum auctions have used formats that differ significantly from traditional versions. Are these designs weird, or do they simply reflect changing thinking about the policy and regulatory objectives of spectrum assignments? "

two main factors driving the emergence of unusual auction formats per Tim Miller of Plum

"First, governments are moving away from the idea that auction price is the be-all and end-all of setting spectrum efficiency. Regulators are coming to the conclusion that economic efficiency isn’t necessarily what they want to strive for, and are looking more closely at the social welfare aspects of spectrum such as quality of service and coverage."

"The second factor driving auction design evolution is that the potential for new entrants to participate in auctions is significantly lower now"
PolicyTracker  spectrum-auctions  ACMA 
july 2019 by pierredv
What are the financial implications of mobile coverage obligations? - PolicyTracker: spectrum management news, research and trainingPolicyTracker: Mar 2019
a mobile operator could argue they are providing coverage if signals can be received in a given area. But if the regulator were to insist on stringent QoS such that 95% of calls were successful and customers could achieve 2 Mbps download speeds, the cost increase could be enormous.
PolicyTracker  cellular  coverage 
may 2019 by pierredv
Could beamforming become a problem for 5G? - PolicyTracker: May 2019
"In the second of a series of articles about electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the age of 5G, we take a look at beamforming. This is considered an essential feature of 5G base station antennas, but some argue that it will mean that current EMF exposure limits need to be reassessed. "
PolicyTracker  health  radiation  EMF  RF 
may 2019 by pierredv
Many countries concerned about possibility of 5G side effects - PolicyTracker May 2019
"Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure limits may become an additional challenge for the next generation of mobile networks.

“There are growing worries about EMF exposure and 5G,” said Gilles Brégant, director general of France’s national spectrum agency ANFR.

Switzerland, for example, has agreed to have the federal environmental agency measure radiation levels, assess the risks and regularly inform the public about its findings."

"Carriers fear that public perceptions could cause governments to step in – which could ultimately hamper 5G rollouts. Major players such as Telefónica, Vodafone and AT&T warned shareholders in recent financial reports that public health concerns might have an impact on their revenues."
PolicyTracker  EMF  5G 
may 2019 by pierredv
Key ETSI official calls for reform of standards body - PolicyTracker: May 2019
"The mobile broadband global standards body, the 3GPP, could collapse under its own weight unless it changes its working practices, says European Telecommunications Standards Institute CTO Adrian Scrase.

He told the Brooklyn 5G Summit that the greater magnitude of work created by 5G is a big challenge for 3GPP. Not only has the technology become more sophisticated and complicated, but the number of interested stakeholders has increased. This is reflected by the number of input documents, which increased from around 100,000 in 2017 to 120,000 in 2018."
PolicyTracker  5G  ETSI  3GPP 
may 2019 by pierredv
Australian regulator backs unusual hybrid approach for 26 GHz award - PolicyTracker: spectrum management news, research and trainingPolicyTracker: Apr 2019
"A combination of spectrum, apparatus and class licences is the best way to support the three different scenarios on offer in the 24.25—27.5 GHz band, according to the decision paper ACMA published last week."

"The approach would see 2.4 GHz of spectrum (25.1–27.5 GHz) set aside for the mobile industry to offer 5G. However, this chunk is only available in metropolitan areas and large regional centres. It will be auctioned, as is traditional in Australia.

The 27-27.5 GHz part of the band has additional conditions attached to protect an existing satellite gateway.

Elsewhere, the same spectrum will be awarded on an “apparatus” basis. Apparatus licences authorise the licensee to operate devices to which the specific licence relates, such as specific types of transmitter or receiver. Normally, that does not imply an auction in Australia, although the paper says “authorisation may be under a potential new ‘spectrum-space’ area-based apparatus licence type”. It is unclear how this new type of licence will be awarded."
ACMA  PolicyTracker  spectrum-sharing  mmwave 
april 2019 by pierredv
As critical communications turn towards 3GPP, dedicated spectrum loses its lustre | PolicyTracker: Mar 2019
But more countries around the world are looking to use broadband technologies to improve their critical communications. Many of these solutions will use portions of the 700 MHz band and other frequencies identified in ITU-R Recommendation M.2015 (adopted four years ago at WRC-15), such as 380—470 MHz.
PolicyTracker  public-safety 
april 2019 by pierredv
Stakeholders not keen on EC’s reconfigurable radio systems proposal | PolicyTracker: Mar 2019
"A European Commission (EC) proposal to ensure that software uploaded onto radio equipment doesn't harm spectrum access, interoperability, safety or access to emergency services has drawn a mostly negative reaction from stakeholders who fear the rule could stifle innovation and competition. The EC said in its initial impact assessment that it is mulling a regulation on reconfigurable radio systems (RRS) under the EU Radio Equipment Directive (RED)."

"The EC laid out five options:

maintain the current situation in which device makers aren’t required to implement any specific measures (Option 0)
industry self-regulation to ensure that software doesn’t compromise initial compliance (Option 1)
adopt a regulation under Article 4 of the RED to require that manufacturers of radio equipment, or of software allowing radio equipment to be used as intended, inform member states and the EC about how the intended combination will comply before the software can be uploaded (Option 2)
adopt a regulation under Article 3(3)(i) of the RED to require that radio equipment support certain features in order to ensure that software can only be uploaded into it where the compliance of the combination of the equipment and software has been demonstrated for the purposes of market access (Option 3)
adopt a regulation requiring that both Options 2 and 3 be demonstrated before equipment is allowed on the market (Option 4).
"

"The 276 feedback messages received showed strong opposition to any option but doing nothing or allowing industry self-regulation."
PolicyTracker  SDR  EC  EuropeanCommission  spectrum  regulation 
march 2019 by pierredv
5G handsets are here but are the networks ready? | PolicyTracker: Feb 2019
"The mobile trade association GSMA says that LTE will continue to see strong growth in the coming years. It expects 4G to account for 60 per cent of global connections by 2025, while 5G will only make up 15 per cent of the global total during the same period."

"Building 5G networks is a huge investment, the GSMA says. Afke Schaart, Vice President and head of Europe, Russia and CIS at the association, claims that the rollout of 5G in Europe will cost €500 billion. "

“3.5 GHz with massive MIMO has better coverage than 1.8 GHz.”
5G  4G  GSMA  PolicyTracker 
march 2019 by pierredv
The world’s first 6G summit | PolicyTracker: Feb 2019
“6G spectrum is still a big question mark,” said Matti Latva-aho, director of 6G Flagship, a research project at the University of Oulo, Finland. The organization is holding the world’s first 6G summit March 24-26 in Lapland, where all interested industry players and leading operators will present their views “on beyond 5G including spectrum issues.” Speakers include representatives from Nokia-Bell-Labs, Huawei, Ericsson, Samsung, NTT DoCoMo, China Telecom, Orange, the European Commission, and universities.
PolicyTracker  6G 
march 2019 by pierredv
5G spectrum auctions to escalate in 2019 | PolicyTracker, Feb 2019
"The US and Switzerland have both kicked off the year with a sale of 5G frequencies, with many more countries set to follow. Sixteen countries are known to have confirmed 5G spectrum auctions in 2019, according to PolicyTracker's auction tracker service.

So far, 14 countries have already completed 5G licensing procedures in at least one spectrum band. These include Australia, Finland, Italy, Ireland, Latvia, Mexico, South Korea, Oman, Spain, Qatar, the UK, the United Arab Emirates, the US and Switzerland.

In addition, the Czech Republic, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hong Kong, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Tanzania and Thailand have awarded potentially 5G-suitable spectrum."
PolicyTracker  spectrum-auctions 
february 2019 by pierredv
Japanese operators vie for lower band 5G spectrum | PolicyTracker: Feb 2019
"Japan’s forthcoming spectrum award will be the first for 5G decided by a beauty contest rather than an auction. This is not the only thing that makes it unusual. "

"Over the past 12 to 18 months, Japan has debated the possible use of auctions to assign spectrum but ultimately decided to maintain its favoured approach of using beauty contests. Other countries have used auctions for 5G but Japan is sticking with what it knows best."

"MIC is awarding six blocks of 100 MHz in the more desirable lower bands (3.7 GHz and 4.5 GHz), and four blocks of 400 MHz at 28 GHz."

"Also interesting is MIC’s decision to pick out some frequency ranges for industry or specific applications."

"The government has complained recently about high mobile prices. Senior officials have accused operators of using spectrum, a public asset, in the pursuit of excess profits."
PolicyTracker  5G  Japan  spectrum-auctions  mmwave 
february 2019 by pierredv
Will 5G live up to the hype? It depends who you ask | PolicyTracker: Feb 2019
Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg, for example, told the CES show in Las Vegas that “5G will change everything”. “We’re going to see a technology change that is going to transform people, businesses and society,” he said.

At the same tech convention, AT&T CEO John Donovan confirmed that the mobile carrier would switch the “LTE” indicator to “5G E” (for evolution) when users connect to the operator’s faster LTE network.

The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) also recently published a report that highlights spectrum management issues, infrastructure sharing, access costs and investment incentives as key issues to consider for 5G success.
“A viable case for investment in 5G can be made for densely populated urban areas… [but] rural and suburban areas are less likely to enjoy 5G investment, and this will potentially widen the digital divide,” it says.

It has also warned regulators against premature 5G deployments. “The need for 5G is not immediate,” notes the report.
PolicyTracker  5G  hype  Verizon  AT&T  ITU  DigitalDivide 
february 2019 by pierredv
Are more MNOs starting to consider shared mobile networks? | PolicyTracker: Feb 2019
"An increasing number of mobile operators are proposing a pragmatic solution for the lack of investment in 5G and high network rollout costs: sharing networks. "

"Spain’s fourth largest mobile network operator (MNO) MásMóvil and regional network provider Euskaltel recently struck a deal to build a 5G pilot shared network."

"Last year, South Africa’s Vodacom and Telkom also reached a network sharing deal. The agreement will allow Telkom customers to roam on Vodacom’s 2G, 3G, and 4G networks from June 2019."

"But Mexico seems to be ahead of almost everyone, as only Rwanda has built a national wholesale mobile network before.

Red Compartida (‘shared network’ in Spanish)–which went live in March 2018–offers broadband to all of Mexico’s telecom carriers, in a move to expand mobile coverage, lower consumer prices and reduce 5G deployment costs."

"Although shared networks remain relatively rare, sharing infrastructure is becoming more common among mobile providers. O2 and Vodafone have just signed an extension to their current network sharing deal in the UK to cover 5G."
PolicyTracker  5G  infrastructure  infrastructure-sharing  cellular  Mexico  Spain  Rwanda  South-Africa 
february 2019 by pierredv
UK regulator seeks to make spectrum sharing easier in mobile bands | PolicyTracker: spectrum news, research and training
"UK regulator Ofcom has proposed new measures to facilitate spectrum sharing in mobile bands, authorising third parties to “exploit” unused awarded spectrum.

A recent consultation proposes a plan which would allow new users to lease prime mobile spectrum in locations where there would be no adverse impact on incumbent licensees, as Ofcom considers this will stimulate services useful to vertical industries and other use cases. "
PolicyTracker  Ofcom  spectrum-sharing  licensing  secondary-licenses 
february 2019 by pierredv
Brussels urges EU member states to accelerate 5G spectrum assignments | PolicyTracker: spectrum news, research and training
"The head of DG Connect, which is part of the European Commission, has branded Europe’s current assignment of 5G spectrum “unacceptable” and urged countries to make more frequencies available. Roberto Viola used his keynote speech at this year’s European 5G conference to reiterate the Commission’s position on 5G and argue that member states need to move faster in assigning spectrum."

Viola quote: “The situation in the 700 MHz band is quite impressive; it’s equally impressive in the 3.5 GHz band, but it is devastating in the 26 GHz band. This is not acceptable.”

"The comments were made in the wake of the adoption of the European Electronic Communications Code, which turned 2020 targets into a legal obligation. All EU countries must now clear and assign 5G pioneer frequency bands (700 MHz, 3.5 GHz and 26 GHz) by the end of 2020."

"Moreover, Viola said he believed the “5G hype is justified” because it will become “the glue” which holds together all future technologies such as artificial intelligence, blockchain and advanced computing."

"Chinese manufacturer Huawei has again asked for patience and tolerance if initial 5G launches don’t live up to expectations."
PolicyTracker  EU  EC  Spectrum  5G  EuropeanCommission  Huawei 
january 2019 by pierredv
Japanese MNO says many partners misunderstand 5G | PolicyTracker Jan 2019
"Speaking at the European 5G conference, Takehiro Nakamura, senior vice president and general manager for the company’s 5G laboratories, said it was important that the telecoms industry offers a realistic view of early 5G deployments."

"According to Nakamura, who presented information to delegates on all the trials NTT has been involved in, there are two major misconceptions: coverage and performance"
PolicyTracker  5G  NTT-DoCoMo  hype 
january 2019 by pierredv
Europe hoping to overcome C-band satellite interference | PolicyTracker, Jan 2019
There has been a clear push by national regulators across Europe to release 3.5 GHz spectrum. However, mobile deployments in the region’s primary capacity band for 5G could be at risk due to potential satellite interference from neighbouring countries and military services.
C-band  3.6GHz  5G  Interference  PolicyTracker  Finland  Netherlands  satellite  military 
january 2019 by pierredv
CBRS spectrum sharing could be first good use case for blockchain | PolicyTracker, Jan 2019
The US Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) could be a "great candidate" for the first use of blockchain technology for spectrum sharing, according to Nokia's Seppo Yrjölä. Interest in the use of blockchain for spectrum management is growing, but problems such as regulation, costs and the lack of business models need to be sorted out.
spectrum  PolicyTracker  blockchain  CBRS 
january 2019 by pierredv
Viewpoint: Do we still need spectrum auctions? | PolicyTracker, Jan 10, 2019 by William Webb
"When there is cleared spectrum to award, the default process is now the auction. It has been widely used for some 30 years and is generally agreed to be the least bad way to distribute spectrum when demand exceeds supply. But is this still true?

"Where the entity awarding the spectrum – typically the national regulator – is unsure as to the best distribution of that spectrum among competing companies, then the auction allows the market to make the decision. But what if the answer is obvious – distribute it equally to the existing mobile operators?"

"Equal distribution could be just that – all operators get the same amount. Or it could be weighted by, for example, market share."
PolicyTracker  spectrum-auctions  William-Webb  opinion  spectrum-assignment 
january 2019 by pierredv
Ofcom sets 900 and 1800 MHz licence fees and consults on 3.4 and 3.6 GHz fees | PolicyTracker: Jan 2019
"UK mobile network operators (MNOs) will pay £1.09 million ($1.4 million) per MHz per year for 900 MHz spectrum, and £0.805 million ($1.02 million) per MHz annually for 1800 MHz spectrum beginning 31 January 2019, Ofcom said.

The levels reflect the full market value of the frequencies and take into account input from Vodafone, Telefónica (O2), EE and H3G (Three), as well as evidence from previous UK spectrum auctions and international benchmarks, the regulator added. The lump-sum values were converted into equivalent annual payments using an annualisation rate derived from a post-tax discount rate and a tax adjustment factor."
PolicyTracker  Ofcom  spectrum  cellular  Vodafone  O2  EE  spectrum-fees  900MHz  1800MHz 
january 2019 by pierredv
Mexico seeks to define spectrum efficiency metrics | PolicyTracker, Jan 2019
The IFT report includes this draft definition for spectrum efficiency: “the capacity of telecommunications or broadcasting systems to convey the greatest amount of information using a quantity of determined radio spectrum, maintaining the quality of communications to at least a certain minimum level.”

"One draft concern of the metrics is the “social factor”. For example, the Mexican constitution protects plurality, so spectrum efficiency metrics should take this into account. "

"Martinez hopes the IFT’s work could be included in an amended version of ITU-R Recommendation SM.1046, which concerns spectrum use and efficiency. That report, says Martinez, erroneously conflates the effective use of spectrum and its efficient use."

"The 2013 reform also gave the IFT the power to fine companies between 2.01 and six per cent of their turnover for using spectrum inefficiently. Being able to define spectrum efficiency metrics would, therefore, create another tool for the already powerful IFT."

"Spectrum fees are also on the agency’s agenda. IFT commissioner Mario Fromow told the Latin America Spectrum Management conference in September that mobile industry association the GSMA had argued that spectrum fees in Mexico are too high. The IFT wanted its own data on this so has hired a consultant to analyse the value of assigned mobile spectrum in Mexico. This may inform a future review of spectrum fees – if needed – in cooperation with the country’s internal revenue agency."
PolicyTracker  spectrum-efficiency  Mexico  IFT  spectrum-fees 
january 2019 by pierredv
Outages show the need to think clearly about national security | PolicyTracker: Dec 2018
"On Thursday, millions of smartphone users in the UK lost their data services after the O2 network suffered technical problems. While the problem only lasted a day, it was one of the biggest mobile network outages because it hit the many external services that rely on the operator’s data network."

"The blackout raises questions over the future of mission-critical applications. What will happen when 5G networks underpin a country’s water supply, electricity grid, emergency services and even self-driving cars?"

"Isn’t it time for an evidence-based approach to the security of networks, based on independent testing of equipment from companies which are prepared to cooperate? Anything else looks suspiciously like a backdoor way of damaging potential competitors."
PolicyTracker  cyber-spectrum  cybersecurity  cellular 
december 2018 by pierredv
European and North American authorities consider future spectrum needs of train passengers and operations | PolicyTracker: Nov 2018
"US regulator the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is considering a request for an ultra-wideband positive train control system while in Europe, CEPT is studying spectrum requirements and candidate bands to replace the current train connectivity system. "

"CEPT is currently consulting on spectrum needs for the successor to GSM-R."

"The US regulator is considering a proposal from Metrom Rail for waiver of certain rules to allow the company to install and operate an ultra-wideband positive train control (PTC)system in the 3.272-5.015 GHz band."

"Freight and passenger railroads in the US are required by law to have PTC in place, including all the required spectrum, by 31 December 2018, with PTC systems fully implemented by the end of 2020."
PolicyTracker  railroads  FCC  CEPT  spectrum  800MHz  PTC 
november 2018 by pierredv
High-frequency traders flirt with high-frequency spectrum | PolicyTracker, Nov 2017
"The ongoing hunt for low latency communications between financial exchanges has generated renewed interest in the technology used for shortwave broadcasting – but using the spectrum in this way appears to breach of US regulations."

"Now an engineer in the US has stumbled upon the use of trans-Atlantic shortwave radio by high-frequency traders. As with the use of microwave, the rationale is that radio travels twice as fast through the air than light travels through fibre-optic cables."

"In addition to the technical limitations, the regulatory environment in the US, as it presently stands, also appears to cause problems for shortwave-based high-frequency traders: the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) does not appear to offer any sort of spectrum authorization product for this service."

"According to several commentators, most high-frequency traders overcome the regulatory vacuum by obtaining experimental licences. "
PolicyTracker  shortwave  AM  trading  high-frequency-trading  finance  spectrum  FCC 
november 2018 by pierredv
FCC to create new 6 GHz unlicensed band | PolicyTracker, Oct 2018
"The Federal Communications Commission has agreed to publish a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would allow unlicensed use of the 6 GHz band. The band, which is also being studied in Europe, is widely seen as the world’s next major band for unlicensed applications.

"Under the terms of the proposals, unlicensed access to the 850 MHz of spectrum would be controlled by a lightweight database. This approach, often described as automated frequency control (AFC), is designed to prevent interference to incumbent fixed links. "

"Satellite earth stations use the band for uplinks throughout the band, but particularly within the U-NII-5 frequencies. The FCC does not think these applications should be taken into account by AFC databases because the receivers (satellites) are located so far away from Earth."

"Cable lobbyists the NCTA, as well as Commissioners Michael O’Rielly and Jessica Rosenworcel, have recently promoted the possibility of a Further NPRM (FNPRM) for the 5875–5925 MHz range. ... That band has been reserved in the US for Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC), ... FCC chair Ajit Pai would not commit to an FNPRM, but ... This did not impress Commissioner Rosenworcel."
PolicyTracker  6GHz  unlicensed  FCC  satellite  DSRC 
october 2018 by pierredv
Spectrum assignments need a rethink, say academics | PolicyTracker Oct 2018
"Academics and telecoms industry representatives recently discussed the future of spectrum auctions in a seminar on New directions in spectrum assignment for 5G hosted at French graduate engineering school Telecom ParisTech. They concluded that there is a need to rethink assignment policies to help achieve wider economic and social policy goals. "

Gerarg Pogorel, Erik Bohlin, Martin Cave
Francesco Nonno, director of regulatory affairs at Italian fibre provider Open Fiber,
" France, where the government has replaced upfront fees for licence renewals in the 900, 1800 and 2100 MHz bands with specific guaranteed coverage obligations. Pierre-Jean Benghozi of French regulator ARCEP told the seminar that this model was driven by the objective of improving geographic coverage and meeting new capacity needs."
PolicyTracker  spectrum-auctions  5G 
october 2018 by pierredv
Philippines aims to choose third operator by the end of 2018 | PolicyTracker Oct 2018
"It may have taken nearly a decade but the Philippines is close to ending its long-running duopoly. It is using a novel approach to achieve this. "

"The selection criteria are population coverage, minimum average broadband speed and capex/opex spend with a weighting of 40 per cent, 25 per cent and 35 per cent respectively counting towards the final score.

“It’s a quasi-auction approach, only instead of bidding with money, you bid with coverage, speed and capex/opex,” said Kas Kalba, founder of advisory firm Kalba International."

"Like an auction, the Philippines approach offers the opportunity for aggressive bidding, particularly on coverage and capex/opex, Kalba said."

"Consumer pricing is not included as one of the three criteria, which must be a relief to the two incumbents fearful of a disruptive newcomer. "

"Monitoring broadband speeds can be a tricky business but, under the Philippines’ plan, it will be done by an independent auditor, who will also establish whether the licence winner is meeting the coverage terms included in its bid."

"In the final analysis, the winner risks losing a performance security placed with the NTC – worth 10 per cent of the remaining cumulative capex and opex commitment – if they fail to deliver."

"This year, DICT won a battle against the Department of Finance’s proposal for an auction based on the highest financial bid, paving the way for the current process."
PolicyTracker  Philippines  spectrum-auctions 
october 2018 by pierredv
Protect spectrum access systems from attacks, study says | PolicyTracker Sep 2018
"Keeping networks safe from malicious or inadvertent attacks isn't just a matter for the online world. As new technologies enable the development of more potentially interfering devices, instances of spectrum disruption are on the rise. The UK Spectrum Policy Forum (SPF) has 10 recommendations to help spectrum users, managers and installers fight back. "

"Disruptions may come from cyber-spectrum criminals seeking to make money from fraud or from industrial competitors and foreign intelligence agencies looking for an economic advantage for their companies or countries, the report said. Hacktivists might want to attack spectrum-dependent systems (SDSs) for political or ideological reasons, and company insiders with legitimate access to SDSs may cause disruptions accidentally or for malign reasons. Other SDSs in the same spectrum might disrupt though accidental or deliberate system configurations; changes to the local built or natural environment could also increase interference signals."

Examples:
"Car theft is on the rise in the UK as more criminals use radio transmitters to perform “relay” car hacks.
"A robber in Saint Petersburg, Russia, defeated the alarm system in a jewellery store with a repetitive radio frequency generator whose manufacture was reportedly no more complicated than assembling a home microwave oven.
"GSM-R, which is part of the European Train Management System, involves some data which is safety-critical, said MacLeod. If the GSM-R connection is lost, the train must stop. Compact battery-powered jammers can be bought on the internet for GSM systems, and it’s likely they can be operated from within the train. In 2015, the number of interferences reported on GSM-R that could stop trains from running rose to the point where Finland reportedly switched to a domestic radio system.
"Other problems have included interference to meteorological radars from a 5 GHz disabled dynamic frequency selection mechanism and ground-based interference that caused the loss of meteorological satellite services."
PolicyTracker  cybersecurity  spectrum  UK  SPF-SpectrumPolicyForum 
september 2018 by pierredv
5G experts discuss public vs private networks at URLLC event | PolicyTracker: Sep 2018
“The industry wants the control of a private network but the convenience of something that is managed as a service,” said Brendan Lynch...

"This provides a useful summary of the ongoing discussions between mobile providers and new market segments over how to roll out 5G verticals: public versus private networks. Although operators could ultimately benefit, given that they face a significant increase in the amount of data transmitted over their networks, opportunities could soon turn into challenges if they fail to address issues like liability, security or data protection."
5G  IoT  PolicyTracker 
september 2018 by pierredv
South Africa opens door to spectrum liberalisation | PolicyTracker Sep 2018
"South Africa’s telecoms ministry has published a draft amendment to the Electronic Communications Act (ECA) that places significant emphasis on spectrum issues, with changes to access policies and licensing.

"The draft version of the amendment bill–to be presented to the South African parliament this week–includes measures designed to encourage spectrum liberalisation, such as plans to create a national wholesale open access network (WOAN) and to enable spectrum sharing, trading and refarming as well as the introduction of a “use it or lose it” licensing regime.

"The new act also gives the government, instead of the regulator ICASA, full control of the national radio plan. However, the Ministry of Telecommunications and Postal Services must still consult with the regulatory body on future actions."
spectrum  policy  South-Africa  PolicyTracker 
september 2018 by pierredv
Automated frequency coordination emerges as compromise for unlicensed access to 6 GHz | PolicyTracker: Aug 2018
"A coalition of major companies with an interest in unlicensed spectrum access is advocating a form of light licensing called automated frequency coordination (AFC) for the 5925–7125 MHz range in the US. The idea is that AFC would prevent interference to the fixed links and C-band satellite uplinks that currently use the band by limiting the locations where radio local area networks (RLANs) can operate. RLANs would also have to periodically transmit identifying information so that the source of any given interference can be rapidly identified."

"PolicyTracker previously noted that advocates of unlicensed use of the 5925–7125 MHz band were proposing to mitigate against potential (supposedly rare) interference to incumbent installations by setting up a database of outdoor RLAN deployments, alongside mandatory transmission of identification information.

The AFC proposal builds on this to propose that RLAN master devices cannot operate in the same channel as an incumbent fixed link within a given exclusion zone. This would be enforced through an AFC function that contains a repository of the bands’ current usage. An exception would be made for indoor devices operating at low power."

"This proposal is supported by Apple, Broadcom, Cisco, Facebook, Google, Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), Intel, Microsoft, Qualcomm and Ruckus Networks"
PolicyTracker  5GHz  spectrum-sharing  6GHz 
august 2018 by pierredv
Harmful spectrum pricing driven by political decisions, GSMA says | PolicyTracker, Aug 2018
"Spectrum prices in developing nations are on average three times greater than in developed countries in proportion with income per capita, according to a report recently published by mobile industry association the GSMA. The association believes the figure is driven by legislative decisions rather than market forces."

"High spectrum prices in developing countries are linked to more expensive and lower quality mobile broadband services, the report says."
PolicyTracker  GSMA  spectrum-auctions  economics 
august 2018 by pierredv
RSPG to examine role of machine learning | PolicyTracker aug 2018
"There is growing interest in the application of artificial intelligence (AI) to spectrum: Google thinks it could replace propagation modelling; a leading consultancy has described the telecoms sector as a "perfect opportunity" and AI will be one of the forthcoming study areas for the EU's spectrum advisory group. "
PolicyTracker  AI  ML  RSPG  spectrum 
august 2018 by pierredv
Europe works on evolved LSA to accommodate 5G verticals’ needs | PolicyTracker: Aug 2018
Mueck claims eLSA is more similar to CBRS than to its older relative LSA. Like the US model, he says, it has included a new target user. “The prime focus has shifted from MNOs [mobile network operators] to verticals. It aims to make spectrum available to industries which are not able to afford current prices.”

"Wilzeck told PolicyTracker that many verticals would like to deploy 5G networks on their own without dependency on an MNO because local area applications do not really benefit from being in a mobile network."
LSA  ASA  spectrum-sharing  CBRS  PolicyTracker  ETSI 
august 2018 by pierredv
South Korea’s 5G auction stands up well to international benchmarks | PolicyTracker: Jul 2018
"Winners of the 3.5 GHz frequencies received a 10-year licence, while the 28 GHz frequencies have just a five-year term, both significantly less than is usually the case for 3G or 4G licences. However, the short terms do not appear to have acted as a brake on bidding."

"The 3.5 GHz result is equivalent to $0.19 per MHz per pop, comparable to the $0.15 per MHz per pop raised in the recent sale of 3.4 GHz spectrum in the UK. That was a contest in which the four incumbents faced competition from an outsider."

"Given the lack of precedent for mmWave band auctions, benchmarking is harder for 28 GHz, but not impossible. The Korean sale is equivalent to $0.0045 per MHz per pop. By comparison, the US Federal Communications Commission is proposing to sell off frequencies at 28 GHz in mid-November this year with a minimum opening bid of $0.002 per MHz per pop, half the amount raised in Korea."
PolicyTracker  South-Korea  5G  28GHz  3.5GHz 
july 2018 by pierredv
FCC proceeds with mmWave 5G plans | PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"US mobile industry association the CTIA wanted the planned auctions of the 37.6–40 GHz bands and the 47 GHz band (47.2–48.2 GHz) to be brought forward to November 2018 so that they could be held alongside a planned auction of the 24 GHz band (24.25–24.45 GHz + 24.75–25.25 GHz)."
PolicyTracker  mmwave  5G  FCC  SpectrumFrontiers  CTIA  spectrum-auctions 
june 2018 by pierredv
Utilities come together to push for access to spectrum | PolicyTracker, June 2018
"Currently, there is no dedicated spectrum for use by utilities. Enterprises operate private LTE and digital mobile radio systems across various bands. While utilities have examined the potential of different bands, including 6 GHz, 3.5 GHz and 4.9 GHz, they have expressed a preference for 400 MHz because it has sufficient capacity and would provide favourable coverage for utilities to communicate over wide areas.

US utility companies are seeking to gain access to the 406-420 MHz band, which will have to be shared with federal government users and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration’s (NTIA) Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee. In continental Europe, utilities would use 450-470 MHz. The UK is currently considering 400 -450 MHz."
PolicyTracker  utilities  Spectrum  400MHz  UHF 
june 2018 by pierredv
EU institutions reach agreement on Electronic Communications Code | PolicyTracker June 2018
"It adds that countries must allow the use of at least 1 GHz of the 26 GHz band, provided there is clear evidence of market demand and no significant constraints from existing users. The 32 GHz and the 40 GHz bands have also been identified as priority bands for 5G deployment.

The code says the EU welcomes increased cooperation among member states in spectrum management but underlines that spectrum usage varies across the Union and that flexibility for national governments must be preserved. For instance, the EECC proposes that the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC) will issue standardised declarations for service providers, but national regulatory authorities (NRAs) will continue to have the lead role in general authorisations. "

“Peer review should contribute to a better exchange of best practices between Member States and increase transparency… but it should not be a formal condition of national authorisation procedures,” the draft document says. The peer review of national spectrum assignments will be led by the European Commission’s advisory body the Radio Spectrum Policy Group (RSPG), not BEREC.

"The decision to increase spectrum licences to 20 years, short of the 25 years the industry wanted, aims to secure return on investment."
EU  PolicyTracker  Europe  spectrum  BEREC  regulations  mmwave  RSPG  licensing  spectrum-licensing 
june 2018 by pierredv
5G is about opportunity not uncertainty says Commission spectrum boss | PolicyTracker, June 2018
The gigabit per second speeds being demonstrated by Verizon in the US were commercially unimaginable a few years ago, but equally unprecedented is the skepticism among senior industry figures:

= There is no current business model for mmWave, said Deutsche Telecom;
= An EU study predicts no aggressive roll out of mmWave;
= a book by a former Chief Technology Officer for UK’s Ofcom argues that the economics do not stack up.

On the other hand, modelling by Ericsson suggests we may be too pessimistic about propagation at higher frequency bands."
PolicyTracker  5G  EU  EuropeanCommission 
june 2018 by pierredv
mmWave 5G services to be limited and localised, EU study finds | PolicyTracker, June 2018
"The ‘Study on using millimetre waves bands for the deployment of the 5G ecosystem in the Union’, which was launched in December 2017 and is being carried out by IDATE and Plum, suggests that mm-waves will constitute less than 1% of the total 5G market in terms of subscriptions by 2025. "

"According to interim results presented at a workshop, only localised specific applications and very dense areas will initially benefit from mmWave spectrum."

"Frédéric Pujol, head of radio technologies & spectrum practice at IDATE DigiWorld, predicted that the development of fixed wireless access (FWA)–using millimetre wave frequencies to provide in-building service, will be relatively low within the Union"
PolicyTracker  5G  mmwave  hype  critique  IDATE  PlumConsulting 
june 2018 by pierredv
Future of UK’s planned emergency services network could be in doubt | PolicyTracker, June 2018
"The future of the UK's planned Emergency Services Network (ESN)–the LTE-based communications system being developed for the country's police, paramedics and fire services–could be in doubt."
PolicyTracker  LTE  UK  public-safety 
june 2018 by pierredv
Are combinatorial clock auctions losing their lustre? | PolicyTracker, May 2018
"From around 2008 to 2013, several spectrum administrations around the world chose the combinatorial clock auction (CCA) format to allocate spectrum. Fast forward just a few years, and the CCA seems to have fallen out of favour. Why? "

"There seems to be a tendency now to go for simpler auction formats, mainly because under the CCA scheme, bidders don’t know how much they’ll end up paying because they don’t know what others are bidding, said Okholm. That uncertainty creates problems because bidding teams must secure a budget without being able to tell the board members what they’ll ultimately end up paying, he said. This was also an issue in earlier auctions but there is now more experience with CCAs, he said.

Another problem is that operators can find themselves in the situation of not knowing which spectrum package they’re winning, Okholm said. The CCA format incentivises “aggressive bidding” on large packages costing a great deal of money, driving up prices for competitors."
spectrum-auctions  PolicyTracker 
may 2018 by pierredv
Mobile and satellite industries disagree on potential 37–43.5 GHz 5G tuning range | PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"These frequencies could all use the same equipment (unlike frequencies at 24.25–29.5 GHz) and they are all are on the WRC-19 agenda for potential identification for IMT in the Radio Regulations."

Summary of View A and View B submitted to IWG-2.
PolicyTracker  mmWave  cellular  satellite  WRC-19  FCC 
may 2018 by pierredv
New generation of non-geostationary constellations poses challenges for WRC-19 | PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"Article 22.2 of the Radio Regulations, the ITU document that manages international spectrum use, states that geostationary orbit (GSO) satellites cannot receive interference from NGSO satellites in fixed-satellite service (FSS) bands. However, the regulations do not yet include any rules on how this is to be achieved above 30 GHz.

To address this, agenda item 1.6 of WRC-19 considers the regulatory framework for NGSO satellites to use the fixed-satellite service at 37.5–39.5 GHz (space-to-Earth), 47.2–50.2 GHz (Earth-to-space) and 50.4–51.4 GHz (Earth-to-space).

In addition to preventing interference to GSO satellites, the rules also need to find a way for NGSO satellites to avoid interference to each other, to passive earth exploration satellite services at 36-37 GHz and 50.2-50.4 GHz and to radio astronomy services at 42.5-43.5 GHz, 48.94-49.04 GHz and 51.4-54.25 GHz."

"... WP 4A had identified a way to calculate unavailability: the convolution methodology. This is meant to protect GSO satellites without imposing onerous and spectrally inefficient equivalent power flux-density (EPFD) limits on NGSO systems.

It works by calculating the single entry increase in unavailability to a reference GSO link, compared to a maximum stipulated in the Radio Regulations. Administrations then determine the overall increase in link unavailability so that aggregate interference will not degrade the GSO satellites’ availability by more than 10 per cent."

US IWG-3: "Alexander Epshteyn, an engineer at Boeing, drafted a paper for the group’s meeting in late March that proposed solutions to protect GSO networks based on the convolution methodology."
PolicyTracker  NGSO  ITU-R  WRC-19  GSO  EPFD  FSS  interference  *  Boeing 
may 2018 by pierredv
France to trial blockchain for spectrum management | PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"In what may be the first use of blockchain for spectrum management, the Agence National des Fréquences (ANFR) and start-up Blockchain Partner are preparing a limited trial of the technology using frequencies at 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and in other bands."

"The technology will help manage frequencies among different parties without the need for a trusted third party such as a spectrum administrator, Maigron added. The system can be viewed as an agreement among users to work with the blockchain to ensure quality of service without the need for any spectrum management."

"It will use a private version of the Ethereum blockchain app platform and will deploy in only two or three nodes at first."
PolicyTracker  blockchain  France  ANFR  PMSE  Ethereum 
may 2018 by pierredv
WRC-23 might legalise use of L-band for inter-satellite links | PolicyTracker May 2018
"The satellite industry is proposing to study changing the Radio Regulations to address the use of the L-band for data relays for non-geostationary satellites (NGSOs). "
PolicyTracker  NGSO  L-band  ISS 
may 2018 by pierredv
What are the global prospects for unlicensed use of the 6 GHz band? | PolicyTracker - May 2018
"The 6 GHz band is already allocated in the Radio Regulations to mobile on a co-primary basis alongside the fixed and fixed satellite (uplink) services. Advocates of sharing in the band commissioned RKF Engineering to study the impact that unlicensed use could have on the band’s incumbents within the continental US."

"These findings were challenged by the Fixed Wireless Communications Coalition, which was supported by the National Spectrum Management Association. Satellite operators Intelsat and SES also challenged the rigour of the study, in comments that were subsequently described as “tinkering at the margins” by the unlicensed spectrum advocates."

"In response to the EC mandate, a CEPT sub-group (ECC SE45) will complete a similar baseline study by the end of 2018."
PolicyTracker  6GHz  satellite  unlicensed  ECC 
may 2018 by pierredv
New EC competence remains question mark for future negotiations | PolicyTracker apr 2018
The European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruled in favour of the EC when it annulled the Council’s conclusions establishing the European Union’s (EU) negotiating position for the ITU World Radiocommunication Conference in 2015 (WRC-15), judging that they were contrary to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

At the heart of this issue is the extent to which the EC can regulate extra-European negotiations where the EU is not a party itself—like those that take place in the run-up to and during WRCs—and whether it has external jurisdiction over issues relating to those negotiations, as it does with cross-border spectrum coordination.

While this may have initially seemed like essentially a technical issue, it has evolved into a complex case with broader constitutional connotations. It may be too early to determine whether the ECJ ruling has direct implications for EU member states’ bargaining positions in future spectrum negotiations, it can be considered a meaningful resolution.
PolicyTracker  EU  EC  EuropeanCommission  WRC  ITU  ECJ 
april 2018 by pierredv
Mobile penetration is higher without auctions, study claims | PolicyTracker Apr 2018
The auction versus beauty contest debate is alive and well in the mobile industry as it heads towards 5G contests.
PolicyTracker  spectrum-auctions  celluar 
april 2018 by pierredv
WRC-19 update: two mmWave bands emerge as 5G front runners | PolicyTracker Mar 2018
"Harmonising mmWave spectrum for 5G is the part of WRC-19 that has attracted the most attention but there are over 30 topics on the agenda, covering a range of fields from satellite to High-Altitude Platform Stations (HAPS) and Wi-Fi. Our new research report identifies those shown in the table below as the key issues."

= 5G in the mmWave bands (AI 1.13) - leading contenders 26 and 40 GHz
= Additional spectrum for HAPs (AI 1.14)
= Wi-Fi at 5 GHz (AI 1.16) - unlikely
= Removal of limits on broadcasting-satellite service (AI 1.4) - good prospects
= Satellite Earth Stations in Motion (AI 1.5 ) - outcome depends on studies in 28 GHz
PolicyTracker  5G  26GHz  mmWave 
march 2018 by pierredv
Debate over interference limits in 26 GHz heats up | PolicyTracker Mar 2018
"A major debate is taking shape for WRC-19 over concerns that mobile use of the popular 26 GHz band for 5G could cause harmful interference to earth exploration satellites in 23.6-24 GHz. The key is to get the emissions limits right, stakeholders say, with a significant gap between proposals from European administrations and those from the mobile industry."

"Rancy believes that if in any frequency band it does not appear possible to design equipment that will protect adjacent bands, those bands will not be accepted for 5G. It’s up to engineers to find the appropriate level of protection for the passive services, he said."

"As ITU studies began ahead of WRC-19, it became clear that using 26 GHz for mobile services could potentially interfere with the very sensitive global warming monitoring being carried out by the European Space Agency (ESA) satellite in spectrum just below 24.25 GHz, Ercole said."
PolicyTracker  EarthObservation  26GHz  5G 
march 2018 by pierredv
ITU-R may move to milestone approach for satellite filing for NGSOs | PolicyTracker: Mar 2018
"A consensus is emerging during preparations for WRC-19 that a milestone process should be established for the bringing into use (BIU) of some of the larger non-geostationary orbit (NGSO) satellite constellations. This would oblige operators to demonstrate progress in building their constellations in order to obtain and keep their satellite filings."

"Hazem Moakkit, vice president for corporate and spectrum strategy at Intelsat, told a recent industry conference that at the moment you can have filings submitted for over 6,000 satellites, but the rules say you can BIU with only one satellite. “There is something broken here and it needs to be fixed,” he said."

"The milestones for NGSO satellites might start after seven years from the original application. After a few more years, an operator would have to show that they have a certain percentage of a constellation in operation. According to the current consensus described by Allison, there may be two more milestones, with the final one set 15 years after the first application. The longer timescale would reflect the greater complexity that these constellations would have in comparison to geostationary satellites."
PolicyTracker  WRC-19  ITU  NGSO  satellite 
march 2018 by pierredv
Ericsson: city 5G works well if just deployed on existing base stations | PolicyTracker March 2018
Vendor’s urban propagation mapping shows high indoor penetration at 3.5 GHz and 28 GHz with almost the same outdoor footprint as 2.6 GHz.

Kenneth Wallstedt, director of technology strategy at Ericsson, says the idea that a 5G network necessarily requires many more base stations is a “misunderstanding”.
Ericsson  5G  PolicyTracker  3.5GHz  28GHz 
march 2018 by pierredv
Can the use of a side channel revolutionise spectrum sharing? | PolicyTracker: Feb 2018
Spectrum Collaboration Challenge

In the competition, organised by the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), several different types of radios operate in a shared frequency band and the challenge for the participating teams is to co-operate in the most efficient manner by making use of a side channel. This separate channel is used to send real-time data about how each network operates and sensing data from the RF environment, hopefully enabling the radios to work around each other. The aim is to make the most efficient use of the spectrum while preventing interference.
PolicyTracker  DARPA  SC2 
february 2018 by pierredv
Satellite companies propose C-band sharing plan with US mobile operators | PolicyTracker: Feb 2018
“Asked whether moving out of the band will give satellite operators a monetary windfall, [SES chief strategy and development officer] De Hauwer declined to speculate about the size or precise use of any such compensation. However, he said, satellite service providers in space and on the ground have invested billions in the C-band over the decades, and any change to that ecosystem is complex and expensive.”

“If the satellite companies don’t do anything, the FCC might allocate the spectrum under less favourable terms and without any compensation, said Telecom, Media and Finance Associates satellite consultant Tim Farrar. The possibility of receiving billions of dollars for moving out of the band is attractive because the satellite industry isn’t a rapidly growing one and a windfall would be welcome, he said.”

“If the FCC goes along with the SES/Intelsat plan, controversy could flare around who ends up with the 100 MHz of satellite spectrum, Farrar said. He noted in a blog post that wireless operators Verizon, AT&T and T-Mobile put forward divergent views on reallocation mechanisms in comments to the regulator’s consultation on expanding flexible use in mid-band spectrum between 3.7 GHz and 24 GHz. Verizon called for a near-term notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) with market-based clearance mechanisms rather than an auction. AT&T asked for “substantial record development, including additional analysis and modeling” before the launch of an NPRM, while T-Mobile said the agency should reject the Intelsat proposal and auction the spectrum.”
PolicyTracker  satellite  C-band  SES  Verizon  AT&T  T-Mobile  Tim-Farrar 
february 2018 by pierredv
Brussels wants no “excuses” over 5G spectrum release | PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
Viola said the Commission was “very strict” on its position on EU member states delaying the release of 5G bands. “Clearly, we recognise that there are cases of force majeure that stop states from releasing the spectrum but we don’t want to end up like the 800 MHz band, where everything was an excuse.”

26 GHz a problem band
The difficulties in ensuring the protection of the earth exploration satellite service (EESS) around the 26 GHz band mean that manufacturers may need to “consider perhaps redirecting our design resources and focus on other bands and that may provide a design for Europe,” said Lasse Wieweg, global coordinator for the mobile manufacturers’ association the GSA.

Philip Marnick, group director of spectrum at the UK regulator Ofcom, asked whether it was necessary to clear spectrum to enable 26 GHz to be used for mobile in the same way that broadcasting was cleared from the 700 MHz band – “or do we need to make sure it’s available where it is needed?”

“We need to get our act together and get it right,” he said. “We are not making our rules in Europe more aggressive than they need to be to make sure coexistence works. Passive bands need to be protected.”

Marnick added: “We need to make sure we don’t get hoodwinked by the lobbying positions of mobile manufacturers. How do we make sure that the rules we set balance the needs of users and the need to encourage innovation?”•
PolicyTracker  5G  26GHz  Ofcom 
february 2018 by pierredv
Coverage, not revenue, is increasingly the goal of spectrum assignments | PolicyTracker Feb 2018
"After 20 years and three or four generations of mobile technology, governments and regulators are starting to recognise that there is a contradiction between extracting large amounts of money from mobile operators for spectrum licences and then demanding costly network deployments to cover 100 per cent of a country. That’s according to Gérard Pogorel, Emeritus Professor of Economics at top French graduate engineering school Télécom ParisTech."

"It took the French government six months to arrive at a comprehensive contract with operators to renew 4G licences without new auctions but with strong commitments from them to deploy new networks quickly, Pogorel said. . . . By contrast, the Japanese government, which has never held a spectrum auction, is planning one for March, said Pogorel. "
PolicyTracker  Gerard-Pogorel  cellular  spectrum-auctions  ARCEP  France  BNA  Germany  Japan  Mischa-Dohler 
february 2018 by pierredv
Foundational standards set for Citizens Broadband Radio Service | PolicyTracker: Feb 2018
"The Wireless Innovation Forum has finalized the specifications for use of the 3.5 GHz band by commercial applications as part of the Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS)."

"The standardization work is based on the FCC’s Part 96 rules. The Wireless Innovation Forum (WinnForum) has contracted mobile trade association the CTIA to certify CBRS devices (CBSDs)."
PolicyTracker  WinnForum  3.5GHz  CTIA 
february 2018 by pierredv
Longer spectrum licences don’t necessarily drive operator investment, study finds | PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"Regulators seeking to balance flexibility in telecoms licensing with some degree of certainty for investors about spectrum tenure are considering the issue of licence duration, Ovum analysts say. All things being equal, a longer licence does offer more certainty but it's by no means the only factor in minimising investment risk."
PolicyTracker  spectrum  licensing  Ovum 
january 2018 by pierredv
GE backs localized area licensing at 3550–3700 MHz in US for industrial IoT | PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"There are over 74,000 census tracts in the US and its territories. This would make nationwide spectrum access more complex than by PEA, of which there are 416. The added complexity had irked some mobile operators."

"GE says that entities wishing to provide geographically-targeted deployments would not be able to compete against mobile operators for PEA-based PALs"

"General Electric (GE) has the spectrum in mind for broadband-intensive (such as video) remote monitoring and the inspection of industrial equipment by drones, crawlers or submersibles. It would prefer to provide its own networks for these applications, rather than rely on wireless carrier services."
PolicyTracker  3.5GHz  GE 
january 2018 by pierredv
UK regulator eyes spectrum sharing in 3.8-4.2 GHz band | PolicyTracker Jan 2018
“There are two key questions about shared spectrum,” [Steve Unger] said. “One is whether it allows entry by innovative communications providers – that’s always been interesting but not happened quite as we’d like. The other is why wouldn’t you allocate spectrum to new users to build their own private network as long as it can be geographically defined.”

"The primary focus of Ofcom’s spectrum department is currently the heavily litigated auction of 3.4-3.6 GHz, as well as working on the auctions of spectrum at 700 MHz, 3.6-3.8 GHz and 26 GHz. This means plans for 3.8-4.2 GHz are not a top priority yet."
PolicyTracker  Ofcom  spectrum-sharing  C-band 
january 2018 by pierredv
Non-geostationary satellites want more spectrum sharing in 3.7-7 GHz bands | PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"WRC-19 Agenda Item 9.1.3 calls for studies into the technical, operational and regulatory feasibility of allowing new non-geostationary satellites in the 3.7-4.2 GHz (C-band), 4.5-4.8 GHz, 5.925-6.425 GHz and 6.725-7.025 GHz bands allocated to fixed satellite services (FSS). The proposal isn't particularly controversial but any additional spectrum sharing must be handled with care, satellite operators say."

"Resolution 157 from WRC-15 [notes] that both orbits and their associated spectrum are valuable resources, equitable access to which should be safeguarded for the benefit of all countries"

"Current ITU rules dealing with the protection of GSO systems from non-GSO systems in the C-band were set over 15 years ago based on some now older non-GSO designs, said EMEA Satellite Operators Association secretary-general Aarti Holla-Maini. Those rules were originally made for the benefit of non-GSO operators, and were an alternative to the more general rule that simply obligates non-GSO systems to protect geostationary systems. Satellite manufacturers now want updated values in the ITU rules that will give them more flexibility in non-GSO designs while still protecting GSO satellites."
PolicyTracker  satellite  C-band  FSS  NGSO  GSO  ITU 
december 2017 by pierredv
Europe still divided on replacing GSM-R for rail connectivity | PolicyTracker: Nov 2017
"According to Thomas Chatelet, project officer at ERA, the key difference between the approach of Scandinavian countries and the UK on the one side and countries including France and Germany on the other is this: the latter group is convinced that a safe level of performance cannot be ensured if the system is not under government control."

"A regulatory source present at the meeting said that one option for coexistence could be to use “beacons” to create an exclusive part of the band for urban rail beside the tracks, but automotive groups are unhappy with this, given urban rail’s proximity to roads. Another solution is for both road and rail to use the same protocols to communicate, which is the preferred option for the automotive sector."
GSM-R  PolicyTracker 
november 2017 by pierredv
New documentary highlights film star’s WWII spectrum invention | PolicyTracker, Nov 2017
"As a documentary about Hollywood star Hedy Lamarr premieres in London, PolicyTracker takes a look at her work on spread spectrum. This helped to pave the way for frequency hopping, and ultimately, technologies like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi."

"in 1942 patented the concept of “frequency hopping” that now underlies the spread spectrum radio systems used in products ranging from mobile phones to wireless networking systems ... It’s difficult, however, to draw a link from it to the PN used in CDMA cellular, GPS and early generations of Wi-Fi. It’s more likely that the roots of PN are Second World War cryptography and work by Paul Green at MIT Lincoln Lab"
PolicyTracker  spectrum  spread-spectrum  history  Bluetooth 
november 2017 by pierredv
Spectrum sharing won’t happen without strong regulatory push | PolicyTracker: Oct 2017
"The "project of increasing the effectiveness of our use of spectrum by sharing is still not so much in the foothills, but with the foothills still in fairly distant view," Martin Cave and William Webb said in a paper published this month"

"One reason for the lag is that the momentum of spectrum user rights (defined as a limit on the interference that can be expected from others in the same and neighbouring bands) as the primary way of controlling interference “appears to have faltered”. . . . The other lesson derived from the past five years is that legacy commercial and public spectrum users continue to object to sharing"

"Can the market resolve sharing issues? There are potentially two solutions, the authors said. In one, a single licensee is allocated full access rights to all the spectrum within given geographical and band limits, subject to restrictions on emissions at the boundaries. Here, the regulator could simply authorise trading of “sliced and diced” access rights within the licence and collect information from participants in sharing contracts sufficient to enforce the rights of adjacent users outside the sharing arrangements.

"Under a second option, the licensee is assigned an apparatus licence that does not fully exhaust the potential of the spectrum, allowing the issuance of an overlay licence which entitles the licensee to use any spectrum not being used by the incumbent."
PolicyTracker  William-Webb  Martin-Cave  spectrum-sharing 
november 2017 by pierredv
MSS: Inmarsat failed to meet required milestones, says ViaSat | PolicyTracker: Nov 2017
"Inmarsat was one of two companies granted spectrum for mobile satellite services by a European Commission decision in 2009. The original expectation was that this would be used for mobile TV, other multimedia services or rural broadband services but it is now being used in an emerging new market: onboard WiFi for aircraft. The Commission decision was controversial because it allowed operators to use complementary ground components (CGCs) – terrestrial base stations – as part of their satellite network."
PolicyTracker  Inmarsat  ViaSat  CGC  ATC  satellite  MSS 
november 2017 by pierredv
Commission-backed study urges harmonised timing of EU spectrum auctions | PolicyTracker: Oct 2014
Study on Spectrum Assignment in the European Union looked at which spectrum assignment procedures and usage conditions have the most positive effect on the whole electronic communications market in Europe. It was written by PolicyTracker’s consulting arm together with LS Telcom and VVA.

The research found that several elements of auction design have “minimal” impact on the mobile market and that member states should have “the flexibility to include any elements they wish in their award to facilitate their individual market needs (within reason).”

For example, when amounts paid at auction and reserve prices were low, licence lengths long and coverage obligations flexible, some countries showed better network deployments, quality of choice of services, subscriber take-up and increased competition.
PolicyTracker  spectrum-auctions  EU 
november 2017 by pierredv
Project Loon provides connectivity in Puerto Rico | PolicyTracker: Oct 2017
"The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has awarded Google a licence to operate its stratospheric helium balloons in Puerto Rico, but connectivity on the 4G system is limited to text messages and some internet access. "

" The original plan for Loon was to have a chain of balloons across the globe but the focus has now shifted to targeted deployments such as those seen in Puerto Rico, as this requires fewer balloons and allows Google to focus on areas not already served by terrestrial networks."

"UK mobile network operator BT/EE is working with a Texan company called Phazr on its own high-altitude platforms (HAPs) project, testing tethered balloons or “helikites”. Drones and outdoor use cases similar to the crisis coverage situations currently addressed by Project Loon are high on BT/EE’s agenda. . . . The trial used 26 GHz for downlink and 3.5 GHz and unlicensed spectrum in 5 GHz for uplink. "
Alphabet  Google  Loon  PolicyTracker  HAPS  BT  Phazr 
october 2017 by pierredv
Deutsche Telekom not yet clear on cost of 3.4-3.8 GHz 5G networks | PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
Deutsche Telekom’s current trial work is focused on sub-6 GHz spectrum and Bruno Jacobfeuerborn, its chief technology officer for Germany, told PolicyTracker that the use of mmWave frequencies like the 24.5-27.65 GHz range is not a focus for the company in the short term. “I believe there will be something in the future but today the business case doesn’t work at all,” he said. “We need to compete with the normal wireline business case.”

"The primary focus for the next generation of mobile still appears to be on enhanced mobile broadband, with DT also placing great emphasis on its narrowband IoT (Internet of Things) work. [DT CTO] Jacobfeuerborn said that lower latency and faster connections combined with mobile edge computing, which would put the processing and powering element into the cloud, would make lightweight but high-performance hardware like virtual and augmented reality glasses a possibility."
PolicyTracker  DeutscheTelekom  DT  3.7GHz  5G  mmWave 
october 2017 by pierredv
Operators commit to 5G trials but cut back on overall equipment expenditure | PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"In spite of these positive announcements, mobile operators are still at the pre-investment stage when it comes to deploying 5G networks and that is not simply because the ITU and 3GPP standards are not available. Identifying use cases is still at the top of the operators’ agenda, prior to any investment in networks."

"Key characteristics of 3.4-3.8 GHz spectrum like outdoor-to-indoor penetration are still uncertain, however, with Lombardi telling PolicyTracker she has read about trials of “not very efficient” outdoor-to-indoor penetration "

"Mobile revenue growth in Europe is 0.4 per cent, according to Telenor Norway chief executive Berit Svendsen. “In Norway, our customers are using 60 per cent more data,” she said. “Against 0.4 per cent revenue you have a problem to maintain your network, to build out more coverage.” She added that the company had been lucky in that it had been able to increase subscriber charges slightly"
5G  PolicyTracker  28GHz  3.5GHz  mmWave 
october 2017 by pierredv
Spectrum dispute at heart of European mobile industry’s existential crisis | PolicyTracker, Sep 2017
“The message from operators and investors at yesterday’s ETNO (European Telecommunications Networks Operators) event was clear: the European mobile industry is having an existential crisis and “the shifting sands of micro-regulation and incrementalism are swallowing essential reforms”.

“This was the opening comment at the event. ETNO chair Stephen Tas was talking about the European Commission’s proposed Electronic Communications Code (ECC), which includes the proposed controversial rules on auctions and licence durations. These have been repeatedly rejected by the European Council, regulatory group BEREC and spectrum advisory body the RSPG.

“Painting a bleak economic picture, Timotheus Höttges, chief executive of Deutsche Telekom (DT), cited a study that suggests European operators’ earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) have fallen by 44 per cent in the last 10 years.”



“Höttges repeatedly said that a new deal would have to include “deregulation”, taking aim at regulators for investigating DT’s StreamOn streaming service and what he described as an un-level playing field between over-the-top tech providers and telcos. He said that the cost of laying fibre would go into the hundreds of billions of euros and this should guarantee exclusivity to those who build those networks.”



“Stéphane Richard, chief executive of French operator Orange, conveyed a similar message, calling on policymakers to act to make spectrum available.”



“That process is going to be explosive, one senior European regulatory source told PolicyTracker. The source said they had never seen anything like the disagreement forming between the Council on one side and the European Parliament and the European Commission on the other and had “no idea” what any compromise would look like.”



“Sebastian Soriano, the outgoing chair of BEREC, which is made up of Europe’s electronic communications regulators, said: “This morning the chief executive of DT evoked the image of the lighthouse in turbulent times. It is useful for the market to have strong messages to give to investors. The Council is fighting against the Commission’s proposal in the review. Our DNA is challenged. We hear about the gigabit society and 5G – political people are welcome to redefine the lighthouse but I strongly advise against turning it off in turbulent times.””
PolicyTracker  EU  EuropeanCommission  EuropeanCouncil  BEREC  EuropeanParliament 
september 2017 by pierredv
Smallsats unite to campaign on spectrum issues | PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"The Commercial Smallsat Spectrum Management Association (CSSMA), launched this month, will campaign for an expedited spectrum coordination process for shared spectrum as well as on other spectrum issues affecting the community."

"The primary commercial uses of smallsats so far are for imaging (Planet Labs, Astro Digital) or other kinds of sensing (such as radio frequency sensing – Hawkeye 360); weather forecasting (Spire, Space Sciences); and monitoring of automatic identification systems for shipping and automatic dependent surveillance (Spire). That’s according to Tony Lin, a Hogan Lovells communications attorney based in Washington, D.C.

Another company, Kepler, has proposed a smallsat Fixed Satellite System (FSS), said Lin, who represents several smallsat companies. Two operators, Spire and Planet, have obtained licences from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to operate commercial smallsat systems; the other companies have either applied or plan to apply soon."

"Smallsat systems generally use spectrum for one-way “data dumps,” so coordination and shared use is primarily a “scheduling” exercise. Smallsats generally don’t need the exclusive spectrum more typically required for the Mobile Satellite Service or FSS."
satellite  smallsats  nanosats  PolicyTracker  NewSpace  HoganLovells  PlanetLab  HawkEye360  Spire  Kepler  NGSO 
september 2017 by pierredv
ETSI standards group saw attempted takeover — PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"... ETSI BRAN had been a group more or less in hibernation, until interest in using LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U) in the US started to grow. This put the group at the centre of the coexistence debate between LTE-U and Wi-Fi."

A source tells us that “the Wi-Fi industry saw the European regulatory process as one means to stop LTE-U globally because 3GPP develops standards on a global basis for one area in the world. And so they said if we influence ETSI BRAN and the EN 301 893 standard, we can also have an impact on 3GPP. That’s exactly what has happened".

"Version 2.1.1. of the EN 301 893 standard was reviewed by member states, who duly returned comments. It was eventually approved. However, by the time it appeared in the Official Journal of the EU, where binding legal acts in Europe are recorded, it was listed alongside the older version (1.8.1.), saying that the the adaptivity clause of 1.8.1. was also applicable."
PolicyTracker  ETSI  LTE-U 
september 2017 by pierredv
Prototype app can make spectrum visible — PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
""HertzViz," an open-data app developed during a May hackathon sponsored by French spectrum regulator ANFR, makes some frequencies visible in order to help construction companies avoid blocking telecoms and internet communications with their equipment."

"The idea behind the app is to make visible specific frequencies, from 1.4 GHz to 70 GHz, which are easily disrupted by buildings, equipment and other objects, said Grange-Piras. Data from the ANFR and all French telecoms providers on, among other things, precise frequencies, projections for where they are emitted and received, and geographic coordinates allowed the team behind the app to map the different frequencies on Google Earth and pick them up on a mobile phone. The different colours in the photo below represent different operators."

See https://twitter.com/hertzviz?lang=en
spectrum  visualization  PolicyTracker 
august 2017 by pierredv
Fate of US spectrum bills could rest with House of Representatives — PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter
"Five spectrum-related measures are pending in Congress. Yet despite Senate interest in pushing what is generally seen as bipartisan legislation, there are questions about whether House Republicans will play ball."

"The bills are the Mobile Now Act (S.19); the Federal Spectrum Incentive Act of 2017 (H.R. 1888); the Rural Spectrum Accessibility Act (H.R. 1814); the Developing Innovation and Growing the Internet of Things Act (DIGIT) (S.88); and the newly introduced Advancing Innovation and Reinvigorating Widespread Access to Viable Electromagnetic Spectrum (AIRWAVES) Act (S.1682)."
PolicyTracker  legislation  US  Congress  spectrum 
august 2017 by pierredv
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