recentpopularlog in

pierredv : automation   74

Tech Is Splitting the U.S. Work Force in Two - The New York Times, Feb 2019
"Despite all its shiny new high-tech businesses, the vast majority of new jobs are in workaday service industries, like health care, hospitality, retail and building services, where pay is mediocre."

"But automation is changing the nature of work, flushing workers without a college degree out of productive industries, like manufacturing and high-tech services, and into tasks with meager wages and no prospect for advancement. Automation is splitting the American labor force into two worlds. "

"Recent research has concluded that robots are reducing the demand for workers and weighing down wages, which have been rising more slowly than the productivity of workers. Some economists have concluded that the use of robots explains the decline in the share of national income going into workers’ paychecks over the last three decades."

"In a new study, David Autor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Anna Salomons of Utrecht University found that over the last 40 years, jobs have fallen in every single industry that introduced technologies to enhance productivity. "
automation  technology  economics  NYTimes  employment  AI 
february 2019 by pierredv
BBC Radio 4 - In Our Time, Automata, Sep 2018
"Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the history of ideas about machines imitating living creatures, and the questions they raise about the differences between machinery and humanity."
BBC  automation  robotics  robots  history 
january 2019 by pierredv
Machine Learning for Performance Prediction in Mobile Cellular Networks - IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine ( Volume: 13, Issue: 1, Feb. 2018 )
Janne Riihijarvi ; Petri Mahonen

Abstract:
In this paper, we discuss the application of machine learning techniques for performance prediction problems in wireless networks. These problems often involve using existing measurement data to predict network performance where direct measurements are not available. We explore the performance of existing machine learning algorithms for these problems and propose a simple taxonomy of main problem categories. As an example, we use an extensive real-world drive test data set to show that classical machine learning methods such as Gaussian process regression, exponential smoothing of time series, and random forests can yield excellent prediction results. Applying these methods to the management of wireless mobile networks has the potential to significantly reduce operational costs while simultaneously improving user experience. We also discuss key challenges for future work, especially with the focus on practical deployment of machine learning techniques for performance prediction in mobile wireless networks.
machine-learning  ML  automation  AI  IEEE  cellular  spectrum 
april 2018 by pierredv
Analyzing Financial Forecasting Models Using AI - Nanalyze - April 2018
A startup called Visible Alpha wants to change the way that analysts construct financial forecasting models by making the data they need (and plenty of data they didn’t know they needed) all readily available at the click of a button.
Nanalyze  investing  NLP  language-recognition  automation  AI 
april 2018 by pierredv
Digital Reasoning - AI That Understands You - Nanalyze - Apr 2018
We first came across Digital Reasoning in our article on Artificial Intelligence (AI) as a Service and “Core AI” in which we noted that their technology, Synthesys, is exceptionally good at understanding what people are actually saying when they use analogies.
Nanalyze  AI  automation  language-recognition  compliance 
april 2018 by pierredv
The epic robot fails that say AI will never rule the world | New Scientist issue 3157, Dec 2017
"If you want to look at what the future of AI really holds, it’s not the highlight reels that matter – it’s the out-takes."

"... don’t even talk about stairs. Judging by the awkward ascents of most robots, to avoid the rise of the machines we only need to retreat to the mezzanine."
NewScientist  robotics  automation  quotations 
march 2018 by pierredv
The success of AVs will depend on sensible regulation - Rules of the road - The Economist Mar 2018
"Chris Urmson of Aurora says American regulators have got things right, working closely with AV firms and issuing guidelines rather than strict rules that might hamstring the industry."

"On this ]pharma] analogy, autonomous cars are currently at the clinical-trial stage, without final approval as yet."

[Takao Asami of the Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi alliance] "draws another analogy, with aviation."

"America’s National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has started applying its aviation expertise to autonomous vehicles. In many ways AVs are more complex than aircraft, says Deborah Bruce of the NTSB, because they are closely surrounded by other things that move in unpredictable ways."

"The current patchwork of regulation will have to be simplified if the technology is to be widely deployed. “Uniformity is the friend of scalability,” says [Karl Iagnemma of nuTonomy, an AV startup that has tested vehicles in Singapore]. Questions of insurance and liability will also have to be worked out. Amnon Shashua of Mobileye worries that because of today’s regulatory uncertainty, fatal accidents involving fully autonomous vehicles could plunge the industry into legal limbo, or kill it altogether. He has proposed a set of rules that define how a car should respond in all 37 scenarios in the 6m-entry accident database maintained by NHTSA, America’s car-safety regulator, and would like to see these rules adopted as an open industry standard. "
TheEconomist  transportation  AutonomousVehicles  automation  regulation 
march 2018 by pierredv
Self-driving cars will profoundly change the way people live - A different world - Economist Mar 2018
"AVs could greatly reduce deaths and injuries from road accidents. Globally, around 1.25m people die in such accidents each year, according to the WHO; it is the leading cause of death among those aged 15-29. Another 20m-50m people are injured. Most accidents occur in developing countries, where the arrival of autonomous vehicles is still some way off. But if the switch to AVs can be advanced even by a single year, “that’s 1.25m people who don’t die,” says Chris Urmson of Aurora, an AV startup"

"Even with modern safety features, some 650,000 Americans have died on the roads since 2000, more than were slain in all the wars of the 20th century (about 630,000)."
TheEconomist  automation  AutonomousVehicles  transportation  mortality 
march 2018 by pierredv
Can Washington Be Automated? - POLITICO Magazine - Feb 2018
Via Blake Reid

"This kind of data-crunching might sound hopelessly wonky, a kind of baseball-stats-geek approach to Washington. But if you’ve spent years attempting to make sense of the Washington information ecosystem—which can often feel like a swirling mass of partially baked ideas, misunderstandings and half-truths—the effect is mesmerizing. FiscalNote takes a morass of documents and history and conventional wisdom and distills it into a precise serving of understanding, the kind on which decisions are made."

"We aren’t far from a future where public commenting on regulations—the process for individual American citizens to offer feedback to their elected government—comes down to a bot vs. bot fight."
automation  politics  Politico  lobbying  AI 
february 2018 by pierredv
10 AI Startups Coming for White-Collar Jobs - Nanalyze
"CB Insights recently put together a list of categories where AI is coming after white-collar jobs"

"Founded in 2014, Israel-based LawGeex uses artificial intelligence to review contracts."
Nanalyze  start-ups  VC  investing  employment  automation  law 
january 2018 by pierredv
Why should I trust you? Explaining the predictions of any classifier | the morning paper
Summary of “Why Should I Trust You? Explaining the Predictions of Any Classifier Ribeiro et al., KDD 2016
machine-learning  AI  automation 
november 2017 by pierredv
EU citizens might get a 'right to explanation' about the decisions algorithms make, Splinter Jul 2016
"Late last week, though, academic researchers laid out some potentially exciting news when it comes to algorithmic transparency: citizens of EU member states might soon have a way to demand explanations of the decisions algorithms about them. In April, the EU approved a data protection law called the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)."

"In a new paper, sexily titled "EU regulations on algorithmic decision-making and a 'right to explanation,'" Bryce Goodman of the Oxford Internet Institute and Seth Flaxman at Oxford's Department of Statistics explain how a couple of subsections of the new law, which govern computer programs making decisions on their own, could create this new right."

"While the new provision may seem great at first glance, the word "solely" makes the situation a little more slippery, says Ryan Calo ... Calo explained over email how companies that use algorithms could pretty easily sidestep the new regulation. "All a firm needs to do is introduce a human—any human, however poorly trained or informed—somewhere in the system," Calo said."
EU  GDPR  algorithms  automation  AI 
november 2017 by pierredv
Computers that Code Themselves Using AI - Nanalyze
"Before we delve into this notion of computers that can code themselves, we need to consider that traditional coding is becoming less and less useful. Take as an example the latest flavor of Google’s AlphaGo algorithm. It was told what the rules of a game of Go looked like, and then it was told not to lose. The algorithm then created its own method of playing Go as opposed to being “trained” by watching other people play"

"The way that your brain works isn’t something that you could create using today’s best coding languages, and neither will AI. With that said, there are some startups out there that are developing technology that can write and rewrite itself. "

"Founded in 2013, Massachusetts startup Gamalon has taken in around $12 million in funding to develop a system that learns “orders of magnitude faster” and with “orders of magnitude less training data” compared to the more traditional machine learning algorithms of today."

"The fact that the computer does something so exponentially well that it renders a team of coders useless is the same net effect as a computer that can code itself. The end result is that we don’t need so many coders."
nanalyze  automation  software  AI  development-sw  employment 
november 2017 by pierredv
Reshaping Business With Artificial Intelligence - MIT Sloan, Sep 2017
Via TPI

"Disruption from artificial intelligence (AI) is here, but many company leaders aren’t sure what to expect from AI or how it fits into their business model. Yet with change coming at breakneck speed, the time to identify your company’s AI strategy is now. MIT Sloan Management Review has partnered with The Boston Consulting Group to provide baseline information on the strategies used by companies leading in AI, the prospects for its growth, and the steps executives need to take to develop a strategy for their business."
data  business  AI  automation  MIT  strategy 
november 2017 by pierredv
Machine learning still needs data scientists to optimise results - Comments - Content | EPiServer Site
"Machine learning is not a 'one-size-fits-all' technology, but a growing library of technologies that need to be understood and deployed correctly to achieve meaningful results."

Good survey of techniques and algorithms
AnalysysMason  MachineLearning  AI  automation  Communications  algorithms 
october 2017 by pierredv
Automation will have a bigger impact on jobs in smaller cities | New Scientist, May 2017
"The robot takeover will start in the smaller cities. Towns and small cities have a smaller proportion of jobs that will be resilient to automation than larger urban centres, according to a new study. . . . Roughly speaking, cities with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants are more at risk."
automation  urbanism  employment  maps 
october 2017 by pierredv
Driverless cars and trucks don’t mean mass unemployment—they mean new kinds of jobs | Cathy Engelbert | Pulse | LinkedIn
"We ultimately need to help today’s workers—drivers, factory workers, and beyond—discover where demand for skills will be in five to 10 years and help them gain the necessary expertise and experience to do them well. Historically, wholesale job retraining has been challenging to scale, but the inexorable nature of this transition demands that we try to help them be productive in an even more digitized world economy. We already have a skills gap; we need to figure out how to digitize and skill those workers to match them with the demand for available jobs. There is a collective dialogue that should be engaged now so we can create meaningful, fulfilling, and productive opportunities for all."
automation  employment  LinkedIn 
august 2017 by pierredv
Unfortunately, Technology Will Not Eliminate Many Jobs | ITIF, Aug 2017
"You can trace virtually all this automation alarmism to a 2013 study by Oxford University researchers Osborne and Frey, which warns that technology will destroy 47 percent of U.S. jobs in the next 20 years. . . . ITIF conducted its own manual analysis of these occupations using a very generous assumption about how technology could eliminate jobs, and we estimated that about 8 percent of jobs were at high risk of automation, at most."
ITIF  automation  employment 
august 2017 by pierredv
Millions of things will soon have digital twins
"Such achievements are largely down to the factory’s “digital twin”. For there is another factory, a virtual version of the physical facility that resides within a computer system. This digital twin is identical in every respect and is used to design the control units, test them, simulate how to make them and program production machines. Once everything is humming along nicely, the digital twin hands over to the physical factory to begin making things for real."

"The powerful systems that have since emerged bring together several elements—software services in computer-aided design and engineering; simulation; process control; and product life cycle management. Some digital twins are gaining artificial intelligence and virtual-reality capabilities, too. They can also help to monitor remotely and provide after-service for products that have been sold. "

"Siemens is not alone in equipping its factories with digital twins. Its American rival, GE, is doing the same. Both companies also sell their digital-twin software, along with firms such as Dassault Systèmes, a French specialist in the area."
TheEconomist  mirror-worlds  manufacturing  automation  Siemens 
august 2017 by pierredv
What is a Robot under EU Law? | Global Policy Watch, Aug 2017
EU institutions are increasingly focusing on the legal challenges posed by the robotics and artificial intelligence sector. On May 16, 2017, the European Commission published a paper announcing a series of regulatory and policy initiatives in response to the European Parliament’s resolution on European civil law rules on robotics of February 2017. These initiatives may shape the development of the sector in Europe as they will affect the EU’s rules on product liability and product safety, develop certification and insurance schemes for autonomous cars, and provide significant funding for research innovation.
Covington  Europe  EU  automation  robotics  law  regulation 
august 2017 by pierredv
Free exchange: William Baumol, a great economist, died on May 4th | The Economist
"He helped move economics beyond the narrow ideal of perfect competition by introducing the idea of contestable markets, in which competitive pressure comes from the worry that rivals will swoop in to vie for a market if incumbents are anything other than ruthlessly efficient. Perfectly contestable markets should be just as efficient as perfectly competitive ones, even if only a handful of firms dominate a business."

"Yet Mr Baumol will be remembered best for his cost disease."

"The analysis bore relevance outside the arts, he quickly realised. Technological progress in some industries implies that in services with relatively low rates of productivity growth—like health care, education and government—swelling costs will outstrip growth in productivity. Costlier public services are a necessary side-effect of long-run growth."

"Cost disease also provides a vision of a world of large-scale automation. As machines become better at doing things, the human role in generating faster productivity growth will converge towards zero. At that point, so long as society expects everyone to work, all spending in the economy will go towards services for which it is crucial that productivity not grow, in order to provide jobs for everyone. Society could seemingly be both characterised by technological abundance and paralysed by cost disease."
TheEconomist  obituary  economics  history  profile  people  biography  competition  automation 
june 2017 by pierredv
Computer says no? Europeans can now challenge that decision | New Scientist July 2016
Issue 3082

"In April this year, the European parliament approved the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), a new set of rules governing personal data. Due to go into effect in 2018, it introduces a “right to explanation”: the opportunity for European Union citizens to question the logic of an algorithmic decision – and contest the results."

"The GDPR also specifically calls for companies to prevent discrimination based on personal characteristics such as race, religious beliefs or health data. This matters because experiments already show that online ad services preferentially show details of higher-paying jobs to male users; criminal justice algorithms suggest harsher sentences for African Americans."
NewScientist  algorithms  AI  automation  law  EU  EuropeanParliament 
march 2017 by pierredv
Computers that can argue will be satnav for the moral maze | New Scientist Sep 2016
Issue 3090

"A machine capable of formulating an argument – not just searching information, but also synthesising it into more or less reasoned conclusions – would take the search engine to the next level. Such a “research engine” could aid decision-making in arenas from law to medicine to politics."

"Since the Jeopardy! success, [Noah] Slonim has been collaborating with the Watson team to see whether a machine could graduate from facts to arguments."

"In his 4th-century BC treatise on rhetoric, the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle distinguished arguments rooted in facts and figures (which he called logos) from appeals that rely on the speaker’s credibility and expertise (ethos) and statements playing on an audience’s emotions (pathos). All three strands are readily discernible in public debate today. The successful campaign for the UK to vote to leave the European Union was arguably a triumph of pathos over logos; when Donald Trump punctuates his speeches with the refrain “believe me”, he is employing ethos, urging listeners to respect his authority."

“The growth of social media has radically awakened our individual expressive capacity,” says Carl Miller of the London-based think tank Demos. “But it hasn’t allowed us to compromise any better.” Reed agrees. “This is a deep structural problem. It’s really hard – even if you’re very motivated – to build up a coherent picture of the arguments pro and con on a particular debate.”

"Reed’s favourite source is the BBC radio show Moral Maze, in which panellists debate the ethics of an issue of the day. Its quasi-legal cut and thrust, laced with pathos and ethos, is just the thing from which to build a general framework for the essence of human argument. ... His team has since repeated the exercise many times, dissecting episodes of Moral Maze and other broadcast and print sources, plus some online forum postings, and turning them into a public databank of argument maps, accessible at aifdb.org. "
NewScientist  argument  rhetoric  reason  AI  automation  IBM  *  Aristotle 
march 2017 by pierredv
The road to artificial intelligence: A case of data over theory | New Scientist Oct 2016
https://www.newscientist.com/issue/3097
Ways in which assumptions about ways of doing AI didn't pan out:

"They expected to generate intelligent behaviour by first creating a mathematical model of how we might process speech, text or images, and then by implementing that model in the form of a computer program, perhaps one that would reason logically about those tasks. They were proven wrong."

"They also expected that any breakthrough in AI would provide us with further understanding about our own intelligence. Wrong again."

"Researchers also ditched the assumption that AI would provide us with further understanding of our own intelligence. Try to learn from algorithms how humans perform those tasks, and you are wasting your time: the intelligence is more in the data than in the algorithm."

"By the mid-2000s, with success stories piling up, the field had learned a powerful lesson: data can be stronger than theoretical models. A new generation of intelligent machines had emerged, powered by a small set of statistical learning algorithms and large amounts of data."

"Contrary to the assumptions of 60 years ago, we don't need to precisely describe a feature of intelligence for a machine to simulate it."
"Yet, remarkably, the agent has no internal representation of why it does what it does."
NewScientist  AI  automation 
february 2017 by pierredv
There is a blind spot in AI research : Nature News & Comment - Oct 2016
“People worry that computers will get too smart and take over the world, but the real problem is that they’re too stupid and they’ve already taken over the world.” This is how computer scientist Pedro Domingos sums up the issue in his 2015 book The Master Algorithm1. Even the many researchers who reject the prospect of a ‘technological singularity’ — saying the field is too young — support the introduction of relatively untested AI systems into social institutions.

In part thanks to the enthusiasm of AI researchers, such systems are already being used by physicians to guide diagnoses. They are also used by law firms to advise clients on the likelihood of their winning a case, by financial institutions to help decide who should receive loans, and by employers to guide whom to hire.

AI will not necessarily be worse than human-operated systems at making predictions and guiding decisions. On the contrary, engineers are optimistic that AI can help to detect and reduce human bias and prejudice. But studies indicate that in some current contexts, the downsides of AI systems disproportionately affect groups that are already disadvantaged by factors such as race, gender and socio-economic background2.

We believe that a fourth approach is needed. A practical and broadly applicable social-systems analysis thinks through all the possible effects of AI systems on all parties. It also engages with social impacts at every stage — conception, design, deployment and regulation.
AI  automation  Ryan-Calo  opinion  NatureJournal 
october 2016 by pierredv
Smart machines and the future of jobs - The Boston Globe - Jeffrey Sachs Oct 2016
"Will the coming generations of smart machines deliver us leisure and well-being or joblessness and falling wages? The answer to this question is not simple. There is neither a consensus nor deep understanding of the future of jobs in an economy increasingly built on smart machines. The machines have gotten much smarter so fast that their implications for the future of work, home life, schooling, and leisure are a matter of open speculation."

"If the rich capital owners transfer some of their windfall profits to the struggling young workers, then both the old rich and the young poor would be better off with the smart machines than without them. In effect, the rich older shareholders would compensate the poor younger workers in order to offset the fall in wages."
automation  employment  Jeffrey-Sachs 
october 2016 by pierredv
Don't give up the day job: Why going to work is good for you | New Scientist - June 2016
"In a 2014 Gallup survey, 55 per cent of US workers said they got a sense of identity from their job, a figure that rises to 70 per cent for college graduates."
"In 2005, Brian Faragher, then at the University of Manchester in the UK, and his colleagues looked at 485 previous studies of the relationship between job satisfaction and health. They showed that people who were happy in their jobs were more likely to be healthy, and in particular were less likely to experience depression, anxiety or low self esteem compared with those less satisfied with their jobs. A review carried out for the UK government in 2006 showed that any stress work creates is, on balance, likely to be outweighed by the problems of not having a job."
"Brent Rosso at Montana State University has come up with a list of six attributes that make work meaningful, based on years of academic surveys. Almost any job can exhibit at least one of these attributes (see “Find your meaning“), although Rosso reckons that an individual’s culture and personality will influence which ones they find meaning in." (https://www.newscientist.com/article/2094438-find-your-meaning-at-work-6-things-a-salary-cant-buy/)
"In his 1946 book Man’s Search for Meaning, [Viktor Frankl] argued that these future lives could hold meaning, and that one way of finding it was through work. “Everyone has his own specific vocation or mission in life to carry out a concrete assignment which demands fulfillment,” he wrote."
NewScientist  work  employment  automation  stress  meaning  quotations  Viktor-Frankl  vocation 
september 2016 by pierredv
Team Delft Wins Amazon Picking Challenge - IEEE Spectrum July 2016
"AutomatonRoboticsIndustrial Robots
Team Delft Wins Amazon Picking Challenge

By Evan Ackerman
Posted 5 Jul 2016 | 17:01 GMT
AddThis Sharing Buttons
Amazon Picking Challenge winner Team Delft robot arm
Photo: Team Delft
With warehouses full of robots that can move shelves from place to place, the only reason that Amazon needs humans anymore is to pick things off of those shelves and put them into boxes, and pick other things out of boxes and put them onto those shelves. Amazon wants robots to be doing these tasks too, but it’s a hard problem—hard enough that the enormous bajillion dollar company is asking other roboticists to solve it for them."
IEEE-Spectrum  Amazon  automation  robotics 
july 2016 by pierredv
People Want Driverless Cars with Utilitarian Ethics, Unless They're a Passenger - IEEE Spectrum June 2016
"At some point in the nearer-than-might-be-comfortable future, an autonomous vehicle (AV) will find itself in a situation where something has gone wrong, and it has two options: either it can make a maneuver that will keep its passenger safe while putting a pedestrian at risk, or it can make a different maneuver that will keep the pedestrian safe while putting its passenger at risk. What an AV does in situations like these will depend on how it’s been programmed: in other words, what ethical choice its software tells it to make."
"When confronted with situations where enforcing individual behavior leads to a better global outcome, it’s often necessary for regulators to get involved. The researchers offer vaccines as an example: nobody really wants to get stuck with a needle, but if everybody does it, we’re all better off. In the context of driverless cars, this means that given the option, most people would choose to ride in or buy an AV that prioritizes their own personal safety above the safety of others, and consequently, car companies will be incentivized to sell cars programmed this way, which is why regulation might be necessary to achieve utilitarian ethics. "
IEEE-Spectrum  automation  ethics  morality  utilitarianism  driverless-cars  transportation  autonomous-vehicle  regulation 
july 2016 by pierredv
Can You Program Ethics Into a Self-Driving Car? - IEEE Spectrum
"Today no court ever asks why a driver does anything in particular in the critical moments before a crash. The question is moot as to liability—the driver panicked, he wasn’t thinking, he acted on instinct. But when robots are doing the driving, “Why?” becomes a valid question. Human ethical standards, imperfectly codified in law, make all kinds of assumptions that engineers have not yet dared to make. The most important such assumption is that a person of good judgment will know when to disregard the letter of the law in order to honor the spirit of the law. What engineers must now do is teach the elements of good judgment to cars and other self-guided machines—that is, to robots."
"Regulators and litigators will thus be able to hold automated vehicles to superhuman safety standards and to subject them to intense scrutiny following the inevitable, if rare, crashes. Manufacturers and software developers will have to defend a car’s actions in ways unimaginable to today’s human drivers."
IEEE-Spectrum  law  liability  automation  self-driving-car  ethics 
june 2016 by pierredv
Remote Attacks on Automated Vehicles Sensors: Experiments on Camera and LiDAR (pdf)
Research paper by Petit, Stottelaar, Feiri and Kargl
via Dale Hatfield, June 2016
jamming  spoofing  automation  automobile 
june 2016 by pierredv
I’m afraid I can’t do that - Automtion | The Economist June 2016
"Reasons to be less afraid about the march of the machines"
"a new working paper by Melanie Arntz, Terry Gregory and Ulrich Zierahn of the Centre for European Economic Research paints a slightly brighter picture. The earlier study [by Osborne and Frey] quizzed experts on the chance that a particular occupation could be automated, and then totted up the proportion of American workers in such jobs. But the newer study suggests that this method was too blunt. Digging into more detailed data, the researchers find that many jobs involve bundles of tasks, only some of which machines can easily handle. "
"... the newer study finds that three-quarters of those jobs involve some group work or face-to-face interaction—tasks robot struggle with. Applying a similar analysis to all jobs, they find that only 9%, not 47%, are at high risk of automation."
TheEconomist  automation  employment 
june 2016 by pierredv
Autonomous Robot Surgeon Bests Humans in World First - IEEE Spectrum May 2016
"For this study, published today in the journal Science Translational Medicine, researchers programmed their robot to carry out a procedure called intestinal anastomosis, in which a piece of intestine that’s been cut through is stitched back together. It’s like repairing a garden hose, said Ryan Decker, the senior engineer on the team, in that the sutures must be tight and regularly spaced to prevent leaks. STAR performed this task both on ex vivo tissue in the lab and on in vivo tissue in an anesthetized pig, and experienced human surgeons were given the same tasks. When the resulting sutures were compared, STAR’s stitches were more consistent and more resistant to leaks."
automation  surgery  healthcare  health  IEEE-Spectrum 
may 2016 by pierredv
Text detective can unmask the secret influencers behind US laws - New Scientist Nov 2015
"The Legislative Influence Detector scours the text of US bills, searching for passages that have been cribbed from lobbyists or the legislatures of other states"
"Software can scrutinise legislative bills, working out the source of the text. It could allow voters to see who actually determines what goes into bills."
"researchers at the University of Chicago’s Data Science for Social Good programme have created the Legislative Influence Detector. This scours the text of US bills, searching for passages that have been cribbed from lobbyists or the legislatures of other states."
"To get the real story behind a bill, the software digs through 500,000 state bills, as well as thousands of pieces of text drafted by lobbyist groups that were saved into a database. An algorithm then calculates the top 100 documents most relevant to the bill in question before examining each one more closely, searching for passages the two have in common."
NewScientist  lobbying  legislation  automation  law  data-mining 
april 2016 by pierredv
How victory for Google’s Go AI is stoking fear in South Korea - New Scientist Mar 2016
“AlphaGo actually does have an intuition,” Google co-founder Sergey Brin told New Scientist hours after his firm’s series-clinching third victory, which he’d flown in to witness. “It makes beautiful moves. It even creates more beautiful moves than most of us could think of.”
This ability to make beauty has left many shaken. “This is a tremendous incident in the history of human evolution – that a machine can surpass the intuition, creativity and communication, which has previously been considered to be the territory of human beings,” Jang Dae-Ik, a science philosopher at Seoul National University, told The Korea Herald.
Google  AI  games  AlphaGo  NewScientist  beauty  intuition  automation  Korea 
april 2016 by pierredv
Artificial intelligence could make lawyers more risk averse - New Scientist Jan 2016
"In a report published online last month, they found that AI poses less of a threat to legal jobs than some fear. But they also suggest that computers, left unchecked, can have a detrimental impact on the law."
" Levy and Remus broke down individual tasks into work likely to be strongly, moderately, or lightly affected by AI: document review, for example, is easy to automate, but it is hard to do the same with negotiation or legal writing. They concluded that only about 13 per cent of legal work will be taken over by computers within the next five years (doi.org/bb28)."
"This approach might be more efficient, but it could slow the evolution of the law, the pair warn. Take the predictions too seriously, too often, and lawyers could be more reluctant to take on cases with the potential to break new ground, making it less likely that landmark judgements will be passed.

By the same token, if AI spots a pattern of discrimination – say, that women are more likely to lose in certain types of case – it might sway lawyers’ decisions and so perpetuate the problem rather than bringing it to light."
law  automation  AI  employment 
april 2016 by pierredv
Software Rules Tax Preparation, But at What Cost? - IEEE Spectrum, Apr 2016
“The upfront investment required to build a comprehensive abstraction layer on top of such large collection of requirements is a large barrier of entry to new competitors.”

“But not everything that’s good for TurboTax is good for its customers, and certainly not for the IRS. For one thing, TurboTax has a vested interest in making sure the tax code stays complex or becomes even more complex over time. They have lobbied heavily against initiatives like California’s return-free-filing”

“… the sheer scale of TurboTax’s customer base has given them a wealth of valuable data, allowing the company to understand taxes as well as—and sometimes better—than the IRS. ... A pair of whistleblowers claimed that TurboTax ignored its own internal fraud models, which were more reliable than those at the IRS. Similarly, I suspect that TurboTax has a large enough sample size of data to accurately reverse engineer IRS auditing risk models (which allows them to confidently offer audit protection for an additional fee).”
automation  taxes  IEEE-Spectrum 
april 2016 by pierredv
AutomatonRoboticsArtificial Intelligence How Google Wants to Solve Robotic Grasping by Letting Robots Learn for Themselves -- IEEE Spectrum Mar 2016
"At Google Research, a team of researchers, with help from colleagues at X, tasked a 7-DoF robot arm with picking up objects in clutter using monocular visual servoing, and used a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to predict the outcome of the grasp. The CNN was continuously retraining itself (starting with a lot of fail but gradually getting better), and to speed the process along, Google threw 14 robots at the problem in parallel. This is completely autonomous: all the humans had to do was fill the bins with stuff and then turn the power on."
Google  robotics  automation  learning  neural-networks 
march 2016 by pierredv
The driverless, car-sharing road ahead - The Economist , 9 Jan 2016
"shortly before CES opened, GM announced a $500m investment in Lyft, a ride-sharing service."
"At CES Mark Fields, Ford’s CEO, said that it would in future be “both a product and mobility company”."
"Membership of car clubs, which let people book by app for periods as short as 15 minutes, is growing by over 30% a year"
"At the same time, app-based taxi services such as Uber and its Chinese counterpart Didi Dache, which are often cheaper and more efficient than conventional cabs, are also growing quickly. Once these are able to dispense with drivers for their vehicles, the taxi, car-club and car-sharing businesses will in effect merge into one big, convenient and affordable alternative to owning a car."
automobile  automation  TheEconomist  taxis  app-economy  employment  transport 
march 2016 by pierredv
Super-literate software reads and comprehends better than humans - New Scientist - 9 Dec 2015
"Get ready for a new generation of computers that can read millions of texts and understand the relationships between characters"
Various examples of "a cadre of computers that are learning to read more like humans, helping us digest and understand society’s huge volumes of text on a large scale", including "the Declassification Engine, it will comb through 4.5 million US State Department cables from the 1930s to the 1980s – everything the department has declassified so far. It’s more than any human could read, but the software will analyse the lot, mapping social connections and looking for new narratives about the behaviour of US diplomats and officials abroad in the 20th century, says Owen Rambow, a computer scientist at Columbia University, which runs the Declassification Engine."
automation  reading  comprehension  NewScientist  AI 
march 2016 by pierredv
Why pleasing AI headhunters could help you land your perfect job - New Scientist Oct 2015
Lists companies/apps doing recruiting in new ways: LinkedIn, Connectifier, Reveal,
"Recruiters already use computers to sift through job applications – but this automation can mean they miss potential star employees. There might be a better way"
"For the past few years, the world’s biggest firms have been using AI recruitment software to filter job applications and streamline the process, and smaller businesses are increasingly interested, too.

That should make selection fairer and less open to abuse, in theory. But it can also make it harder to get a foot in the door"
NewScientist  automation  AI  employment 
march 2016 by pierredv
The firms who will beat Google to get us into self-driving cars - New Scientist Jan 2016
"The world's biggest car companies are now taking autonomous cars seriously – and that spells bad news for Google's hopes of leading the way"
"They plan to use the sensors on new car models to collectively gather mapping data, rather than having an expensive fleet of dedicated vehicles."
"It’s an unusual position for Google, whose power has always come from having more data than its competition. “When it comes to information about the physical world that we live in, Google doesn’t really have a presence,” says Rajkumar."
automation  NewScientist  mapping  navigation  Google  transportation  sensors 
march 2016 by pierredv
Welcome to the robot-based workforce: will your job become automated too? - The Guardian Mar 2016
Good inventory of apps, companies
"On Thursday, Bloomberg reported that Google is selling Boston Dynamics, the inventor of frighteningly agile robots that it acquired in 2013.

“There’s excitement from the tech press, but we’re also starting to see some negative threads about it being terrifying, ready to take humans’ jobs,” wrote one Google employee in internal emails obtained by Bloomberg."
automation  Google  theguardian  employment 
march 2016 by pierredv
'Robo-advice' approved by FCA but axes 220 jobs at RBS - BBC News March 2016
See also http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2016-03/14/rbs-robo-advisers-financial-advice

"So-called "robo-advice" has resulted in hundreds of job cuts at Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), just as the regulator gave its blessing to the technology.
RBS is cutting the jobs of 220 face-to-face advisers, as it switches customers to an automated online service."
automation  finance  employment  UK  BBC 
march 2016 by pierredv
Technology may disrupt occupations, but it won’t kill jobs : Monthly Labor Review: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
"Predicting the structure of the labor market and U.S. economy in 2040 is a daunting task. But there is at least one thing we should be confident about: the unemployment and labor force participation rates then should be quite similar to the rates of today."
Argument seems to be that technology has always come through:
"In short, there has long been a national worry about technology-driven unemployment and that fear seems to spike either in recessions or in periods of particularly robust innovation. But to date that fear has always been misplaced."
ITIF  automation  employment 
march 2016 by pierredv
Could machines have become self-aware without our kn...
"The first aliens that human beings encounter will probably not be from some other planet, but of our own creation. . . .If we want to find such aliens and understand them, we need to reach out. And to do that we need to go beyond simply trying to build a conscious machine. We need an all-purpose consciousness detector"
IIT defines way to calc "Φ, defined as the amount of information that is not localised in the individual parts but is spread out over the entire network. The theory associates this quantity with the degree of consciousness."
"... a hierarchical system can be conscious on only one level; ...To ascertain which level deserves to be called conscious, the software goes through all possible subsets of the network and calculates which of them has the highest value of Φ"
Practical hurdles for IIT: "gives false positives"; "calculating Φ is taxing... it’s really a qualitative theory masquerading as a quantitative one"; the zombie problem.
AI  awareness  consciousness  automation  aeon  IIT  Integrated-Information-Theory 
march 2016 by pierredv
How textiles repeatedly revolutionised human technology - Virginia Postrel
" textiles are technology, more ancient than bronze and as contemporary as nanowires. We hairless apes co-evolved with our apparel. But, to reverse Arthur C Clarke’s adage, any sufficiently familiar technology is indistinguishable from nature." "The ancient Greeks worshiped Athena as the goddess of technē, the artifice of civilisation. She was the giver and protector of olive trees, of ships and of weaving (without which there would be no sails). When she and Odysseus scheme, they ‘weave a plan’. To weave is to devise, to invent – to contrive function and beauty from the simplest of elements." "David Orban proposed that his fellow Bitcoin evangelists adopt ‘weaving’ rather than ‘mining’ as their metaphor for the work of encoding and recording the public ledger of Bitcoin transactions. ‘Weavers,’ he wrote, ‘take the intertwined threads and through their expert, value-added activity create a strong fabric – which is exactly what the global distributed network of computers creating ..."
AeonMagazine  textiles  innovation  automation  technology  Athena  **  quotations 
march 2016 by pierredv
UBS white paper on the Fourth Industrial Revolution -- Davos 2016 | UBS Global topics
"The global economy is on the cusp of profound changes that are comparable in magnitude to the advent of the first industrial revolution, the development of assembly line production, or the invention of the micro-chip. Technological advances are permitting ever greater levels of automation. Meanwhile, the near universal ownership of smart devices in many parts of the world is leading to a degree of interconnectedness that was previously unimaginable. These developments, which we believe are part of a technology-driven Fourth Industrial Revolution, have significant implications for investors, the global economy and the relative competitiveness of developed and emerging nations."
UBS  WEF  automation  Davos  employment 
february 2016 by pierredv
Mercedes-Benz swaps robots for people on its assembly lines | Technology | The Guardian Feb 2016
"Bucking modern manufacturing trends, Mercedes-Benz has been forced to trade in some of its assembly line robots for more capable humans. The robots cannot handle the pace of change and the complexity of the key customisation options available for the company’s S-Class saloon at the 101-year-old Sindelfingen plant, which produces 400, 000 vehicles a year from 1,500 tons of steel a day. The dizzying number of options for the cars – from heated or cooled cup holders, various wheels, carbon-fibre trims and decals, and even four types of caps for tire valves – demand adaptability and flexibility, two traits where humans currently outperform robots."
automation  manufacturing  Mercedes-Benz  theguardian 
february 2016 by pierredv
Self-Driving Cars Will Be Ready Before Our Laws Are - IEEE Spectrum
"For now, the legal landscape is a hodgepodge." "The solution to the lawsuit problem is actually pretty simple. To level the playing field between human drivers and computer drivers, we should simply treat them equally. Instead of applying design-defect laws to computer drivers, use ordinary negligence laws. That is, a computer driver should be held liable only if a human driver who took the same actions in the same circumstances would be held liable."
IEEE-Spectrum  self-driving-cars  transport  automation  law 
february 2016 by pierredv
Forrester Research : Marketing : Robots Will Not Steal All Our Jobs
Report, August 2015: The Future Of Jobs, 2025: Working Side By Side With Robots Automation Won't Destroy All The Jobs, But It Will Transform The Workforce — Including Yours
Forrester  research  automation  employment 
february 2016 by pierredv
How builder bots are taking construction work out of human hands - New Scientist 11 Jan 2016
“We’re trying to automate the tasks that excavators are doing,” says [Daniel Schmidt, who heads up THOR, or the Terraforming Heavy Outdoor Robot project, at the University of Kaiserslautern]. "In Victor, New York, a company called Construction Robotics offers a semi-automated masonry machine, nicknamed SAM, that can lay bricks three times as fast as a human, and has contributed to buildings in New York and Washington DC." "... a 2300-square-metre wooden roof over a building on the university campus. . . is being made off-site by a wood-wielding robot that grips, trims, positions and nails thousands of timber slats into a layered pattern (see photo) – although the pieces will be assembled on-site by people." "A report, published by Forrester Research in October, estimated that automation will eliminate 16 per cent of all jobs in construction and extraction by 2025."
NewScientist  automation  employment  construction  AI  Brookings 
february 2016 by pierredv
The Internet of Things Will Be the World's Biggest Robot - Schneier on Security
via Blake Reid “it'll be here before we know it. Whatever changes it means for society, we don't want it to take us by surprise.”
Bruce-Schneier  IoT  automation  AI 
february 2016 by pierredv
Call centres - The end of the line. Economist Feb 2016
“New technologies are poised to abolish many call-centre jobs and transform others. At best, jobs will be created more slowly in the Philippines and India; ... There might never be another Manila.” “Much of the call-handling and data-processing work sent overseas is basic and repetitive... Such routine tasks can often be done better by a machine. Blue Prism makes software “robots” that carry out such repetitive tasks just as a person would do them, without requiring a change to underlying IT systems—but much faster and more cheaply.” “Increasingly, Western companies prod customers to get in touch via e-mail or online chat. Software robots can often handle these inquiries. The cleverest systems, …, refer the most complex questions to human operators and learn from the responses. The longer they run, the better they get.” "So automation might mean fewer jobs, or at least less growth, in India and the Philippines, but more jobs in America and Europe."
employment  automation  call-centers  TheEconomist  AI 
february 2016 by pierredv
Report: Robots, other advances will cost humans 5.1 million jobs by 2020 | Ars Technica Jan 2016
Report on "The Future of Jobs" report by WEF http://reports.weforum.org/future-of-jobs-2016/ "advances in robotics, artificial intelligence, 3D printing, and other modern technologies are currently likely to lead to a net loss of 5.1 million jobs worldwide by the year 2020" "Anybody looking for more analysis on those subjects may be interested in Alec Ross's late-2015 book The Industries of the Future, which offers some interesting analysis on the ways robots may soon newly interact with typically human labor."
automation  employment  ArsTechnica 
february 2016 by pierredv
The Future of Employment, Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael Osborne - Oxford Martin School 2013
"The authors examine how susceptible jobs are to computerisation, by implementing a novel methodology to estimate the probability of computerisation for 702 detailed occupations, using a Gaussian process classifier. Based on these estimates, they examine expected impacts of future computerisation on US labour market outcomes, with the primary objective of analysing the number of jobs at risk and the relationship between an occupation’s probability of computerisation, wages and educational attainment. According to their estimates, about 47 per cent of total US employment is at risk. They further provide evidence that wages and educational attainment exhibit a strong negative relationship with an occupation’s probability of computerisation."
employment  trends  AI  automation 
february 2016 by pierredv
Lisa A. Shay, Gregory Conti, Woodrow Hartzog, John Nelson, & Dominic Larkin on “Confronting Automated Law Enforcement”
"Automated law enforcement will be an expanding option for law enforcement and allow for the meticulous enforcement of laws, while reducing manpower requirements. The authors examine the ways automated law enforcement can be applied to current and future police and government practice. They propose an analytic framework for analyzing new technologies as they weigh the effects Woody Hartzog of law enforcement automation on police efficiency against personal and societal costs. Their framework incorporates: (1) the subject being monitored, (2) the law enforcement agencies that conduct surveillance, analysis, and enforcement, and (3) a judicial system that determines guilt and imposes punishment. Automation in any of these areas triggers the considerations covered in the paper."
enforcement  AI  automation  law 
october 2015 by pierredv
AI interns: Software already taking jobs from humans - life - 31 March 2015 - New Scientist
Places where workers have been replaced by software: = UK telecoms firm O2 has replaced 150 cusstomer service workers with a single piece of software, developed by Blue Prism = Canadian start-up ROSS started using IBM's Watson supercomputer to automate a whole chunk of the legal research normally carried out by entry-level paralegals = Nuance's language-focused AIs can now understand the typed case notes of doctors and nurses, and figure out which insurance billing code is a match. "Where Blue Prism learns and adapts to the various software interfaces designed for humans working within large corporations, ROSS learns and adapts to the legal language that human lawyers use in courts and firms." "The potential problem with new kinds of automation like Blue Prism and ROSS is that they are starting to perform the kinds of jobs which can be the first rung on the corporate ladders, which could result in deepening inequality."
automation  inequality  NewScientist  AI  work  employment  unemployment 
june 2015 by pierredv
What Intersections Would Look Like in a World of Driverless Cars - Technology - The Atlantic Cities
“There would be an intersection manager,” Stone says, “an autonomous agent directing traffic at a much finer-grain scale than just a red light for one direction and a green light for another direction.” Because of this, we won’t need traffic lights at all (or stop signs, for that matter). Traffic will constantly flow, and at a rate that would probably unnerve the average human driver. The researchers have modeled just how this would work, as you can see in the animation below.
visualization  autonomous-vehicles  theatlantic  automation  robotics 
february 2013 by pierredv

Copy this bookmark:





to read