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pierredv : chemistry   27

Need to make a molecule? Ask this AI for instructions - Nature Mar 2018
"Researchers have developed a ‘deep learning’ computer program that produces blueprints for the sequences of reactions needed to create small organic molecules, such as drug compounds. The pathways that the tool suggests look just as good on paper as those devised by human chemists."

"Segler and his team tested the pathways that the program threw up in a double-blind trial, to see whether experienced chemists could tell the AI’s synthesis pathways from those devised by humans. They showed 45 organic chemists from two institutes in China and Germany potential synthesis routes for nine molecules: one pathway suggested by the system, and another devised by humans. The chemists had no preference for which was best."

"Segler’s tool is different because it learns from the data alone and does not need humans to input rules for it to use."
AI  chemistry  NatureJournal 
march 2018 by pierredv
Inventor hero was a one-man environmental disaster | New Scientist
"From poisonous cars to the destruction of the ozone layer, Thomas Midgley almost single-handedly invented a global environmental crisis"

"Midgley came up with no fewer than 143 fuel additives to deal with knock. The initial front runner was ethyl alcohol [but he backed] tetraethyl lead (TEL), a compound first discovered in the 1850s and known to be highly poisonous. So why choose it? ... It was cheap ... And there was a key difference between the two: TEL was patentable."

"From the start, medical researchers warned that it could poison the nation."

Also found freon, the first CFC.

"As legacies go, environmental historian John McNeill offered one of the most chilling epitaphs: Midgley had “more impact on the atmosphere than any other single organism in Earth’s history”. Nothing to envy there."
innovation  invention  IPR  intellectual-property  history  people  regulation  chemistry  precautionary-principle  transportation  NewScientist 
october 2017 by pierredv
Gel-like ice is the lightest form of water ever discovered | New Scientist, Sep 2017
via John Helm

"The frosty cubes we pull from our freezers are just one of 17 possible types of ice, and an 18th type isn’t far from being made real. A team of researchers has now discovered a type of porous, lightweight “aeroice” – the aerogel of ice, if you will – that can tell us more about how water works under extreme conditions."
NewScientist  water  physics  chemistry 
september 2017 by pierredv
Elemental risk: Securing the raw stuff of modern life - environment - 11 February 2015 - Control - New Scientist
survey of elements used in modern stuff, and risks associated with scarcity Scientists at BGS British Geological Survey "compiled a risk list that pulls together many of these factors – amount and concentration of known reserves, substitutability, recyclability and good governance in producing and reserve-holding countries – to give a sense of which elements we would do well to rely on less"
NewScientist  recycling  elements  chemistry  metallurgy  rare-earths  scarcity  risk 
april 2015 by pierredv
Carbon, Avogadro's Constant and the Importance of the Number 12
"Materials scientists have decided to define, rather than measure, Avogadro’s constant, triggering a lengthy debate over what number to choose. Now one physicist thinks he has the answer."
arxiv  carbon  chemistry  MITtechnologyreview  physics 
may 2014 by pierredv
Air Freshener -
" Titanium dioxide particles serve as photo catalysts, and when struck by sunlight their electrons become supercharged and interact with oxygen and water molecules in the air. That interaction releases free radicals that break down organic material--dirt, in other words--on the panel's surface"
Alcoa  x:forbes  building  environment  architecture  titanium-dioxide  chemistry  materials 
may 2011 by pierredv
Principles of Chemical Science, Advanced Track | MIT Video Course
""This is an introductory chemistry course for students with an unusually strong background in chemistry. Knowledge of calculus is recommended. Emphasis is on basic principles of atomic and molecular electronic structure, thermodynamics, acid-base and redox equilibria, chemical kinetics, and catalysis. The course also covers applications of basic principles to problems in metal coordination chemistry, organic chemistry, and biological chemistry"
chemistry  lectures  video 
february 2011 by pierredv
The International Standard Bible - Refining
see references to silver, e.g. referring to purification
refining  chemistry 
september 2010 by pierredv
Rewriting Darwin: The new non-genetic inheritance - 09 July 2008 - New Scientist
epigenetic and RNAi "In people, too, there is evidence that environmental impacts on fathers and mothers can produce changes in their children. This has led some researchers to consider a startling possibility. Could the current epidemic of type II diabetes and obesity in developed countries be related to what our parents and our grandparents ate?" "As well as controlling DNA methylation and modifying histones, these RNAi molecules target messenger RNA - much longer strands that act as intermediaries between DNA sequences and the proteins they code for. By breaking mRNA down into small segments, the RNAi molecules ensure that a certain gene cannot be translated into its protein. In short, RNAi creates the epigenetic "marks" that control the activity of genes."
science  biology  chemistry  NewScientist  genetics 
january 2009 by pierredv
BW - Wake Up And Smell The Gum - Fuwarinka
gum you chew, then smell appears on the skin after a few hours
trends  chemistry 
november 2006 by pierredv

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