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pierredv : cancer   12

Is the FDA Too Conservative or Too Aggressive?: A Bayesian Decision Analysis of Clinical Trial Design, Aug 2015, Vahid Montazerhodjat & Andrew W. Lo
Via Tom Hazlett, Nov 2017

NBER Working Paper No. 21499
Issued in August 2015
NBER Program(s):Health Care, Health Economics

Implicit in the drug-approval process is a trade-off between Type I and Type II error. We explore the application of Bayesian decision analysis (BDA) to minimize the expected cost of drug approval, where relative costs are calibrated using U.S. Burden of Disease Study 2010 data. The results for conventional fixed-sample randomized clinical-trial designs suggest that for terminal illnesses with no existing therapies such as pancreatic cancer, the standard threshold of 2.5% is substantially more conservative than the BDA-optimal threshold of 27.9%. However, for relatively less deadly conditions such as prostate cancer, 2.5% is more risk-tolerant or aggressive than the BDA-optimal threshold of 1.2%. We compute BDA-optimal sizes for 25 of the most lethal diseases and show how a BDA-informed approval process can incorporate all stakeholders’ views in a systematic, transparent, internally consistent, and repeatable manner.
NBER  medicine  risk-assessment  probability  statistics  decision-making  Bayesian  research  healthcare  cancer  BDA  FDA 
december 2018 by pierredv
No, mobile phones still won't give you brain cancer | New Scientist Jul 2018
Examples of everyday activities that the WHO places in an even higher category of risk, of “probably carcinogenic”, include breathing in emissions from frying food, working as a hairdresser and doing night shifts.
cellular  health  cancer  NewScientist  WHO 
september 2018 by pierredv
I help repurpose everyday drugs like aspirin to fight cancer | New Scientist July 2016
Issue 3082

Interview with Pan Pantziarka about repurposed drugs used for cancer

"Clinicians and scientists often characterise older drugs like aspirin as “dirty” drugs because they hit multiple targets. We see this as an advantage. For example, the painkiller diclofenac helps to stop tumours growing their own blood vessels. Research suggests it also primes the body to respond better to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It does multiple jobs in one tablet."

"There’s evidence to show that aspirin is beneficial for colorectal cancer after diagnosis, and that it can reduce the recurrence of adenomas – benign tumours that are often a first step towards colorectal cancer – after they are surgically removed. Another example is the beta blocker propranolol, which has shown a positive effect when used before surgery in a number of cancers, including ovarian cancer. Cancer is aided by bodily systems that increase the proliferation of cells while also lowering immunity, but propranolol reverses these pro-tumour effects."
NewScientist  cancer  pharma  healthcare  medicine 
march 2017 by pierredv
Cell phones and rats: Study explores radiation exposure - May 2016
On Friday, it became clear again that the question about phones and health links will not go away any time soon. Dina Fine Maron in Scientific American relayed what actually happened on Friday:
"Federal scientists released partial findings Friday from a $25 million animal study that tested the possibility of links between cancer and chronic exposure to the type of radiation emitted from cell phones and wireless devices."
cancer  cellular  risk 
july 2016 by pierredv
Shunning the sun may be killing you in more ways than you think - New Scientist 13 June 2015
"It’s time to rethink our exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet rays. Their health benefits go way beyond vitamin D" Opinion piece by dermatologist Richard Weller
NewScientist  health  sunshine  cancer  skin-cancer  melanoma 
august 2015 by pierredv
Séralini Threatens Lawsuit In Wake Of Retraction Of Infamous GMO Cancer Rat Study - Forbes
As the Genetic Literacy Project reports, the GMO wars are escalateing after the discrediting of a central pillar of the anti-crop biotechnology movement and the stumbling by a prominent science journal. Gilles-Éric Séralini, author of the controversial rat study that claimed to show that genetically modified corn could lead to a high incidence of cancer, says he is contemplating suing the journal that published the study if it goes through with its stated plan to retract it. In a stunning development, the editor of the Food and Chemical Toxicology, A. Wallace Hayes, sent the French scientist a letter dated November 19 saying that the paper will be withdrawn if Séralini does not agree to do it voluntarily. In either case, evidence of the discredited paper will be expunged from the journal’s database."
GMO  science  cancer  method  ex 
december 2013 by pierredv
new strategy in the fight against cancer - Robert Gatenby - Nature podcast 28 May 2009
see interview with Robert Gatenby on new approach to cancer: metaphor of suppressing pests rather than completely curing a bacterial infection. The idea is that if you try to cure a cancer by completely removing it, you kill all but the drug-resistant cells, which then come back and kill the patient. If, on the other hand, you merely try to contain the size of the cancer, the majority of cells will keep the really bad drug-resistant ones in check. It’s counter-intuitive for cancer treatment – I wonder if the same conceptual struggle occurs in the security community as well
security  cancer  health  medicine  NatureJournal 
august 2009 by pierredv

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