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US Huawei Ban Threatens Internet Access in Rural Areas, Some Providers May Fold - CircleID, May 2019
"The upcoming ban on U.S. telecommunications networks acquiring or using equipment from Chinese suppliers under a cloud of uncertainty, with some fearing bankruptcy. Rural broadband carriers could be forced to rip out and replace entire networks because they wouldn't be able to import spare parts or software updates to maintain infrastructure, Roger Entner, a telecom analyst at Recon Analytics told LA Times."
Huawei  CircleID  rural  broadband 
may 2019 by pierredv
Taking Risks to Stimulate Backhaul Demand - NSR May 2019
"Assuming a BTS 20 km away from the closest backbone node and satellite capacity pricing at $300 USD/Mbps/month, satellite is the most cost-effective solution if the station consumes under 600 GB/month. To add a bit of context, the average plan in Sub-Saharan Africa consumes 0.6 GB/month, so a new station supporting less than 1,000 subscribers would be most cost-effectively backhauled via satellite."

"When a satellite actor pitches a rural deployment to an MNO, aversion to change is one of the biggest barriers. For the commercial department, an additional site in a rural location might not move the needle for their sales targets, and most of their efforts are centered on marketing for urban areas. Similarly, the operations department usually likes to work with standardized products that do not add complexity to managing their network."
NSR  backhaul  broadband  business  rural  business-models 
may 2019 by pierredv
Close to Half of America Not Using the Internet at Broadband Speeds, Says Microsoft - CircleID Apr 2019
"The US government’s most recent broadband statistics from the FCC claims 25 million Americans to be lacking access to a broadband connection. However, Microsft did not agree and after conducting its own analysis found the number much higher at 162.8 million. "
broadband  mapping  Internet  CircleID  Microsoft 
april 2019 by pierredv
Will Satellite Operators Become (Rural) Mobile Operators? - NSR, Feb 2019
"Connecting the “other 3 billion” is a recurring motto for the satcom Industry. Unfortunately, the reality is that the impact on mitigating the digital divide is still modest. Mobile is the de facto way of getting online for “the bottom of the pyramid” but here, satellite can still find enormous opportunities by complementing the gaps of terrestrial networks. Given this trend, are Wi-Fi hotspots over satellite the key way for satcom to bring the unconnected online?"

"Numerous actors in the satcom space are launching Wi-Fi hotspot offers to serve the low-end segments of the market. The addressable market for these kinds of solutions is massive given the billions living in underserved areas. According to NSR’s VSAT and Broadband Markets, 17th Edition report, Wi-Fi hotspot annual service revenues will reach $7.5 billion by 2027, representing 43% of total satellite consumer broadband revenues."

"With HTS becoming the norm, satellite broadband offers can now meet UN Broadband Commission affordability targets of 1 GB of data for less than 2% of the monthly GNI per capita"

"Today, a satellite terminal that supports double-digit Mbps with 10s of concurrent sessions combined with a Wi-Fi smallcell is below the $1,000 USD threshold, which is within the reach of local businesses."

"Selecting the right locations to set up the Wi-Fi hotspot is not trivial. It needs a reliable local microentrepreneur with appropriate technical skills to maintain the equipment and run the network. The village must be big enough with adequate disposable income to generate demand but not too large that it will shortly be targeted by terrestrial alternatives. In the same line, the hotspot should be far enough from terrestrial alternatives to avoid being cannibalized by terrestrial solutions, but penetration of mobile devices is crucial to ensure customers can access the network."
NSR  satellite  rural  Wi-Fi  hotspots  broadband  HTS 
february 2019 by pierredv
Can Satellite Broadband Support the Streaming Wave? - NSR Jan 2019
Nice chart of tech vs. customer bandwidth expectations

"Today, a mid-range satellite Internet plan is able to satisfy users generating traffic from Web browsing and Social Media, but data caps are still too low to support multiple hours of streaming per day. Consequently, satellite is unable to engage the mainstream consumer, leading to slow take up rates and high levels of churn."

"At capacity prices of $200 USD/Mbps/month, the plan for a $50-subscriber would be capped at ~10 GB, insufficient to satisfy today’s video-centric customers. If the industry wants to unlock the potential of this market, capacity prices need to decline below the $100 USD/Mbps/month threshold, where data allowances could grow rapidly and boost subscriber satisfaction."
NSR  satellite  broadband 
january 2019 by pierredv
NSR Report: Satellite Broadband & Enterprise VSAT to Generate $159 Billion in Next Decade - NSR Jan 2019
“Satellite Consumer Broadband is just scratching the surface of the opportunity, capturing less than 1% of the potential addressable market,”

"Even with these measures, data caps are still very restrictive with the current balance between ARPUs and capacity pricing. However, once prices decline below 100 USD/Mbps/Month, data allowances can grow generously, activating demand elasticities."

"At the service level, value is climbing to higher layers, like security or app-specific tools, as connectivity commoditizes."
NSR  satellite  broadband  market-research  press-release  VSAT 
january 2019 by pierredv
Sorry LEOs, but FPAs Have No Incentive to Go Low-Cost - NSR Dec 2018
"According to NSR’s Commercial Satellite Ground Segment, 3rd Edition report, antennas will generate $44.9 billion cumulative revenues in the next 10 years. Requirements are wide and varied, from low-cost, fixed parabolic dishes for DTH (can be as cheap as $10 USD), to highly sophisticated antennas for mobility or Earth Stations that can cost several $100k USD. Consequently, antenna vendors adapt their products to the most lucrative markets. LEO constellations have a particular set of requirements that favor FPAs, especially in the low-end markets, but are FPA incentives aligned with LEO Constellations?"

"Today, SAC in Consumer Broadband is around $700-1,000 USD where the modem might be in the $300 range, antenna itself around $50, installation contributing $100 and the rest being marketing, credit validation and others. Consequently, an FPA priced in the $200-300 range could compete with traditional parabolics considering lower installation and marketing costs (product placement). Even considering these factors, prices for FPAs are still far from this benchmark, and only the architectures that have no other option (LEOs, Aero) will choose FPAs in the short to medium term."

"It will be impossible to see FPAs beating low-end parabolics in a direct cost comparison but, when including other elements of SAC, the equation is not so unfavorable. With continuous technology development, greater traction from LEOs and stagnation in verticals like Aero, we could see consumer-grade FPAs by the mid-2020s, at the earliest."
NSR  antennas  LEO  business  satellite  broadband  aviation 
december 2018 by pierredv
LTE Speeds in the US are Really Pathetic – Droid Life Nov 2018
The folks at OpenSignal put out a state-by-state report today that ranks each in terms of download and upload speeds. The report is not something this country should take anything positive from. Now, we already knew that the US compares poorly in internet speeds to the rest of the world, but look at these sad numbers.
LTE  5G  cellular  broadband 
november 2018 by pierredv
Consumers can ‘pay’ for better broadband with higher prices or reduced choice - analysys mason Oct 2018
"Consumers can ‘pay’ for better broadband with higher prices or reduced choice"

“Investment, regulation and competition investigations are shifting to focus on full-fibre broadband networks, but consumer revenue is what is needed to pay for fibre”

"Consumer revenue is the essential part of the business case for FTTP/B networks ... the full-fibre take-up in Western European countries with a relatively high spend on broadband services has increased significantly"

"(De)regulation and relaxation of competition/merger rules may support higher prices and reduce the intensity of price competition, but can this revenue be used to benefit fibre network investment?"
AnalysysMason  broadband  competition  antitrust 
october 2018 by pierredv
Why 5G is out of reach for more people than you think - CNET Oct 2018
"only 70 percent of rural areas have 10 Mbps LTE download speeds, compared with 91 percent in urban areas"
CNET  broadband  5G 
october 2018 by pierredv
Cruising for Higher Throughputs - Northern Sky Research Aug 2018
"From 300 Mbps to MSC cruises announced by Marlink in June 2017 to the most recent 3.2 Gbps of throughput delivered to a Carnival Cruise Line Ship in May of 2018, there are few satellite sectors that are seeing such record levels of growth to a customer’s single location . With over 570 Gbps of throughput growth expected between 2017 – 2027 according to NSR’s Maritime SATCOM Report, what applications are driving this growth? "
NSR  satellite  broadband  maritime  GSO  NGSO 
august 2018 by pierredv
Iridium posts sharply higher revenue, forecasts decade-long capex holiday - Aug 2018
"With seven of eight launches completed for Iridium Next, its $3 billion second-generation constellation, Iridium is poised to begin a 10-year “capex holiday,” CEO Matt Desch said during a call with investors, projecting a reduction to $35 million in annual spending after the final launch. McLean, Virginia-based Iridium spent $132 million in capital expenditures the past three months, most of it on Iridium Next."

"... reiterated that Iridium is on track to complete the full constellation of 75 in-orbit satellites this year. "

"Desch said 80 percent of Iridium’s telecom traffic is traveling over Next satellites, of which 65 are in orbit. ... The full Iridium Next constellation consists of 66 operational satellites, nine orbiting spares and six ground spares."

"Iridium subscribers totaled 1,047,000 at the end of June, up 15 percent year over year, with commercial IoT subscribers counting for 576,000, up 25 percent from the same time in 2017. "

"Desch declined to describe pricing for the new contract Iridium is working on, but hinted that Iridium is pitching Certus, its new higher throughput broadband offering, to the government in addition to traditional services of secure voice, push to talk, and IoT narrowband connectivity."
Iridium  business  space  satellite  broadband  IoT 
august 2018 by pierredv
MEO startup Methera plans “high density” HTS constellation - aug 2018
"In medium Earth orbit, the only system providing satellite broadband today is SES Networks’ constellation of 16 O3b satellites. A British startup with its own 16-satellite constellation idea wants to change that. Methera Global Communications estimates it needs $500 million to build and launch a constellation of satellites each equipped with 40 gigabits of capacity to beam down Ka-band connectivity to highly concentrated areas. If successful, Methera will launch its first spacecraft in 2022, with service starting that same year."

" “Instead of trying to put a thin veneer of coverage around the globe, what we’re doing is looking at a small number of targets where we will put lots of capacity,” [CEO Chris McIntosh] said. Methera’s 700-kilogram satellites — the same mass as the first-generation O3b satellites — will hone capacity on extremely specific locations, targeting a small number of high-value customers "

"But positioning the satellites in medium Earth orbit means customers of Methera’s system will need advanced antennas that can track the satellites as they move relative to the Earth’s surface. ... O3b faced the same challenge and, finding flat panel, electronically steerable antennas commercially unavailable, started service in 2014 with terminals using two dishes ensuring a constant link for uninterrupted service. ... Methera is focusing initially on parabolic antennas as well"

"Methera has a pending application with the U.K.’s telecom regulator Ofcom to license its low-latency satellite system, McIntosh said. The company has not applied for market access in the U.S. with the Federal Communications Commission because the U.S. is not an area of initial focus, he said. "

"16 satellites in 18,000-kilometer polar orbits — about 2,000 kilometers below the U.S. Air Force’s GPS satellites"
SpaceNews  Methera  UK  NGSO  MEO  satellite  broadband  O3b  antennas  Ofcom 
august 2018 by pierredv
Telesat picks Airbus Defence and Space as second constellation design partner - aug 2018
"Telesat awarded a second constellation design contract Aug. 1, choosing Airbus Defence and Space to begin studies on the company’s proposed system of 117 low Earth orbit communications satellites.

The contract follows a similar deal awarded July 30 to a team of Maxar Technologies and Thales Alenia Space."

"Airbus is already under contract to build 900 small telecom satellites for OneWeb, producing the first 10 in France before shifting production to a new $85 million factory in Florida."

"It is not clear what role OneWeb Satellites could play in building satellites for Telesat. Erwin Hudson, vice president of Telesat LEO, told SpaceNews earlier this summer that the satellites Telesat envisions will be materially larger than the 145-kilogram satellites OneWeb plans."

“They are more substantial, larger, more complex satellites than some of the other LEO constellations because we’ve got phased array antennas and onboard processing in addition to the [inter-satellite link] terminals,” Hudson said of Telesat LEO.
SpaceNews  Telesat  Airbus  space  broadband  satellite  business  antennas 
august 2018 by pierredv
Telesat selects Thales-Maxar team for LEO constellation design work - Jul 2018
"Telesat on July 30 selected Thales Alenia Space and Maxar Technologies’ Space Systems Loral division to collaborate on the design of its low Earth orbit broadband satellite constellation."

"Telesat’s schedule for manufacturing and service activation has slipped by about a year. The company now plans to have the constellation in service in 2022, instead of 2021 as originally envisioned."

"Telesat says its LEO constellation will offer multiple terabits of secure throughput with latency low enough to rival fiber. Targeted applications include broadband to aircraft, boats and land vehicles, corporate networks, governments and rural connectivity. "

"Thales is the manufacturer for the 81 LEO satellites in Iridium Next, integrating the spacecraft with Northrop Grumman, and has a study contract with startup LeoSat for its proposed constellation of 84 broadband satellites. Maxar’s MDA division in Canada is a supplier to OneWeb for the company’s 900-satellite constellation. "
SpaceNews  Telesat  space  satellite  broadband  LEO  business  Thales  Maxar 
july 2018 by pierredv
Google's Loon brings internet-by-balloon to Kenya - BBC News, Jul 2018
Google's sister-company Loon has announced its first commercial deal: partnering with Telkom Kenya to deliver connectivity to the region.
HAPS  broadband  Google  Loon  Kenya  BBC 
july 2018 by pierredv
Airlines to Take IFC Controls - Northern Sky Research Jul 2018
"NSR forecasts in its Aeronautical Satcom Markets, 6th Edition that the total satellite connectivity opportunity for IFC will reach $4.7 B in retail revenues annually by 2027 and most of it, roughly $3.8 B, will be generated from commercial passenger markets"

"To ‘share the load’ of IFC, airlines are taking more control over the interface where passengers (and sometimes 3rd party third-party payers in the hybrid model) are increasingly tapped to generate revenues. As service providers look to retreat from the expenses of paying for IFC in order to become more profitable, it is likely that the burden of costs will shift to airlines. "
NSR  satellite  market-research  broadband  IFC  aviation 
july 2018 by pierredv
Antenna-makers Produce Multi-band Antennas To Serve Inflight Broadband | Aviation Week Jul 2018
"In June electronically-steered antenna (ESA) developer Phasor announced a partnership with Astronics AeroSat to produce scalable, dual-beam ESA-based aeronautical terminals that will operate seamlessly with existing geostationary (GEO) satellites and under-development non-geosynchronous satellites such as low Earth orbit (LEO) constellations."

“Our ESA aperture has the ability to be single-beam or dual-beam, so you can have a second, independent beam pointing at a different satellite, which gives all kinds of flexibility,” says Helfgott. “You can look at two satellites at the same time or, with the LEOs, you can do a make-before-break where you track a LEO satellite and create a second channel for a different LEO satellite traveling in a different direction.”

"A few days before the Phasor/Astronics announcement, ThinKom Solutions, whose mechanically steered antennas form the basis of Gogo’s 2Ku inflight connectivity service, said its technology is now “fully interoperable” with GEO, LEO and MEO (medium-Earth orbit) satellites."
AviationWeek  Phasor  antennas  satellite  broadband  GEO  LEO  ThinKom 
july 2018 by pierredv
IFC Going the Wrong Way? - Northern Sky Research
"... since the seminal contract to Panasonic to install connectivity on Lufthansa’s wide-body airframes in 2010, more than 3,000 commercial aircraft on 40 different airlines have installed Ku-band satellite connectivity. And these have generated roughly $1.7 B in retail revenues since the first year it was online (2012)."
NSR  aviation  IFC  broadband  satellite  business 
june 2018 by pierredv
Global Eagle to collaborate on Telesat LEO constellation - May 2018
"Inflight connectivity provider Global Eagle will help Telesat design and test the operator’s low Earth orbit satellite constellation, the companies announced May 15."

"Passenger desires for internet access on aircraft and at sea have driven demand for high-throughput satellite (HTS) services to the point that some service providers have teamed with satellite operators to help design their spacecraft. Panasonic Avionics, a competitor to Global Eagle in both aviation and maritime, co-designed HTS payloads on Intelsat-29e, SES-15 and Intelsat-33e before leasing capacity on the satellites. In March, Panasonic said it co-designed the Apstar-6D satellite that APT Mobile Satcom Limited ordered from China Great Wall Industry Corp. and will lease some of its capacity for mobile internet service over China and the surrounding region. "
SpaceNews  Telesat  HTS  ESIM  aviation  broadband 
may 2018 by pierredv
Gwynne Shotwell: SpaceX's plan to fly you across the globe in 30 minutes | TED Talk
"It'll cost the company about 10 billion dollars or more to deploy this system"
SpaceX  Starlink  LEO  satellite  broadband 
april 2018 by pierredv
Satellite Internet and information about how it works
Helpful details about VSAT services, beam coverages, antenna pointing, how it works, discussion and help forum.
satellite  broadband  VSAT  calculator  * 
april 2018 by pierredv
LEO and MEO broadband constellations mega source of consternation - Mar 2018
"the rush to HTS is driving down bandwidth prices so fast that some fairly low-mileage satellites are struggling to keep up."

“At the moment there is a potential scramble for who is going to be the third player between Telesat, LeoSat and SpaceX,” said Farrar. “It’s probably going to be clear in the next 12 months which of those is out ahead.”

"Perhaps the biggest variable in calculating demand is figuring out what consumers will have to pay for the user terminal—the receiver and antennas customers will use to connect to the constellation."

"Farrar is among analysts who doubt consumer broadband will be the biggest application for LEO constellations. Bridging the digital divide is a laudable goal, but backhaul — using satellites to help cellular networks to increase coverage and improve service — is an early market they can dominate with or without cheap antennas."
SpaceNews  NGSO  LEO  MEO  GEO  HTS  broadband  satellite  Tim-Farrar  Armand-Musey  NSR  antennas  Kymeta  Phasor  commerce  trends 
march 2018 by pierredv
Eutelsat Exec Discusses Possibility of Full LEO Constellation - Via Satellite - Mar 2018
"Eutelsat’s LEO for Objects (ELO) spacecraft will be used to assess the potential of LEO satellites in providing narrowband connectivity for objects. Jean-Hubert Lenotte, Eutelsat’s chief strategy officer, spoke to Via Satellite about the plans for the satellite, scheduled to launch in 2019, and how this could lead to Eutelsat looking to have a full constellation in LEO at some point in the future."

"We are targeting one specific application which is the Internet of Things (IOT) and we have chosen to use a LEO satellite because we think LEO will be well suited for such applications. Indeed IOT requires low bit rate connectivity and does not require a high concentration of capacity, meaning small satellites can be used. Therefore, we think there might be a business case for LEO in IOT."

"The satellite will be launched in the first half of 2019."

"For video, we only really see GEO satellites serving this market. For broadband, we don’t see today the potential opportunity for LEO satellites."
ViaSatellite  Eutelsat  LEO  IoT  broadband  interviews 
march 2018 by pierredv
Future of the space communications industry, by AlixPartners - Mar 2018
"AlixPartners, the global consulting firm, has released a report with these six predictions" "All of these factors could lead to major industry changes, including consolidation or restructuring or even exits."

2. "Some Planned Constellations May Not Get Off The Ground – Current FCC applications for non-geostationary orbit (NGSO) constellations total an estimated 16,000 spacecraft, with AlixPartners estimating $50 billion to $100 billion would be needed to develop and deploy them all. With the worldwide industry currently at $20 billion, the size of the investment needed makes it unlikely all constellations will be funded."

3. ARPU Might Remain Flat At Best

4. Competition from Terrestrial Providers Will Remain Fierce

5. Satellite Bandwidth Capacity Could Outpace Demand

6. Billionaire and Sovereign Investors Will Continue To Pressure Commercial Providers
space  trends  investing  AlixPartners  broadband  VC 
march 2018 by pierredv
SpaceX Indicates Satellite-Based Internet System Will Take Longer Than Anticipated - WSJ Feb 2018
“Acknowledging there are no final cost estimates or engineering designs yet for its proposed broadband constellation, spokesman John Taylor revealed substantial delays from initial project timelines. In a statement provided exclusively to The Wall Street Journal on Tuesday night, billionaire Elon Musk's company signaled that development of its high-profile satellite network has been significantly slower -- and seemingly more complex -- than many inside and outside SpaceX originally anticipated.”

“SpaceX said in Tuesday night's statement, "we still have considerable technical work ahead of us to design and deploy" some 4,400 similar satellites. The tentative goal of starting limited service by 2020 now appears unrealistic based on that language, but the company didn't provide an alternate schedule.”

“SpaceX engineers are still considering the most appropriate and cost-effective space and ground technologies to embrace, without firming up subcontractors or completing production plans.”

“… technical and financial details of anticipated ground equipment for subscribers -- considered critical elements in any such project -- are still undetermined.”
WSJ  SpaceX  broadband  satellite  NGSO  deployment 
february 2018 by pierredv
The evolving role of satellite networks in rural and remote broadband access - Papers - OECD iLibrary
David Reed's work

"Satellites serve as an important option to deliver broadband services to residences and businesses in rural and remote regions throughout the world. In OECD countries, the majority of people live in urban areas or at locations that are closely settled enough to use other broadband access technologies on a cost effective basis. Satellite technology, however, is deploying several significant innovations that result in improved services and may radically change the costs of providing satellite broadband. The purpose of this report is to describe these key recent developments based upon new and anticipated satellite broadband deployments, and discuss their implications for the future use of satellites to deliver broadband services to residential and business users. The report investigates how innovation is changing the role of satellites in extending broadband services to underserved areas in relation to other broadband options and important policy challenges to be considered in light of such innovation."
OECD  broadband  satellite  rural 
february 2018 by pierredv
Eutelsat's Belmer: Video Still Holds Key to Successful Future | Via Satellite - January / February 2018 -
VIA SATELLITE: What would you highlight is the single biggest competitive threat to Eutelsat’s business over the next few years?

Belmer: The biggest competitive threat to our business is the indirect pressure we are seeing from fiber deployment. In the past, we used to consider competition as something between rival satellite operators. But today, this is less and less the case as the strategies of major satellite operators are going in very different directions.
ViaSatellite  satellite  Eutelsat  fiber  broadband  interviews 
january 2018 by pierredv
Verizon CEO: 5G trials going ‘extremely well,’ with expectations to deliver 1 Gbps | FierceWireless, Jan 2018
Verizon last year conducted trials in 11 markets and expects to commercially launch a fixed wireless service in three to five markets this year; the only market to be announced so far is Sacramento, California. Verizon has estimated the market opportunity for initial 5G residential broadband services to be 30 million households nationwide.

“The trials are continuing to go extremely well for us,” McAdam said, noting that Verizon has more than 200 sites up and online. “We continue to learn every day,” managing distances of up to about 2,000 feet and peak throughputs of 10 gigabits, all of which are much better than expected using millimeter wave spectrum.
Verizon  FierceWireless  5G  fixed-wireless  broadband  mmWave 
january 2018 by pierredv
Line of Sight – What’s wrong with Gigabit wireless access? (Reality Check) Jan 2018
Via Dale Hatfield
"Spoiler Alert: Obstructions."

"Access-industry veterans have seen and participated in a variety of attempts at wireless fixed broadband access over the years, and they know several key challenges must be overcome for new wireless solutions to meet the real-world demands of gigabit access in the general copper-replacement case. Many of these challenges — spectral efficiency, interference management, continuous adaptation to changing conditions, uniform service delivery throughout coverage areas, and stable, deterministic performance — follow directly from the first and most prominent issue on the list: obstructions."

"Tarana’s Residential LoS Availability study took the industry’s first careful look at the fixed wireless access obstruction challenges in residential neighborhoods."
5G  broadband  RCRWireless  Tarana  propagation  opinion  mmWave 
january 2018 by pierredv
What is the Future for Mobile Network Operators? CircleID - Paul Budde, Jan 2018
"We have seen the fixed telecom operators slowly being pushed back into the infrastructure utility market.

"Mobile networks are moving in that same direction — that is, the largest part of their network will be a utility, with currently two, three or four mobile infrastructure providers per country and little economic sense for overbuilding the basic infrastructure, the industry is facing serious problems."

"So a convergence is taking place. Increasingly the backbone networks for the mobile operators will mimic the fixed ones, and there will be little room for duplication of these networks. So wireless will increasingly be a retail element rather than a basic network.

"These changes are already reflected in the evaluation of some of the mobile network operators (MNOs) and mobile tower operators. Those of the MNOs are going down while those of the tower operators are going up. This is a clear indication of where the financial market sees the market moving to."

" A holistic approach will be needed instead of one that is aimed at protecting a sharp divide between mobile and fixed networks."
CircleID  opinion  mobile  cellular  commerce  broadband 
january 2018 by pierredv
109 Microwave Towers Bring the Internet to Remote Alaska Villages - IEEE Spectrum Nov 2017
"With TERRA, Kotzebue residents now pay $59.99 per month for an Internet plan with download speeds of 3 Mb/s, which is not even fast enough to stream a high-definition movie. To be able to do that, they would need to pay at least $149.99 per month for 6 Mb/s. Compare that with New York City, where residents pay an average of $55 per month for 25 Mb/s."

"So was it worth $300 million to bring slightly better Internet to approximately 45,000 people in 84 rural villages spread out over an area roughly the size of Germany? "
broadband  infrastructure  Alaska  microwave 
december 2017 by pierredv
Kratos VP on the New Era of Ground Segment Technology - Via Satellite -
"The influx of High Throughput Satellites (HTS) is forcing ground segment companies to rethink how they architect their traditional systems. While these new high-powered assets on-orbit unlock a range of new capabilities, along with them comes an unfamiliar set of costs and challenges related to the infrastructure that supports them from the ground. In an interview with Via Satellite, Kratos Vice President of Advanced Technology Stuart Daughtridge detailed how infrastructure providers are adapting to support this new wave of HTS services."

“If you believe all the projections that they’re going to launch another 130 HTS over the next 10 years, and most of these satellites will have somewhere between 20 and 100 times frequency reuse, it’s easy to do the math and say there’s a whole lot of gateways and infrastructure that needs to be built,”

"For example, companies can ensure their gateway signal processing is as close as possible to end users so it’s easier to push traffic across their satellites. Or they can decouple antennas and processing facilities entirely, consolidating all relevant modems under one roof and feeding data to the geographically dispersed antennas via a LAN network."
ViaSatellite  Kratos  HTS  satellite  broadband  interviews 
november 2017 by pierredv
Facebook gaining operator traction with TIP, just not U.S. operators so much | FierceWireless Nov 2017
"Facebook is very pleased with the amount of interest that it’s seen from the operators in the Telecom Infra Project (TIP). In fact, it recently added some new board members from BT, Telefonica and Vodafone, joining existing board members from Deutsche Telekom, Nokia, Intel and Facebook.
In terms of the U.S. operators, however, they continue to be a no-show, at least for now. "

"Millimeter wave is in the mix as well. Facebook is continuing to work in the 60 GHz band, among others, and it has a 60 GHz test bed in San Jose. Terragraph is a 60 GHz system focused on bringing high-speed internet connectivity to dense urban areas; it implements a phase array antenna to retain the highly directional signal required for 60 GHz, but makes it steerable to communicate over a wide area."
FierceWireless  Facebook  broadband  mmWave 
november 2017 by pierredv
November/December 2017 - Inmarsat CEO and the $1 Billion Target | Via Satellite Nov 2017
"Can Inmarsat create a $1 billion dollar revenue stream in aviation? Inmarsat CEO Rupert Pearce is confident the company can do this in around 10 years’ time. It is an ambitious projection, but recent deals with the likes of Qatar Airways and Avianca underline there is still huge potential in this business for Inmarsat and others."

"But aviation is more than just In-Flight Connectivity (IFC) for Inmarsat. The company has three other aviation businesses — government, business and general aviation — and its safety business. What matters to Inmarsat in the medium term is free cash flow generation, meaning that gross margin, net profit margin and capital expenditure levels are vital to the trajectory of its business."

IOT: “The utility for satellite is that you can put connectivity through a very small device on your car or on your train and the applications are many and various. For trains, you are looking at next generation signaling, safety management and operation of the cargo. For cars, you are looking at Over-the-Air (OTA) updates to patch software and protect the vehicle,” he says. “You are also looking at a new era of telematics and treating cars as a large community that you can track and draw situational awareness from.”
ViaSatellite  aviation  broadband  Inmarsat  In-Flight-Connectivity  IFC  IoT 
november 2017 by pierredv
[pdf] Mobile Is Not an Adequate Substitute for Wireline, CTC for CWA, Oct 2017
via Dale Hatfield

"A report prepared by the engineers and analysts of CTC Technology & Energy with financial support from the Communications Workers of America"
mobile  cellular  5G  wireline  broadband 
november 2017 by pierredv
What is ‘stationarity’, and why does it matter? - martingeddes
"[stationarity] Technically it is the absence of change in the probability distribution of some random variable (in this case of packet loss and delay). You can think of it as being the ‘predictability’ of the network transport."
Martin-Geddes  statistics  stationarity  broadband 
november 2017 by pierredv
Stationarity is the new speed - Martin Geddes, Oct 2017
"The goal of this presentation is to share exemplars of important broadband Internet access performance phenomena. In particular, we highlight the critical role of stationarity. When they have non-stationarity, networks are useless for most applications. We show real-world examples of both stationarity and non-stationarity, and discuss the implications for broadband stakeholders. These phenomena are only visible when using state-of-the-art high-fidelity metrics and measures that capture instantaneous flow"
Slideshare  Martin-Geddes  broadband  statistics 
october 2017 by pierredv
Inmarsat On Track With EAN Roll-Out, Despite Challenges | Aviation Week Oct 2017
"Inmarsat still expects the European Aviation Network (EAN) to be operational by the end of the year, despite an attempt by rival satellite operators to block it. "

"Inmarsat and telecommunications company Deutsche Telekom are developing the broadband offering, which uses both satellite and Long-Term Evolution (LTE)-based ground networks to provide high-speed inflight internet over Europe. International Airlines Group (IAG) became the launch customer for the service in March, and has indicated plans to equip more than 300 of its airlines’ aircraft to use it."

"But two other satellite companies are asking regulators to stop the EAN roll-out, claiming Inmarsat is misusing its grant of 2GHz spectrum by primarily deploying an air-to-ground network.
California-based ViaSat filed a complaint against the European Commission (EC) in April, which Eutelsat joined in July. The two companies have a partnership to offer broadband services in the European market."
AviationWeek  Inmarsat  DeutscheTelekom  LTE  aviation  broadband  ViaSat  Eutelsat 
october 2017 by pierredv
Turning on Project Loon in Puerto Rico – The Team at X, Oct 2017
"Working with AT&T, Project Loon is now supporting basic communication and internet activities like sending text messages and accessing information online for some people with LTE enabled phones. This is the first time we have used our new machine learning powered algorithms to keep balloons clustered over Puerto Rico, so we’re still learning how best to do this. "

"Since our first sizable tests in New Zealand in 2013, Loon balloons have flown more than 26 million kms around the world. Thanks to improvements in balloon design and durability, many balloons stay airborne for more than 100 days, with our record breaking balloon staying aloft for 190 days."
Alphabet  Google  HAPS  ProjectLoon  broadband  AT&T 
october 2017 by pierredv
Google Fiber made Kansas City better but didn't transform it | The Kansas City Star, Sep 2017
via Phil Weiser
"By most accounts, the tech giant’s effort to provide widespread high-speed internet here and across the country has slowed to a crawl."

"But even Google Fiber’s most ardent fans would likely concede that high-speed internet has not fundamentally changed Kansas City, as some thought it would. It turns out medium-speed connections will get most people to the internet as quickly as they want."
Google  broadband 
september 2017 by pierredv
Technology Neutrality Essential to Enabling Competitive 5G Communications | Via Satellite, July/August 2017, Jennifer Manner
"Only through following the principle of technology neutrality whereby governments enable platforms, not technologies, to compete, will the future vision of 5G bringing wide-spread advanced communications services to all Americans, wherever they are located, be achieved."

"5G will consist of an ecosystem of communications platforms that will ensure the types of anytime, anywhere communications that users have come to expect. To realize this vision, 5G requires the inclusion of all communications platforms to meet the demands of United States consumers."

"The U.S. government must step away from adopting policies and regulations that focus on enabling a single communications platform to provide needed communications services. "

"While simply splitting spectrum into identically-sized pieces may not be appropriate, it is inappropriate for governments to pick technological winners to the detriment of other technologies. For example, as Congress frees up government spectrum, it must be available to platforms based on a technology neutral basis."

"In its recent [Spectrum Frontiers] decision, the FCC adopted a spectrum sharing regime to enable terrestrial 5G services to the detriment of satellite."
ViaSatellite  Jennifer-Manner  opinion  satellite  5G  broadband 
september 2017 by pierredv
Bridging the Digital Divide with a High Quality, Low-Cost, Timely Solution | Via Satellite, April 2017, Jennifer Manner
"Fiber is not the only solution to bridging the digital divide and providing broadband services at the FCC-defined broadband speed. In just a couple of months, Hughes Network Services will offer across the continental United States and parts of Alaska a new High Throughput Satellite (HTS) service that offers FCC broadband speeds"

"Even as demand across the country increases for broadband services, the cost of placing additional satellites into service is only a small percentage of the cost to build fiber out to the homes of the final 14 percent of Americans not covered today."
ViaSatellite  Jennifer-Manner  opinion  satellite  broadband 
september 2017 by pierredv
Satellite constellations could be poised to challenge the broadband industry - LA Times, Dec 2016
"Now, a new generation of satellite entrepreneurs is headed back to the launch pad. Backed by billions of dollars from deep-pocketed investors, they plan to blanket the earth in the next few years with perhaps thousands of miniature satellites beaming cheap, ubiquitous broadband service. What’s different? Launching one of these smaller satellites can cost a fraction of the price for a larger, school-bus-sized satellite. These new satellites will largely be mass-produced. And consumers now demand high-speed Internet connectivity pretty much everywhere, on airplanes, cruise ships and in the remotest village in Africa. "

"By 2022, OneWeb says it will connect every unconnected school to the Internet. Eventually, OneWeb plans a 700-satellite constellation. OneWeb’s satellite manufacturing facility in Exploration Park, Fla. is key to these plans."

"Hawthorne-based SpaceX plans to eventually launch more than 4,000 satellites for its network. Each satellite would be about 13 feet long and 6 feet wide, with 19-foot-long solar arrays."
satellite  broadband  LATimes  NewSapce  OneWeb  SpaceX  Boeing 
september 2017 by pierredv
Internet of Space Initiative (IoS) | IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society
"Today, approximately 60% (4.5B) of the world’s population cannot access the internet. Consequently, there has been a renaissance in interest and investment in space- and suborbital-based high-data-rate communications networks. These networks will have global impact on humanity by affordably delivering high bandwidth information to every part of the world. This area cuts across multiple hardware-oriented fields of interest including: aerospace systems; antennas; autonomous systems; communications; electronics; microwave/mm-wave technology; photonics; position, navigation and timing; power electronics, etc. MTT-S is currently leading an IEEE Future Directions Initiative incubation effort to develop a global community of interest for this emerging ecosystem."
IEEE  space  internet  broadband  satellite 
september 2017 by pierredv
Is the Internet of Space Technically and Economically Viable? Dec 2016
"Most everyone has heard of the Internet of Things (IoT), where connectivity to people and things comes from Earth-bound wired and wireless networks. But fewer technologists know about the evolving Internet of Space (IoS), where connectivity comes from space-based satellites and—in the near future—lower altitude airborne platforms based on drones and even balloons. This article will look at the controversy and challenges surrounding the IoS, from the phrase itself to the technical RF and microwave issues, the business model viability, and finally the competition with terrestrial 5G and LTE networks."
space  internet  broadband 
september 2017 by pierredv
New Dual-band Ku/Ka Terminal Enables In-flight Network Switching Across Commercial Ku- and Ka-band Satellite Networks | ViaSat
"In-flight network switching between commercial Ku- and Ka-band satellites has been successfully demonstrated by ViaSat Inc. (NASDAQ: VSAT), using its innovative dual-band terminal and a new radome. The test flights, conducted in July and August on a commercial 757-200 aircraft, demonstrated the state of the art in broadband enroute communications with the aircraft transitioning among multiple satellite beams from six satellites and three Ku- and Ka-band networks."

"Over the past year, ViaSat Exede® in-flight internet has enabled broadband satcom communications on 200 commercial aircraft operating over the ViaSat high-capacity Ka-band satellite network in North America. "
satellite  Ka-band  Ku-band  broadband  aviation  ViaSat  in-flight  press-release 
august 2017 by pierredv
Living Room Connectivity at 24,000 ft | Things With Wings, Aviation Week Jul 2017
"Inmarsat’s Ka-band broadband service, called GX Aviation, and Honeywell’s receiving equipment (the antenna and associated electronics), known as JetWave. "

"Inmarsat’s I-5 satellites, which provide the backbone for GX, have a theoretical maximum of 50 Mbps for each Ka-band receiver that hooks up. "

"On the crown of the aircraft is the Ka-band steerable antenna (see picture below - looking down from above, without the dome), which rotates 0-90 degrees around one axis and 360 degrees around the other, making it be able to point anywhere in the hemisphere above the aircraft. Mounted below the antenna and also under the dome are two receivers (allowing Honeywell to track two I-5 spot beams simultaneously in areas where the beams overlap, always staying connected) and a power amplifier with up-converter and down-converter. "
HTS  satellite  broadband  Inmarsat  Ka-band  AviationWeek 
july 2017 by pierredv
Verizon’s Straight Path acquisition target snarled in fight over 28, 39 GHz bands | FierceWireless, Jun 2017
"A group of satellite broadband companies, including Boeing, EchoStar and OneWeb, is disputing arguments that Straight Path asserted in May regarding how the FCC should treat the 28 and 37/39 GHz bands as it considers rules for millimeter wave bands."
5G  satellite  broadband  28GHz  39GHz  FierceWireless  StraightPath 
june 2017 by pierredv
Inmarsat’s Ka-Band Satcom Paradigm Shift | EBACE 2017 content from Aviation Week, May 2017
"Inmarsat’s Jet ConneX Ka-band satcom service is soaring, with this week’s announcements by Bombardier, Dassault and Embraer about equipping their aircraft with the high-speed satcom systems. Suddenly, L-Band and Ku-band hardware seem passé. Jet ConneX typically provides 15 Mbps download speeds for business aircraft, with others providing a mere 6 Mbps or even just 1."

"Inmarsat has three fifth-generation I-5 satcom satellites parked over Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean regions. Each provide 89 spot beams, providing global satcom coverage up to 82-deg. latitude. A fourth, recently launched I-5 is being positioned to boost capacity even further. Inmarsat plans to launch two additional Ka-band-capable satellites in the early 2020s to add even more capability."
AviationWeek  Inmarsat  HTS  satellite  aviation  broadband  Ka-band 
may 2017 by pierredv
Meet The World’s Most Advanced Telecom Satellite | Aviation Week Apr 2017
"ViaSat-1 was a technical marvel when it entered service over North America five years ago, with 10 times the capacity of any Ka-band satellite previously launched. But its beams filled up quickly. Boeing-built ViaSat-2, which was supposed to launch from Kourou on April 25, will have a throughput of 300 Gbps, offering more than double the capacity and seven times the coverage area of ViaSat-1."

"And as it prepares for the $600 million ViaSat-2 to come online later this year, the company already has embarked on an ambitious development of ViaSat-3, a family of three 1,000-Gbps satellites aimed at taking its network global by the early 2020s."
AviationWeek  ViaSat  satellites  broadband 
may 2017 by pierredv
Status overview | Down Detector
From About: "We like to see Downdetector as the weatherman for the digital world: we detect when technology fails. Just like the weather, service interruptions and outages can't be predicted, and just like a weatherman, we can tell you what is going on."
service  status  availability  internet  broadband 
march 2017 by pierredv
Verizon and Charter: the Trump era heralds a wave of European-style cable–mobile consolidation - AnalysysMason Jan 207
"Seeing every Verizon move through the teleology of 5G misses the point; US mobile is shrinking and Verizon needs to spread its bets."

"In pursuing a mobile-first strategy, Verizon has progressively shrunk its wireline footprint. In the early part of last decade, the company was a proponent of FTTP, but found the capex burden intolerable, and of its 22% wireline coverage, only 15% has FiOS (FTTP) availability, with the rest on low-grade ADSL. Charter acquired the larger Time Warner Cable and the smaller Bright House Networks in 2015."

"Analysys Mason's view is that the USA is waking up to the same realities that hit Europe a few years ago: a mobile-first strategy no longer makes any 'industrial' sense, and the survival of mobile-only operators into the 5G era is in question. Market structure (with a geographical fragmentation of fixed but not mobile) has shielded the USA from this, as it has in other markets with a similar asymmetric structure such as Finland and Russia. While 5G-readiness is something to aspire to, the rationale for any merger is, from Verizon's point of view, much more immediate and banal: mobile revenue will come under increasing pressure; broadband/video has more growth potential than mobile; and fixed–wireless may not work."

"Analysys Mason forecasts rises in consumer wireline revenue and a decline in mobile revenue between now and 2021 in the USA."

"We believe that Verizon's interest in cable is at least in part motivated by the realisation that mmWave fixed–wireless (pre-standards 5G) is not the best way to address the great indoors."
AnalysysMason  Verizon  Charter  *  broadband  cable  mobile  cellular  LTE  Vodafone  mmWave 
february 2017 by pierredv
I have found a secret tunnel that runs underneath the phone companies and emerges in paradise / Boing Boing Sep 2016
via John Helm
internet access deal:
"For $500, Calyx will send you a little wifi hotspot with a Sprint SIM in it that comes with a year's worth unlimited, anonymous, unshaped, unfiltered 4G/LTE bandwidth on Sprint's network."
Calyx  broadband  BoingBoing  internet-access 
november 2016 by pierredv
Satellites Remain Key Link in Evolving Hybrid Network Chain | 2016-08-15 | Microwave Journal
"Microwave Journal asked Intelsat, the company that launched Intelsat 1 in 1965 and now operates the world’s largest satellite services business, to describe their strategy for high bandwidth satellites."

"high throughput satellite (HTS) technology is entering the marketplace and will quickly dispel those constraints and see satellites serving as an integral part of the hybrid wireless networks of the future."

"For example, the Intelsat EpicNG platform will deliver 25 to 60 Gbps per satellite, 10× the throughput of traditional satellites, and operate at C-, Ku- and Ka-Bands."
satellite  Intelsat  broadband 
october 2016 by pierredv
Cuts at Google Fiber: No one switching, wireless and cable going to a gig -- Aug 2016
overbuild is hard
"Google's gigabit isn't worth switching for. Reported result: Cost per new customer blows out the economics. Fiber needs to win ?30% to 50% of the market. That's hard if the existing carriers aren't so bad."
Dave-Burstein  Google  fiber  overbuild  broadband 
september 2016 by pierredv
How to X-ray a telecoms network - martingeddes
"I’d like to share with you how my colleagues at Predictable Network Solutions Ltd practically go about obtaining a ‘network X-ray’. This process gathers uniquely detailed and powerful insight into network performance."
Martin-Geddes  broadband  measurement 
may 2016 by pierredv
ACMA releases mobile broadband spectrum paper :: Articles :: Critical Comms
"he ACMA has refreshed its strategy for addressing the growth in mobile broadband capacity in a discussion paper released on 10 September. Titled ‘Beyond 2020 — A spectrum management strategy to address the growth in mobile broadband capacity’ (‘Beyond 2020’), the paper seeks industry feedback on the ACMA’s medium- and longer-term planning approaches to address rising demand for mobile broadband services."
ACMA  mobile  broadband 
december 2015 by pierredv
Why do skyscrapers stand up (when networks fall down)?
There’s a good reason why we don’t sweat with fear when we walk under thousands of tons of metal and furniture held above our heads. Engineering of buildings is a very mature discipline. After all, we have millennia of experience at it. The materials we work with—concrete, steel, glass—have been around for a long time. . . . You can contrast this state of affairs with broadband performance engineering, which is very new and (in comparison) is an immature discipline. Many of the people who built the first packet networks are still alive and kicking. We have yet to have much turnover of generations to allow bad ideas to die off, and to get the fundamental science sorted out. As a result, broadband services often have poor cost or quality of experience outcomes, certainly in comparison to civil engineering. So why are they often more like comedy castles than soaring skyscrapers?
Martin-Geddes  networking  construction  architecture  broadband  metaphor 
september 2015 by pierredv
The Properties and Mathematics of Data Transport Quality
A Brief Introduction to ’Quality’ in Data Networks; its Interaction with End User Experience, its Conservation, Propagation, and how it can be Traded, Costed and Managed.
Martin-Geddes  broadband  QoS  slideshare 
june 2015 by pierredv
Ofcom | Mobile Broadband research
"Ofcom has today published its first research into consumers’ experience of mobile broadband in the UK since the 4G auction in 2013. The research measured the performance of 4G and 3G services on smartphones from the four main mobile operators - EE, O2, Three and Vodafone - in Birmingham, Edinburgh, Glasgow, London and Manchester. Helping to improve mobile coverage and quality of service are important objectives for Ofcom. Today’s report is intended to help consumers understand differences in performance between 3G and 4G..." "The research compared the performance of 4G and 3G services overall and highlighted variations between operators across four key measures: Download speed - the speed it takes to download data from the web. Upload speed - how long it takes to upload content such as pictures or videos. Web browsing speed - the time it takes to load a standard web page. Latency - the time it takes data to travel to a third-party server and back, which is important to reduce delays"
Ofcom  cellular  mobile  broadband  research 
november 2014 by pierredv
Is Copper the Future of Fibre? G.Fast and the Battle of Bandwidth | The ITU Blog
"In focus was the upcoming and innovative ITU-T standard and its potential, in unison with vectoring techniques, to inject new life into existing telephone wire infrastructure in the predominantly copper ‘last mile’ (between the exchange, where fibre ‘drops’, and the customer premises). Vectoring is a means to eliminate interference, known as ‘cross-talk’, between multiple wire pairs in a single copper cable (not dissimilar to the noise-cancellation technology used in headphones). It was standardized in 2010 as ITU-T G.993.5 and the impressive results seen with its deployment in the field sparked huge upward revisions in analysts’ forecasts of the life left in copper."
broadband  infrastructure  copper  fiber 
july 2014 by pierredv
Submarine cables in Sub-Saharan Africa: terrestrial networks need to keep up - Newsletter – Analysys Mason Quarterly - News | Analysys Mason
"Every country on the African continent apart from the Central African Republic, Eritrea and South Sudan has some form of fibre connectivity to one or more submarine cable landing stations and a large majority of countries have more than one national fibre network.1 However, many of these networks have been built by mobile operators for their own use, rather than for resale, while others are owned by national governments and utility companies that often lack the skills or the inclination to market them effectively to third-party ISPs and other commercial users. ... Only five countries (Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe) can be said to have effective competition among multiple players." "there is a 'chicken-and-egg' problem with low demand: because the cost of operating a long-distance fibre network is largely fixed, low demand tends to keep prices high, which in turn discourages take-up."
AnalysysMason  fiber  Africa  broadband  World  Bank  PPP 
may 2014 by pierredv
Three questions the "data tsunami" narrative - PolicyTracker blog, Toby Youell
"Mark Falcon, head of economic regulation at UK mobile operator Three, told the Telecoms Regulation Forum in London last week that he did not really believe predictions of exponential growth in demand for mobile data. Few others believe them either, he added. He argued that these projections do not take in to account the huge CAPEX that MNOs would need to bear in order to support such a dramatic growth in data; and that MNOs should given special regulatory support to mitigate against these costs."
Toby  Youell  PolicyTracker  data  tsunami  trends  broadband  wireless 
may 2014 by pierredv
Here's How The Comcast & Netflix Deal Is Structured, With Data & Numbers
"There’s been a lot of speculation involving the business and technical details surrounding the recent deal between Comcast and Netflix and plenty of wrong numbers and information being used. I thought it would be helpful to detail what’s really taking place behind the scenes, highlight some important publicly available data in the market, talk about the deal size, and debunk quite a few myths that people are spouting as facts."
Dan  Rayburn  Netflix  Comcast  broadband  netneutrality  peering  interconnection 
march 2014 by pierredv
Verizon Has Been Quietly Increasing FiOS Fees | DSLReports, ISP Information
"Already having jacked up their base FiOS prices for several years while simultaneously cutting back on the number of promotions offered users, Verizon's now deploying a wide variety of new fees to glean yet more money from FiOS customers. Discussions among our resident FiOS customers indicate that Verizon has started hitting customers with a $5 router rental fee, in addition to a new $50 activation surcharge for new users." "Usually you can just buy your own router, though users complain that a number of Verizon services are very difficult to get working without the Actiontec still in place. We've got a whole FAQ series explaining this to users looking to try. "
Verizon  FiOS  broadband  via  cybertelecom 
february 2014 by pierredv
Akamai: Average U.S. Broadband Speed Climbs to 9.8 Mbps - Telecompetitor Feb 2014
"The average U.S. broadband connection speed was nearly 10 Mbps (9.8 Mbps) in the third quarter of 2013, according to the latest Akamai State of the Internet Report. That’s an increase of 13 percent over the previous quarter when the average connection speed was 8.6 Mbps and a 31 percent increase over the same period a year earlier. The percentage of U.S. broadband users connecting at average speeds exceeding 10 Mbps saw even greater increases, rising to 34 percent — a 40 percent increase over the previous quarter and an 82 percent increase over the third quarter of 2012."
broadband  Akamai  via  cybertelecom 
february 2014 by pierredv
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