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Beyond Massive MIMO: The Potential of Data Transmission With Large Intelligent Surfaces - IEEE Journals & Magazine
Via Marina Petrova, May 2019

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the potential of data transmission in a system with a massive number of radiating and sensing elements, thought of as a contiguous surface of electromagnetically active material. We refer to this as a large intelligent surface (LIS), which is a newly proposed concept and conceptually goes beyond contemporary massive MIMO technology. First, we consider capacities of single-antenna autonomous terminals communicating to the LIS where the entire surface is used as a receiving antenna array in a perfect line-of-sight propagation environment. Under the condition that the surface area is sufficiently large, the received signal after a matched-filtering operation can be closely approximated by a sinc-function-like intersymbol interference channel. Second, we analyze a normalized capacity measured per unit surface, for a fixed transmit power per volume unit with different terminal deployments. As terminal density increases, the limit of the normalized capacity [nats/s/Hz/volume-unit] achieved when wavelength λ approaches zero is equal to half of the transmit power per volume unit divided by the noise spatial power spectral density. Third, we show that the number of independent signal dimensions that can be harvested per meter deployed surface is 2/λ for one-dimensional terminal deployment, and π/λ 2 per square meter for two- and three-dimensional terminal deployments. Finally, we consider implementations of the LIS in the form of a grid of conventional antenna elements, and show that the sampling lattice that minimizes the surface area and simultaneously obtains one independent signal dimension for every spent antenna is the hexagonal lattice.
MIMO  antennas  smart-materials  nanomaterials  LIS  metamaterials 
may 2019 by pierredv
FPAs: Moving Parts Still Have the Upper Hand - NSR Apr 2019
"Given the number of Non-GEO HTS constellations announced, from early "launch, full production, and those in early development, it is safe to say the skies will be filling up fast with more satellite capacity than ever before. On the ground, development of next-generation, electronically-steered terminals continues with announcements such by Kymeta, Phasor, and OmniAccess among others. Given this, all signs indicate that electronically-steered antennas (ESAs), which will inherently decrease the number of moving parts, are key to the future of satcom. However, delays are quite common, from Kymeta requiring 5 years to ship their first product, and Phasor postponing their ESA deployment, to name just a few.

Meanwhile, mechanically-steered antennas (MSAs) are on the market now, with developed supply chains and partnerships, doing the job with a host of moving parts."

"According to NSR’s Flat Panel Satellite Antennas, 4th Edition, annual shipments of mechanically-steered antennas (MSA) FPAs will grow to over 48,000 units by 2028, with over 7,000 shipped last year. MSAs are forecasted to represent only 3% of all future shipped FPAs, yet they represent 95% of the market today. In fact, despite ESA development, MSAs are expected to retain leadership in key verticals."

"Advanced capabilities are desired, but reliability is required."
NSR  satellite  antennas  Kymeta  Phasor  market-research  ESA 
april 2019 by pierredv
Satcom Future Hinges on Electronically-Steered FPAs - NSR Mar 2019
"When the term “flat panel antenna” (FPA) is mentioned, most envision a completely flat, non-moving piece of communications technology. These systems, specifically electronically-steered antennas (ESAs), capable of faster tracking and pointing than parabolic ones, are seen as an impending necessity for satcom, especially given the soon-to-be full skies of LEO constellations. Interest and development in this technology has grown significantly in recent years, from Kymeta shipping the first commercial ESAs in 2017 to large contracts signed, pending product release.

However, ESA technology is still under-developed, mostly unavailable, expensive to engineer and suffering numerous delays. Currently, only 4 manufacturers (Kymeta, hiSky, SatCube, and SatPro) have ESAs for broadband-via-satellite available on the market, and given the importance of this technology for LEO networks, one wonders just when will this technology take off, and what happens if it does not?"

"NSR’s Flat Panel Satellite Antennas, 4th Edition report forecasts the market to transition strongly after 2020, with ESAs accounting for 97% of FPAs shipped in 2028. While mechanically-steered antennas (MSAs) currently dominate the FPA market, at 95.5% of shipped units, non-GEO networks, competition, and improved technology are expected to strongly pivot market take-up once LEO constellations are launched and operational. However, MSAs have begun to make successful inroads, and in some cases are expected to continue to provide competition to ESAs even after the technology becomes more available."
NSR  satellite  antennas  FPA  ESA  market-research 
march 2019 by pierredv
FPAs: From a Niche to a Necessity - NSR Feb 2019
"While the goalposts for the greater take-up of FPAs keep moving further out, the networks of tomorrow may set requirements that are too demanding for parabolic antennas. This in turn, pressures flat panel technology to come to fruition sooner rather than later in the hope of moving it from a niche product to a necessity. Given the state of play today, how likely is it that FPAs will serve the networks of tomorrow and star in that lead role?"

"NSR’s recently published Flat Panel Satellite Antennas, 4th Edition report considers it likely, but very challenging to get the role. The report forecasts over 1.5 million units to ship in 2028, growing at a strong CAGR of 71.2%. Mobility will continue to dominate equipment revenues, with complex capabilities keeping terminals expensive. Volume will be driven by Fixed Applications, specifically Consumer Broadband, but only if manufacturers are given more incentives to drive down prices to target the largest addressable markets."
antennas  satellite  NSR  market-research 
february 2019 by pierredv
Satellite Flat Panel Antennas: An $11 Billion Opportunity by 2028 - NSR Feb 2019
"NSR’s FPA4 finds aeronautical equipment will drive revenue growth for manufacturers, while fixed broadband applications on Non-GEO satellites will be the main volume market."

"The complexity of staying connected on the move is expected to keep antenna prices and revenues high over the next decade"

"While mobility drives revenues, fixed applications drive volume, with NSR expecting more than 1.4 million FPA terminals to ship for satellite broadband in 2028."
NSR  satellite  antennas 
february 2019 by pierredv
Wyler claims breakthrough in low-cost antenna for OneWeb, other satellite systems - SpaceNews.com Jan 2019
"OneWeb founder Greg Wyler says a self-funded side project of his has developed an antenna module costing $15, paving the way for user terminals priced between $200 and $300.
Wyler, in an interview, said he invested just under $10 million into Wafer LLC, a Danvers, Massachusetts-based company that has created a prototype antenna. After three to four years of effort and more than 500 iterations, the antenna could be commercially available as soon as 2020, he said. "

"Wyler said the Wafer antenna is designed first to work in Ku-band — the same frequency as OneWeb’s first satellites — but could also work in Ka-, X-, V- and other bands with little change in cost. "
satellite  SpaceNews  antennas 
january 2019 by pierredv
Boeing leads $14M funding round for Isotropic Systems to boost satellite links, GeekWire Jan 2019
London-based Isotropic Systems<https://www.isotropicsystems.com/>, a startup that is developing flat-panel antennas and high-throughput terminals for satellite communications, says it has raised $14 million in a Series A financing round led by Boeing HorizonX Ventures.
GeekWire  satellite  VC  antennas 
january 2019 by pierredv
Connected Buses & Trains: In the Express Lane? - NSR
"NSR’s recently published report, Land Mobile via Satellite, 6th Edition found total retail revenues for connected vehicles in 2027 will exceed $650 million, with 32% driven by trains and 45% by buses, indicating significant demand driven by intercity passenger journeys. Nearly half of this is derived from equipment revenues, signifying a large ground segment opportunity in this market, which will be almost entirely captured by flat panel antenna (FPA) manufacturers and associated hardware and installation."

"Hispasat, through a partnership with Phasor, have realised this and are trialling connected buses in Latin America, where long distance, intercity bus travel is the norm."
NSR  satellite  business  antennas  market-research  Phasor 
january 2019 by pierredv
Glass box of atomic vapour could work as a James-Bond-style spy radio | New Scientist, Sep 2018
https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.08589

"David Anderson at Rydberg Technologies in Michigan and his colleagues built their radio receiver to be smaller and more secure than traditional radios. At its heart is a centimetre-sized glass box full of caesium vapour. The caesium atoms are prepared so that some of their electrons have more energy than normal, which makes them highly sensitive to certain frequencies of electromagnetic waves."

"In the new radio receiver, the caesium atoms act as the antenna. When an electromagnetic wave hits the atoms, it temporarily bumps some of their electrons up to a higher energy level, changing the atoms’ quantum state"

"Unlike traditional radio receivers, this compact design works in multiple frequency bands"
NewScientist  RF  antennas 
december 2018 by pierredv
Sorry LEOs, but FPAs Have No Incentive to Go Low-Cost - NSR Dec 2018
"According to NSR’s Commercial Satellite Ground Segment, 3rd Edition report, antennas will generate $44.9 billion cumulative revenues in the next 10 years. Requirements are wide and varied, from low-cost, fixed parabolic dishes for DTH (can be as cheap as $10 USD), to highly sophisticated antennas for mobility or Earth Stations that can cost several $100k USD. Consequently, antenna vendors adapt their products to the most lucrative markets. LEO constellations have a particular set of requirements that favor FPAs, especially in the low-end markets, but are FPA incentives aligned with LEO Constellations?"

"Today, SAC in Consumer Broadband is around $700-1,000 USD where the modem might be in the $300 range, antenna itself around $50, installation contributing $100 and the rest being marketing, credit validation and others. Consequently, an FPA priced in the $200-300 range could compete with traditional parabolics considering lower installation and marketing costs (product placement). Even considering these factors, prices for FPAs are still far from this benchmark, and only the architectures that have no other option (LEOs, Aero) will choose FPAs in the short to medium term."

"It will be impossible to see FPAs beating low-end parabolics in a direct cost comparison but, when including other elements of SAC, the equation is not so unfavorable. With continuous technology development, greater traction from LEOs and stagnation in verticals like Aero, we could see consumer-grade FPAs by the mid-2020s, at the earliest."
NSR  antennas  LEO  business  satellite  broadband  aviation 
december 2018 by pierredv
Building Smartphone Antennas That Play Nice Together - IEEE Spectrum
"Instead of creating antennas as individual elements and leaving it to the designers to choose where to fit them into a device, it’s better to design a suite of antennas that work well together as a system and then install that system into the mobile device as a single cohesive unit."

"We know the frequencies at which the surrounding antennas are transmitting, so our analog filters look for those specific frequencies and, in effect, short those signals to ground, dissipating their energy while passing the desired signals undisturbed to the receiver."

"we’re manufacturing the entire set of antennas needed for a mobile device on one flexible 0.44-millimeter-thick printed circuit board. Flexibility reduces the cost of manufacturing because it lets us start the process in two dimensions and then turn it into a 3D package—by molding a plastic shape and then wrapping it with the flexible circuit board."
IEEE-Spectrum  antennas  EMC 
november 2018 by pierredv
Hybrid beamforming for 5G MIMO arrays | EDN Feb 2018
"Designers have two options for beamforming, one more practical than the other. If cost and power were not constrained in 5G systems, dedicated receive and transmit paths could be added for each MIMO array element. This type of “all digital” beamforming architecture would provide the most flexibility from a system-level standpoint to form beams in large multiuser scenarios.

Cost and power are constrained, however, and that leaves hybrid beamforming – “hybrid” in that analog phase shifters are integrated with the digital circuitry. And whenever digital and analog are integrated, that’s another place where a system-level approach to design is recommended. "
antennas  5G  beamforming  MIMO 
october 2018 by pierredv
RFS - Beamforming vs. MIMO antennas, Mar 2014
05/20/2014
Last updated on 01-Mar-2014
Written by Written by Chuck Powell, RFS Meriden

MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antennas operate by breaking high data rate signals into multiple lower data rate signals in Tx mode that are recombined at the receiver. Beamforming arrays are inherently different from MIMO in that the multiple columns of dipoles work together to create a single high gain signal. While both techniques work well, an antenna optimized for one method, does not work well for the other. Compromise geometries exist, but the user is sacrificing the performance of the system in order to save money on the relatively inexpensive antenna.
RFS’ white paper discusses the architectural differences between an antenna that has been designed for MIMO performance and one that has been optimized for beamforming. It will explain why antenna characteristics that are desirable for MIMO will result in a degradation of the beamforming ability of the antenna.
The paper will also talk about the differences of beamforming antennas that are used in active and passive systems.
antennas  MIMO  beamforming  antenna-arrays 
october 2018 by pierredv
MIMO testbed with an insight into signal strength distribution around transmitter/receiver sites - IEEE Conference Publication
Abstract:
This paper presents a high precision test-bed to obtain an insight into the operation of a multiple element antenna (MEA) communication system in an indoor environment. In this system, transmitter and receiver are equipped with 180deg or 90deg 3 dB hybrids whose two output ports are terminated with co-polar monopole antennas. By feeding the signal to one of the remaining two ports of the hybrids various radiation patterns are established. These in turn create various communication channels formed by MEA and a surrounding scattering environment. The testbed allows for the signal strength measurements around the receiver/transmitter sides for various radiation pattern modes generated by transmitting and receiving array antennas operating in conjuncture with the hybrids. Details concerning mechanical, electrical and electronics hardware and associated measurement software are described. Initial measurement results in the ISM 2.4 GHz band for a 2times2 MIMO system that includes Bluetooth modules equipped with planar monopoles and 180deg/90deg hybrids are given
IEEE-Xplore  MIMO  antennas  signal-strength  statistics 
october 2018 by pierredv
Satellite antenna companies divided on near-term feasibility of cheap flat panels - SpaceNews.com Oct 2018
"Builders of satellite antennas disagree on whether flat panel antennas — widely considered a necessity for planned broadband megaconstellations — can be produced cheaply enough to address the mass consumer market in the near term. Antenna makers say so much enthusiasm exists for such antennas that sorting fact from wishful thinking among buyer expectations and seller claims has become a difficulty all its own. "

"“We’ve all heard the crazy requests from some operators asking for millions of antennas for multiple hundreds of dollars,” said Drew Klein, director of international business development at C-Com Satellite Systems, a company that builds dish antennas and is working on a flat panel antenna with the University of Waterloo. Such prices are achievable “within the next decade” — and have to be, he said, in order to address new markets. "

"Some antenna companies, like Israel-based Gilat Satellite Networks, are focused first on building flat panel antennas for customers who are willing to pay higher prices than consumers. "

“I think we are a long ways away from seeing a consumer flat panel antenna in the couple-of-hundred-dollars price point, which is where it needs to be to compete with consumer terminals that we have today for [high-throughput] satellites,” said Andre Jones

"In the absence of commercial flat panel antennas, SES has been forced to rely on two dish antenna systems with mechanical steering to keep constant links with O3b satellites in 8,000-kilometer medium Earth orbits, but this approach is very expensive. "

"John Finney, Isotropic CEO, said his company is making progress on an antenna designed to fit within a $300 to $700 price range stipulated by OneWeb"

"Kymeta antennas are priced up to $39,000 today, though the company plans to drive those prices down to below $1,000 through volume."
satellite  antennas  SpaceNews  Phasor  SES  O3b  Kymeta  Isotropic  AvL  Gilat  C-Com 
october 2018 by pierredv
Does the satellite industry have antenna deficit disorder? - SpaceNews.com Oct 2018
"To connect the masses, megaconstellations will need mega antennas mega cheap. Antenna makers need mega orders to make that happen."

David Hartshorn: “There are business plans, big ones, hanging out there that depend if not entirely then at least to a very large extent on the availability of high-performance, low-cost, high-volume, low-profile antennas,”

"Northern Sky Research expects companies to ship 1.8 million flat panel antennas between now and 2027 with revenues topping $8 billion for the decade."

"For years, antenna manufacturers have produced high-performance alternatives to gimbaled parabolic antennas pointed at geostationary communications satellites. Price tags range from a few thousand dollars to $250,000 depending on the application."

"To work with low Earth orbit constellations, the antennas need to track two or more satellites simultaneously — something parabolic dishes can’t do. They also need to be small and durable, prevent signal interference, instantly find satellites and secure links, degrade gracefully and have great signal efficiency.

“It turns out that according to the laws of physics, you cannot do all those things at the same time,” said Ralph Brooker, president of SatProf"

John Finney, Isotropic: “What OneWeb wants in terms of target price is in the very low hundreds of dollars. We see a way to get there.”
satellite  constellations  antennas  NGSO  SpaceNews  business  NSR 
october 2018 by pierredv
Antenna builder ThinKom makes push for constellation market - SpaceNews.com Oct 2018
"ThinKom tested a phased array antenna with SES in August, practicing links with O3b satellites in medium Earth orbit as they rose over the horizon and then tracking them for 30 minutes each.

"Last month, ThinKom and Telesat announced plans to test an antenna with a Telesat prototype satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO) and to collaborate on business-grade terminals for Telesat’s planned 120-satellite LEO constellation. "

"The absence of such flat-panel antennas, as constellations start launching and high-throughput geostationary satellites grow in number, has satellite operators “all pretty much desperate to see somebody bring a solution to market,” according to Chris Quilty, president of Quilty Analytics. "

"ThinKom is best known for its ThinAir Ku3030 antennas that inflight connectivity provider Gogo builds into its 2Ku airplane Wi-Fi terminals. ... Bill Milroy, ThinKom’s chairman and chief technical officer, said his company intends to use the same phased array technology it has used for antennas on aircraft "

"SES is attempting to cultivate commercially viable flat-panel antennas for O3b mPower, its next-generation constellation, having contracted with Viasat, Alcan Systems and Isotropic Systems last year to build electronically steered antennas. "

"ThinKom’s approach differs from SES’s other three partners in that its antennas don’t use electronic steering, despite being relatively flat. The aeronautical antenna it is testing with SES is 20 centimeters thick and uses mechanical systems to track satellites. "

"Whereas a ThinKom antenna requires around half a second to switch satellites, an electronically steered antenna has the potential to switch in microseconds"

"ThinKom is targeting $10,000 for enterprise, or business-grade, terminals. ... For consumer terminals, ThinKom is targeting “sub-$1,000” prices."
ThinKom  SES  MEO  NGSO  satellite  antennas  Telesat  O3b  LEO 
october 2018 by pierredv
The FSS sector and the LEO-GEO stalemate - SpaceNews.com Sep 2018
"Orders for traditional geostationary satellites have fallen precipitously over the past three years. Industry counts show orders dropped from 26 GEO orders in 2014, to 15 in 2016 and seven in 2017. Most observers don’t believe 2018 will be much better. There are many reasons for the decline, ranging from a plateau in satellite video distribution to rapidly evolving high-throughput satellite (HTS) and digital payload technology that has created overcapacity in some segments and makes operators anxious about ordering long-life satellites that may soon be obsolete. These risks might be manageable if not for the planned low Earth orbit (LEO) constellations, with their promises of lower pricing, amplifying pricing and capacity concerns."

"The lack of clarity over the satellite industry’s future has led to an incredible standoff. On the one hand, the satellite industry is in a situation where investment in geostationary satellites is stalled due to uncertainties over the long-term industry outlook, particularly when LEO constellations enter. On the other hand, investment in LEO constellations is stalled due to shorter-term concerns about the availability of affordable consumer hardware."

"Will a LEO antenna manufacturer emerge to meet the performance and price targets needed to break this deadlock or will there be a realization that the technical challenges are insurmountable? "
LEO  GEO  opinion  NGSO  satellite  antennas  Armand-Musey 
september 2018 by pierredv
Kepler, Phasor test flat panel antenna with LEO cubesat - SpaceNews.com Sep 2018
"Startups Kepler Communications and Phasor said Sept. 10 that they successfully demonstrated a link between Kepler’s cubesat and a Phasor flat panel antenna."

The test, according to the companies, “represents the first example of a wideband [low-Earth orbit] satellite to have been auto-acquired, auto-tracked, and communicated with, by a commercial flat panel, electronically-steerable antenna.”

"the tests show the company should be able to achieve a 10 Mbps downlink, 10 Mbps uplink connection with a 30-square-centimeter Phasor antenna."
SpaceNews  Kepler  Phasor  satellite  NGSO  antennas  LEO 
september 2018 by pierredv
Starry expands deployment plans, reaches 350K homes in Boston | FierceWireless Aug 2018
Starry’s proprietary active phased array technology is based on the IEEE’s 802.11ac Wi-Fi standard and works in the licensed 37.0-38.6 GHz band in all of its chosen markets.
Starry  FierceWireless  antennas  mmwave  37GHz 
august 2018 by pierredv
MEO startup Methera plans “high density” HTS constellation - SpaceNews.com aug 2018
"In medium Earth orbit, the only system providing satellite broadband today is SES Networks’ constellation of 16 O3b satellites. A British startup with its own 16-satellite constellation idea wants to change that. Methera Global Communications estimates it needs $500 million to build and launch a constellation of satellites each equipped with 40 gigabits of capacity to beam down Ka-band connectivity to highly concentrated areas. If successful, Methera will launch its first spacecraft in 2022, with service starting that same year."

" “Instead of trying to put a thin veneer of coverage around the globe, what we’re doing is looking at a small number of targets where we will put lots of capacity,” [CEO Chris McIntosh] said. Methera’s 700-kilogram satellites — the same mass as the first-generation O3b satellites — will hone capacity on extremely specific locations, targeting a small number of high-value customers "

"But positioning the satellites in medium Earth orbit means customers of Methera’s system will need advanced antennas that can track the satellites as they move relative to the Earth’s surface. ... O3b faced the same challenge and, finding flat panel, electronically steerable antennas commercially unavailable, started service in 2014 with terminals using two dishes ensuring a constant link for uninterrupted service. ... Methera is focusing initially on parabolic antennas as well"

"Methera has a pending application with the U.K.’s telecom regulator Ofcom to license its low-latency satellite system, McIntosh said. The company has not applied for market access in the U.S. with the Federal Communications Commission because the U.S. is not an area of initial focus, he said. "

"16 satellites in 18,000-kilometer polar orbits — about 2,000 kilometers below the U.S. Air Force’s GPS satellites"
SpaceNews  Methera  UK  NGSO  MEO  satellite  broadband  O3b  antennas  Ofcom 
august 2018 by pierredv
Telesat picks Airbus Defence and Space as second constellation design partner - SpaceNews.com aug 2018
"Telesat awarded a second constellation design contract Aug. 1, choosing Airbus Defence and Space to begin studies on the company’s proposed system of 117 low Earth orbit communications satellites.

The contract follows a similar deal awarded July 30 to a team of Maxar Technologies and Thales Alenia Space."

"Airbus is already under contract to build 900 small telecom satellites for OneWeb, producing the first 10 in France before shifting production to a new $85 million factory in Florida."

"It is not clear what role OneWeb Satellites could play in building satellites for Telesat. Erwin Hudson, vice president of Telesat LEO, told SpaceNews earlier this summer that the satellites Telesat envisions will be materially larger than the 145-kilogram satellites OneWeb plans."

“They are more substantial, larger, more complex satellites than some of the other LEO constellations because we’ve got phased array antennas and onboard processing in addition to the [inter-satellite link] terminals,” Hudson said of Telesat LEO.
SpaceNews  Telesat  Airbus  space  broadband  satellite  business  antennas 
august 2018 by pierredv
Antenna-makers Produce Multi-band Antennas To Serve Inflight Broadband | Aviation Week Jul 2018
"In June electronically-steered antenna (ESA) developer Phasor announced a partnership with Astronics AeroSat to produce scalable, dual-beam ESA-based aeronautical terminals that will operate seamlessly with existing geostationary (GEO) satellites and under-development non-geosynchronous satellites such as low Earth orbit (LEO) constellations."

“Our ESA aperture has the ability to be single-beam or dual-beam, so you can have a second, independent beam pointing at a different satellite, which gives all kinds of flexibility,” says Helfgott. “You can look at two satellites at the same time or, with the LEOs, you can do a make-before-break where you track a LEO satellite and create a second channel for a different LEO satellite traveling in a different direction.”

"A few days before the Phasor/Astronics announcement, ThinKom Solutions, whose mechanically steered antennas form the basis of Gogo’s 2Ku inflight connectivity service, said its technology is now “fully interoperable” with GEO, LEO and MEO (medium-Earth orbit) satellites."
AviationWeek  Phasor  antennas  satellite  broadband  GEO  LEO  ThinKom 
july 2018 by pierredv
Satellite operators view antennas as weak link in broadband business plans - SpaceNews.com Jul 2018
"As new high-tech satellite antennas start hitting the market, several satellite operators expressed concern that existing and future antennas won’t meet their needs."

"Last year Kymeta, the front-runner in flat panel antennas, started shipping its first units. Phasor anticipates starting production of flat panel antennas late this year or in the first half of next year, CEO David Helfgott told SpaceNews by email July 6. And several other companies intend to follow in 2019.

[Imran Malik, SES Networks vice president for the Asia Pacific] said he is confident that flat panel antennas will help take satellite communications from niche applications to a mainstream means of connectivity. Others didn’t share his view, however. "

"“Flat panels are nice to have, but the main problem is the throughput that you can achieve,” said Ken Loke, Eutelsat Asia’s chief commercial officer.” It’s great for airplanes, great for trains, great for cars also, but the amount of data you can put through it is limited based on the uplink capability. And of course, the price point is probably $1,500 to $2,000 per [unit], the cheapest you can get.”

Loke said Eutelsat is able to provide 70-centimeter antennas systems, including the modem and other components, for around $350. "

"SES in March announced investments into three companies — Viasat, IsoTropic Systems and Alcan Systems — to build flat panel antennas compatible with its next-generation O3b mPower constellation. Malik said SES’s goals for mPower are “to reduce the cost per megabit by tenfold, reduce the cost per terminal by fivefold, and also increase the throughput by at least tenfold.”"
SpaceNews  antennas  satellite  SES 
july 2018 by pierredv
July 2018 - Evolutionary Antenna Tech Inspires the Future of Satellite Constellations | Via Satellite June 2018
"Following seven years of development, Phasor’s electronically steered antennas began testing in commercial use cases this year. These antennas are barely 2.5 centimeters thick, and are designed to be conformal in order to look at a wider angle 180 degrees, with dual-beam technology making them LEO and GEO interoperable."

"LeoSat, for example, sees itself as a disruptor in the defense market — which has traditionally relied upon GEO systems."

"By their own admission, Phasor will never be at the bottom of the food chain. And, while the super yachts of the world number in the thousands, fishing boats number in the millions"

"Isotropic Systems aims to be one of the leaders working to connect smaller maritime vessels and flight routes in India, Africa and Latin America. One way to achieve that, they believe, is by reducing the price point of terminal systems by 70 to 90 percent."
satellite  antennas  C-Com  Phasor  LEO  GEO  AvL  LeoSat  ThinKom  aviation  maritime  IsotropicSystems 
june 2018 by pierredv
C-Com, University of Waterloo test hardware for new phased array antenna - SpaceNews.com Jun 2108
"Canadian satellite antenna manufacturer C-Com said June 21 it successfully tested the building blocks of a phased array antenna it hopes to sell next year.... C-Com tested a module 1/25th the size of a phased array antenna that would match the performance of a small 65- to 70-centimeter dish antenna"

"Priced at $10,000, C-Com will be able to reach “a very large number of vertical markets” for constellation operators, Klein said. ... Klein said C-Com hopes to achieve reasonable consumer prices, perhaps below $1,000, through scale over time. "
SpaceNews  satellite  antennas  C-Com 
june 2018 by pierredv
NTT DoCoMo, Huawei use IAB technology to boost mmWave coverage, capacity | FierceWireless
"NTT DoCoMo and Huawei recently conducted a trial using Integrated Access Backhaul (IAB) technology to significantly improve millimeter wave coverage and capacity in the 39 GHz band."

"The technology involves the use of a compact focal lens antenna made with metamaterials to achieve advanced beamforming (with a maximum gain of 31 dBi) that concentrates radio waves in a specified direction for long-distance transmission."

"Beamforming mitigates interference between the wireless-backhaul and wireless-access links and enables simultaneous data transmissions over the same frequency."
mmwave  antennas  metamaterials  NTTDoCoMo  Huawei  FierceWireless  Japan 
may 2018 by pierredv
The role of unwanted emissions and receiver performance in spectrum management - ECC Newsletter May 2018
"When the '800 MHz' band — from 790-862 MHz — was studied for mobile (4G) usage, compatibility studies (see CEPT Report 30) showed that both unwanted emissions from mobile systems and selectivity of the digital terrestrial television (DTT) receiver could have an impact on DTT reception. However, the studies also found that reducing further unwanted emissions of 4G base stations beyond a certain level would not provide additional mitigation because receiver selectivity would then be the dominant interference effect."

"The boundary between the out-of-band and spurious emission domains is usually defined as 2.5 times the transmitter’s bandwidth, but there are some exceptions to this rule. "

"Particular challenges in this ongoing review are raised for 5G technology using active antenna systems (AAS). In this case, the antenna array is integrated in the device, which means that unwanted emissions cannot be as easily measured. It has also been reported that it will be difficult for 5G systems in millimetre wave bands (26 GHz and above) to meet the existing limits, due to constraints on filtering technology."

"In ECC Report 249, published in 2016, measurements of a range of different types of transmitters showed that typical equipment generally exceeds – by some margin— the minimum requirements for both out-of-band and spurious emissions. Therefore, assessing interference based on the minimum requirement represents a worst-case scenario which may limit opportunities for sharing. The report concluded that sharing and compatibility studies should reflect actual equipment performance in order to ensure efficient use of spectrum. Ideally a statistical distribution of unwanted emissions should be used in the studies to capture the spread in performance of different equipment models."
ECC  interference  receivers  OOBE  antennas  5G  ABI  Wi-Fi 
may 2018 by pierredv
World's first WiGig-based millimeter wave mesh backhaul system - Mar 2015
"The system developed by the InterDigital Labs team includes imec's 60 GHz PHARA4 radio and phased array antenna with fast electrical beam steering in azimuth and elevation, and Peraso's highly integrated PRS4000 WiGig baseband chip, operating at multi-Gbps data rates."
mmwave  60GHz  mesh  antennas  beamsteering  phased-arrays 
may 2018 by pierredv
SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches 10 more Iridium NEXT satellites into orbit - CBS News Mar 2018
"the fifth batch in a $3 billion 81-satellite constellation"

"66 of the 1,896-pound [860 kg] satellites operating in six orbital planes are required to complete the Iridium NEXT network. The company plans to eventually launch 15 in-orbit spares, using SpaceX to put 75 of the 81 planned satellites into orbit at a cost of more than $500 million"

"SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket streaked away from California early Friday, boosting the fifth set of 10 Iridium NEXT relay stations into orbit,"

"The new spacecraft feature a phased-array antenna that can generate 48 beams over a footprint 3,000 miles across"

"Iridium NEXT satellites, designed by the European aerospace giant Thales Alenia Space and built by Orbital ATK in Arizona, feature a different design that will not routinely result in flares"
CBSNews  Iridium  ThalesAlenia  OrbitalATK  launch  SpaceX  antennas  satellite  space 
may 2018 by pierredv
Internet for the masses not a focus for Kymeta, Phasor - SpaceNews.com May 2018
"Speaking at the Applied Innovation Conference here May 10, representatives from Kymeta and Phasor said their antennas are not currently being designed for consumer-focused satellite internet."

Jeff Foust: "Representatives of Kymeta and Phasor said that, despite interest in consumer satellite broadband services proposed by companies like OneWeb and SpaceX, they're focused on business and government markets instead, which they see as more lucrative. "

"Other companies like London-based Isotropic Systems and Alcan Systems of Darmstadt, Germany, are building electronically steered antennas with consumer broadband in mind, but those will take more time to reach the market. Isotropic and Alcan are both targeting 2019 releases of sub-$1,000 antennas. Kymeta and Phasor antennas, in contrast, have starting costs of tens of thousands of dollars. "

"Brad Grady, a senior analyst at Northern Sky Research, said his firm forecasts 1.8 million electronically steered, flat-panel antennas to be shipped between 2017 and 2027, with low-Earth orbit (LEO) constellations driving 88 percent of demand. ... Of the 1.8 million terminals to ship, 90 percent will be for broadband access and network backhaul, but will only comprise 30 percent of all revenue, according to the firm. Grady said antennas for inflight connectivity are likely to produce the largest chunk of revenues. "

"Hadsall said Kymeta has been producing 70-centimeter Ku-band antennas since production began in October, and has delivered antennas to 23 customers around the world. ... Helfgott likened Phasor’s focus to that of LeoSat, a broadband startup designing a LEO constellation optimized for enterprise and other such deep-pocketed customers. "
Kymeta  Phasor  satellite  antennas  Alcan  IsotropicSystems  NSR  LEO 
may 2018 by pierredv
SES Networks Announces Partnerships for Groundbreaking O3b mPOWER Customer Edge Terminals | SES
ALCAN is working to develop a smart antenna that is flat, low power, and has no mechanical moving parts. The antenna has electronic beam steering capability, which is implemented using liquid crystal (LC) panels that can be manufactured at low cost in LC display assembly lines;
Isotropic Systems is developing a low-cost, low power, unlimited instantaneous bandwidth, optical-based, multi-beam electronically steered terminal that can transmit and receive high bandwidth signals in the same modular and scalable aperture;
Viasat is designing and building an all-electronic dual-beam flat panel antenna system to meet the requirements of the O3b mPOWER next-generation MEO satellite fleet. The Viasat antenna is based on proprietary flat panel core technology, a new radio frequency (RF) integrated circuit and a modular approach that will enable multiple types of user terminals to keep pace with growing broadband connectivity demands.
SES  O3b  antennas  ALCAN  IsotropicSystems  Viasat 
may 2018 by pierredv
German startup takes Kymeta-like LCD approach to flat panel antenna manufacturing - SpaceNews.com May 2018
"Backed by fleet operator SES, the German science and technology conglomerate Merck Group and the Beijing Singularity Power Investment Fund, Alcan Systems of Darmstadt, Germany, is nearing completion of a phased array antenna for satellite broadband links. "

"Alcan Systems, whose name stands for “Adaptive Liquid Crystal ANtenna,” is designing modular antennas to bring internet to mobile platforms (cars, planes, boats, and other vehicles), business networks and consumer broadband service — target markets for high-throughput satellites in any orbit. "

"Sibay said the company is aiming for prices “for the enterprise version under 10,000 euros and for the consumer version under 1,000 euros.” Each electronically steered antenna should reach throughputs of 250 Mbps, and have switching speeds between satellites of 5 milliseconds, he said."

"The fundamental difference between the two antennas is that Kymeta’s is based on a metamaterial it describes as “a glass structure similar to a liquid crystal display.” Alcan Systems’ product is a phased array antenna that uses liquid crystals in lieu of traditional semiconductor technology. Kymeta’s antenna is also designed to work with Ku-band satellites, while Alcan Systems is simultaneously creating antennas for Ku- and Ka-band systems. "
SpaceNews  antennas  Germany  satellite  Kymeta  Alcan 
may 2018 by pierredv
Kymeta CEO on the Future of the Mobile Communications Market - Via Satellite - Mar 2017
"Kymeta plans to tackle both the issues of limited coverage and capacity in the mobile space with its long-awaited mTenna product line, which the company intends to release this coming May. Nathan Kundtz, chief executive officer of Kymeta, also told Via Satellite that the company plans to go one step further by partnering with Intelsat to introduce Kalo, a suite of network services supporting the satellite antenna."
ViaSatellite  Kymeta  satellite  antennas  Intelsat 
may 2018 by pierredv
[pdf] Plasma Antennas: Survey of Techniques and the Current State of the Art, D. C. Jenn
September 29, 2003
Naval Postgraduate School

ABSTRACT
Plasma antennas refer to a wide variety of antenna concepts that incorporate some use of an ionized medium. This study summarizes the basic theory behind the operation of plasma antennas based on a survey of patents and technical publications. Methods of exciting and confining plasmas are discussed, and the current state of the art in plasma technology is examined.
antennas 
april 2018 by pierredv
Wireless at the speed of plasma | New Scientist Dec 2010
"PSiAN consists of thousands of diodes on a silicon chip. When activated, each diode generates a cloud of electrons – the plasma – about 0.1 millimetres across. At a high enough electron density, each cloud reflects high-frequency radio waves like a mirror. By selectively activating diodes, the shape of the reflecting area can be changed to focus and steer a beam of radio waves."
antennas  NewScientist 
april 2018 by pierredv
All-Silicon Active Antennas for High Performance 5G/SATCOM Terminals | 2018-02-15 | Microwave Journal
Active mmWave antennas are expected to be rolled out in unprecedented volumes over the next few years, fueled by the rapidly emerging 5G telecommunications infrastructure and high throughput satellite (SATCOM) markets. mmWave spectrum is attractive for these new high-capacity systems due to the availability of large bands of contiguous spectrum.

Using active antennas allows highly-directive antenna beams to be formed by physically-small apertures, which helps offset the higher path loss associated with these high frequencies. The highly-directive beams allow spectral reuse through spatial diversity. These planar antennas offer fast, steerable beams; low size and weight; and can be cost-effectively produced in high volume. Active antennas also provide excellent reliability, since there are no moving parts, and the failure of a few elements in the array has little effect on the overall antenna performance.
MicrowaveJournal  5G  antennas  array-antennas  mmwave 
april 2018 by pierredv
5G Fixed Wireless Access Array and RF Front-End Trade-Offs | 2018-02-15 | Microwave Journal
Editor’s Note: At the end of December, the 3GPP approved the 5G non-standalone new radio (NSA NR) specification, which defines how enhanced broadband services can be deployed using a 5G NR leveraging the existing LTE network. This NSA architecture will first be fielded—later this year—for fixed wireless access (FWA) services using mmWave spectrum, i.e., 28 and 39 GHz.

Qorvo and Anokiwave are two companies leading the development of the mmWave front-end technology for the active phased arrays that will power these FWA services. Each company has analyzed the system requirements and defined a unique approach to meeting them. Qorvo has chosen GaN, Anokiwave silicon. We are fortunate that this issue of Microwave Journal features articles from both, each stating the case for its technology choice. Regardless of which argument you favor, no doubt you will agree that both companies are doing excellent technology and product development, a key step to making 5G viable.
MicrowaveJournal  5G  antennas  array-antennas  mmwave 
april 2018 by pierredv
Phasor Unveils New Technology Development Center and Senior Leadership Team Appointments, Mar 2018
Phasor, the leading developer of enterprise-grade, electronically steered antenna systems for wideband mobile broadband communications, today announced the opening of its new Technology Development Center in London and key appointments to the company’s senior leadership team.
Phasor  antennas  satellite 
april 2018 by pierredv
LeoSat's Rigolle: Fundraising Big Focus this Year - Via Satellite - Mar 2018
"NewSpace startup LeoSat, which is building the satellite equivalent of a Virtual Private Network (VPN) in space, plans to focus primarily on raising funds for its Series A round this year. With a glut of major customer agreements already signed, the company’s next hurdle is ensuring it has enough cash on hand to build out its full constellation by 2022, said LeoSat Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Mark Rigolle in an interview with Via Satellite."

"LeoSat also recently signed an agreement with Phasor to develop a Ka-band version of its low-profile Electronically Steered Antenna (ESA). While a traditional mechanized dish will be sufficient for the majority of the company’s services, ESAs could unlock new applications and customer bases, Rigolle said, pointing to embassy networks as an example."
LeoSat  ViaSatellite  investing  VC  Phasor  satellite  antennas 
march 2018 by pierredv
LEO and MEO broadband constellations mega source of consternation - SpaceNews.com Mar 2018
"the rush to HTS is driving down bandwidth prices so fast that some fairly low-mileage satellites are struggling to keep up."

“At the moment there is a potential scramble for who is going to be the third player between Telesat, LeoSat and SpaceX,” said Farrar. “It’s probably going to be clear in the next 12 months which of those is out ahead.”

"Perhaps the biggest variable in calculating demand is figuring out what consumers will have to pay for the user terminal—the receiver and antennas customers will use to connect to the constellation."

"Farrar is among analysts who doubt consumer broadband will be the biggest application for LEO constellations. Bridging the digital divide is a laudable goal, but backhaul — using satellites to help cellular networks to increase coverage and improve service — is an early market they can dominate with or without cheap antennas."
SpaceNews  NGSO  LEO  MEO  GEO  HTS  broadband  satellite  Tim-Farrar  Armand-Musey  NSR  antennas  Kymeta  Phasor  commerce  trends 
march 2018 by pierredv
Isotropic’s Finney on Unlocking HTS’ Growth Potential - Via Satellite - Mar 2018
"In this Q&A, Isotropic Systems Founder John Finney lays out the path of evolution next-gen antennas must take, as well as their potential impact on satellite’s customer base."
ViaSatellite  satellite  antennas  interviews 
march 2018 by pierredv
Kymeta breaks ranks with satellite, pushes for combination of satellite, terrestrial in 5G | FierceWireless Mar 2018
"Last week marked Kymeta’s first year renting meeting space at Mobile World Congress, and it had a big message to tell. It’s broken ranks with the satellite industry and jumped headfirst into supporting terrestrial wireless, with a caveat: The industry needs to work out a way to accommodate both these often adversarial technologies in 5G."
Kymeta  satellite  5G  antennas 
march 2018 by pierredv
March 2018 - LEO/MEO Satellites Poised to Make a Mark in Military Sector | Via Satellite
"Satellites in LEO and MEO soon will be here to stay thanks to companies like LeoSat, OneWeb, and SES-owned O3b. The question is whether they also can go beyond meeting the needs of commercial and consumer users to also serving the needs of a dispersed, increasingly mobile military. Via Satellite talks to leading LEO and MEO industry figures to see how they envision their constellations supporting military missions globally in a fast-evolving threat environment."

"The United States Defense Information Systems Agency’s (DISA) recent Request for Information (RFI) calling for a low-latency satellite connectivity solution underscores the government’s openness for considering new non-Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) solutions. And that cooperative posture also has been illustrated during the Air Force’s wideband Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) exercise to define the future space architecture, where several LEO and MEO companies put forth their recommendations."

"LeoSat is on schedule to launch two demonstration satellites in the second half of 2019. Launch of the production satellites will begin in late 2020 and the constellation should be complete by 2022." LeoSat's Abad: “We are not looking to bring broadband down to every single person in the world. We want to provide carrier-grade telecommunications services via space.”

"Both LeoSat and OneWeb have received high-profile funding — SKY Perfect JSAT became an anchor investor in LeoSat in May, while OneWeb received $1 billion from Japan’s SoftBank last December, making it a 20 percent equity owner. OneWeb also has partnered with Airbus on its new high-volume production facility in Exploration Park, Florida."

“What needs to change is the ground infrastructure — you can’t build a LEO constellation realistically with two parabolic antennas and expect to reach the scale and volume that these providers talk about,” says Brad Grady, senior analyst in Northern Sky Research’s (NSR)

"NSR estimates that the defense sector will require about 14 gigabits per second of non-GEO HTS capacity demand by 2025, representing an 18 percent annual growth rate from 2015."

“Everyone has figured out that the critical point in launching these new constellations is the antenna system. You can’t have a successful non-GEO network without a very agile, very capable antenna technology,” says David Helfgott, CEO of Phasor, one of a handful of antenna technology providers who will plan to offer Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) antenna solutions for these up-and-coming constellations in the next 12 to 36 months.
ViaSatellite  LEO  MEO  ElectronicallySteerableAntenna  Phasor  satellite  defense  DoD  SES  NSR  LeoSat  OneWeb  venturecapital  VC  investing  antennas 
march 2018 by pierredv
Pivotal Commware Will Start Selling Its Software-Defined Antenna for Holographic Beamforming This Year - IEEE Spectrum Feb 2018
"A new type of cell signaling called holographic beamforming [PDF], developed by a company called Pivotal Commware, could soon replace the old way. A low-cost improvement upon existing phased array beamforming and multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) antennas, holographic beamforming has the potential to target and follow individual or small clusters of devices and provide them with their own high-fidelity beams of radiofrequency (RF) energy."

"Recently, HBF antennas were successfuly tested on Advanced Wireless Service and Personal Communications Service frequencies through 40 Gigahertz (GHz). This includes the millimeter wave frequencies of 28 GHz and 39 GHz that will be dedicated to 5G service. Pivotal Commware plans to be ready for production and commercial deployment of its antennas and cloud-based management system later this year."
IEEE-Spectrum  antennas 
february 2018 by pierredv
47 CFR 25.209 - Earth station antenna performance standards. | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute
(c)

(1) An earth station licensed for operation with an FSS space station or registered for reception of transmissions from such a space station pursuant to § 25.131(b) and (d) is not entitled to protection from interference from authorized operation of other stations that would not cause harmful interference to that earth station if it were using an antenna with receive-band gain patterns conforming to the levels specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.
47CFR  satellite  receivers  receiver-standards  HCT  antennas 
february 2018 by pierredv
Antenna Technologies for the Future | 2018-01-15 | Microwave Journal
"Traditional antenna technology has hit its limits in many demanding commercial and aerospace markets such as 5G, SATCOM, IoT and radar. But there are many companies developing new approaches and materials that could drastically improve antenna performance and enable new applications that were not previously envisioned because of these limitations. In this article, Microwave Journal looks at a sampling of these technologies that have come to our attention in the last couple of years."

topics
= 3D printed antennas (Optisys)
= metamaterial based antennas (e.g. Kymeta, Echodyne)
= fractal based antennas (Fractus)
MicrowaveJournal  review  antennas  Kymeta  Echodyne  Optisys  Fractus 
february 2018 by pierredv
Spengler Maps out 2018 for Intelsat After Eventful 2017 | Via Satellite Jan 2018
VIA SATELLITE: What technology innovation do you think could make the most difference to your business going forward?

Spengler: Antennas are key. One of the challenges we have had in satellite communications, with the exception of Direct-to-Home (DTH), has been that the antenna systems have been pretty simple as they are receive-only. But when it comes to two-way satellite communications, the positive is that they can be quickly deployed to build out infrastructure. The negative is that it is still too complex and too costly. Advancements in flat panel antennas and electronically steerable antennas is really critical to enable the ease of installation and operation.

.. You also need to enable interconnectivity and interoperability between networks. Satellite solutions need to become part of a much broader telecoms infrastructure.

VIA SATELLITE: Has the satellite industry reached a key inflection point in your mind? Will we see more change in the next 10 years than we saw in the previous 30?

Spengler: If you broaden that subject to society and technology in general, I think the answer is yes. I think the pace of change, not just in our industry, but overall is accelerating.
ViaSatellite  Intelsat  satellite  business  antennas  interviews 
january 2018 by pierredv
LEOLABS - "Space Debris Mapping Services to Enable the LEO Economy"
Via Brandt Pasco

"LeoLabs' builds and operates phased array radars. This technology was developed at Silicon Valley's leading R&D organization, SRI International. LeoLabs is building a responsive tracking service for Space 2.0."
space  space-debris  mapping  phased-array-antennas  antennas 
november 2017 by pierredv
Phased Array System Toolbox - MATLAB & Simulink
"Phased Array System Toolbox™ provides algorithms and apps for the design, simulation, and analysis of sensor array systems in radar, wireless communication, sonar, and medical imaging applications. You can design end-to-end phased array systems and analyze their performance under different scenarios using synthetic or acquired data. Toolbox apps let you explore the characteristics of sensor arrays and waveforms and perform link budget analysis. In-product examples provide a starting point for implementing a full range of custom phased array systems."
MATLAB  phased-array  antennas 
october 2017 by pierredv
Side lobe - Wikipedia
See: "The animation shows the main lobe and grating lobes of a phased array in polar coordinate system."
antenna-pattern  phased-array  antennas 
september 2017 by pierredv
Kymeta gets OK to start beaming internet through 11K flat panel antenna terminals | FierceWireless
"The Redmond, Washington-based company just finished a project with the Greenville, South Carolina, police department featuring its satellite-connected car during the eclipse, and now it’s announcing that it has received blanket authorization from the FCC for commercial distribution of 11,000 of its KyWay terminals in the United States.

The FCC’s blanket license will allow Kymeta to operate 5,000 vehicle-mounted Earth stations (VMEs), 5,000 fixed IoT installations and 1,000 maritime Earth stations on vessels (ESVs)."

"The company’s mTenna uses software-driven, tunable metamaterial elements to holographically create a beam that can be electronically steered to follow a satellite, meaning it can stay connected even while moving. "
FierceWireless  Kymeta  satellite  antennas  mmWave 
september 2017 by pierredv
Pivotal, a startup with Bill Gates' support, lights up holographic beamforming | FierceWireless, Aug 2017
"Pivotal Commware, a startup that recently received $17 million in funding, is taking its proprietary holographic beamforming (HBF) to the streets, with plans to dramatically expand the capacity of existing 4G networks while becoming indispensable to the 5G rollout."

"Holographic refers to the fact that the HBF antenna is analogous to a holographic plate in an optical hologram; RF signals from a radio flow into the back of the antenna and scatter across its front, where tiny elements adjust the shape and direction of the beam."
4G  5G  antennas  mmWave 
august 2017 by pierredv
CES 2017: Can a Self-Steering Antenna Fix Both Wi-Fi and TV Reception Issues? - IEEE Spectrum
"Ignition Design Labs, with its Portal home Wi-Fi system, and Linksys, with its Velop home mesh network."

"antenna designer Ethertronics suggested a third approach: an automated antenna optimization technology it calls active steering"
Wi-Fi  CES  IEEE-Spectrum  antennas 
january 2017 by pierredv
Securing military GPS from spoofing and jamming vulnerabilities - Military Embedded Systems
"The U.S. NAVSTAR GPS and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) are essential to military navigation, but how secure is military GPS to spoofing and jamming threats?

The short answer is that there are numerous changes underway to make military GPS more robust to these threats, as well as efforts to develop supplemental technology capable of operating even within GPS-denied environments."
"Electrically steerable directional antennas are “the best bet to combat jamming,” according to Fischer."
GPS  jamming  spoofing  PNT  GNSS  antennas 
august 2016 by pierredv
Building a simple NOAA APT Antenna out of an Umbrella - RTL-SDR
"n order to optimally receive NOAA weather satellite images a special satellite antenna tuned for 137 MHz should to be built. Generally either a QFH or turnstile antenna is recommended as these receive signals coming from the sky very well. If you are interested in receiving weather satellite images from NOAA satellites with an RTL-SDR dongle then we have a tutorial available here."
RTL-SDR  NOAA  MetSat  antennas 
april 2016 by pierredv
Radio World: FCC Rules on Non-Directional Antennas
This extreme pattern distortion effect was reportedly used by the station licensee to extend its coverage into Forth Worth, and in the process, it produced significant contour overlap and interference to another FM station, KCKL in Malakoff, Texas. The licensee of KCKL complained and a long (three-year) process of back and forth ensued, culminating in a show cause order issued last March by the FCC that sought to modify the KFWR station license to specify a directional antenna, i.e. licensing the greatly distorted “non-directional” pattern as directional and forcing a reduction of transmitter power output to 45% of its nominal value so that the maximum ERP of the antenna did not exceed the C0 class maximum of 100 kW.
FCC  enforcement  FM  interference  antennas 
august 2015 by pierredv
Antenna Infrastructure Sustainment Project (AISP) Project Homepage
Project: NOAA NESDIS Antenna Infrastructure Sustainment Project (AISP)
POES  NOAA  antennas 
august 2015 by pierredv
13 New FCC AM Protection Rules You Need to Know! - LBA Group Blogs
"In AM radio, the tower itself functions as the antenna. Consequently, a nearby tower may become an unintended part of the AM antenna system, reradiating the AM signal and distorting the FCC-authorized AM radiation pattern. "
AM  interference  FCC  LBA  antennas 
january 2015 by pierredv
Millimeter Waves May Be the Future of 5G Phones - IEEE Spectrum June 2013
"Samsung’s millimeter-wave transceiver technology could enable ultrafast mobile broadband by 2020" "By dynamically varying the signal phase at each antenna, this transceiver generates a beam just 10 degrees wide that it can switch rapidly in any direction, as if it were a hyperactive searchlight." "In outdoor experiments near Samsung’s Advanced Communications Lab, in Suwon, South Korea, a prototype transmitter was able to send data at more than 1 Gb/s to two receivers moving up to 8 kilometers per hour—about the speed of a fast jog. Using transmission power “no higher than currently used in 4G base stations,” the devices were able to connect up to 2 km away when in sight of one another, says Wonil Roh, who heads the Suwon lab. For non-line-of-sight connections, the range shrank to about 200 to 300 meters."
RF  5G  beam-forming  WiGig  IEEE-Spectrum  Samsung  antennas  mmWave 
july 2013 by pierredv
Freeview telly test suggests 4G interference may not be a big deal • The Register
"A trial 4G network, covering 22,000 homes just left of Birmingham, only interfered with TV reception in 15 of them - paving the way for an interference-free rollout over the summer, we're told. The trial was conducted by at800, the organisation charged with spending £180m of cell network operator money to solve the problem. At800 wrote to all 22,000 homes asking them to watch for changes, and received 100 calls of which 15 could be attributed to 4G signals, and all those were fixed with a cheap filter."
cellular  4G  DTV  interference  UK  antennas 
april 2013 by pierredv
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