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Navigation War in Persian Gulf Hits the News | RNTF, Aug 2019
Blog Editor’s Note: Below are a warning published by the US Maritime Administration, and a press report that quotes an unnamed US defense official. Long time readers will discern that there is a bit of confusion in the two reports about what exactly is going on in terms of spoofing (GPS or just communications?), jamming, and so on. But there is certainly a lot happening.

It should be no surprise that Iran is jamming GPS and perhaps spoofing signals as they have clearly done that before and these are common, easily employed techniques in today’s low intensity warfare.

This kind of navigation warfare has been going on around the world and in the Persian Gulf for quite some time. The first public report was when Iran bragged about capturing a CIA drone operating in Afghanistan in 2011 by spoofing its GPS receiver.

A couple thoughts on the below reports:

The “AIS spoofing” discussed is not the same thing as spoofing GPS signals. AIS is identification equipment carried by a vessel that be programmed to report that the vessel is any type the user wishes. So an Iranian patrol boat can enter into its AIS that it is an British oil tanker, for example in the hopes of deceiving other vessels that don’t have it in sight.
A “US defense official” claims that Iran has been “jamming GPS signals” in the hopes ships will wander into their waters. That would not really be effective, and it wouldn’t make sense, since they clearly have the ability to spoof signals. This could make the ships sail, not wander, into their territorial seas. The folks we have spoken to haven’t seen any signs, yet, of spoofing, but we wouldn’t be surprised if they discover it eventually.
We are not sure about the US defense official’s credibility, though, as at the end of the CNN article “The official said the Iranian jammers have no effect on US military warships and aircraft.” – Yeah, right.
RNTF  GPS  cyber-spectrum  jamming  spoofing  navigation 
august 2019 by pierredv
Fooling LiDAR, the auto-drive failsafe | RNTF Jul 2019
"In the experiments researchers succeeded in creating undetectable targets, exposing vulnerabilities in LiDAR detection systems through an evolution-based black box algorithm."

"Last summer we saw a paper from researchers who spoofed all the GNSS constellations at once, and at the very modest price of $400. – If you are on a fixed income and $400 seems to be a lot, think about the tens of billions of dollars invested to produce GNSS signals.

The next month we saw a paper from researchers who decided that spoofing the signal might not be enough to mislead a vehicle driver. So they figured out how to also send a false map that looked like were the driver was, but, along with spoofed GNSS signals, would help misdirect the target vehicle. Just perfect for kidnapping, stealing cargo, or luring a driver into some other dangerous situation.

This summer we saw a paper from Regulus that reported on their ability to cause a Tesla in auto-drive mode to suddenly brake, accelerate, and exit the highway early and at the wrong point (we understand their co-worker in the car was scared silly). Thanks to the car’s LiDAR (a radar-like sensor), they were not able to direct the car off the road.

Below is a report on a paper that shows that LiDAR, which many are regarding as the automated driving fail-safe, can also be fooled."
RNTF  GPS  spoofing  lidar  navigation  cyber-spectrum 
july 2019 by pierredv
A $225 GPS spoofer can send sat-nav-guided vehicles into oncoming traffic * | Ars Technica Jul 2018
Paper at

"A new proof-of-concept attack demonstrates how hackers could inconspicuously steer a targeted automobile to the wrong destination or, worse, endanger passengers by sending them down the wrong way of a one-way road. The attack starts with a $225 piece of hardware that’s planted in or underneath the targeted vehicle that spoofs the radio signals used by civilian GPS services. It then uses algorithms to plot a fake “ghost route” that mimics the turn-by-turn navigation directions contained in the original route. Depending on the hackers’ ultimate motivations, the attack can be used to divert an emergency vehicle or a specific passenger to an unintended location or to follow an unsafe route. The attack works best in urban areas the driver doesn’t know well, and it assumes hackers have a general idea of the vehicle’s intended destination."

"While the proof-of-concept attack is attention-grabbing, a variety of things significantly limit its effectiveness in the real world. "
1) "physical spoofer be in close proximity to the navigation device"
2) " works best when attackers have a general idea of the targeted vehicle’s intended destination"
#) "attacks aren’t nearly as successful in rural or suburban areas or against people who are familiar with the area in which they’re traveling"
ArsTechnica  GPS  spoofing  cybersecurity  navigation  spectrum-vulnerability  cyber-spectrum 
july 2018 by pierredv
Some good news for GPS 3, but trouble looms - Dec 2017
"As 2017 winds down, the GPS 3 constellation finally has a string of victories for the Air Force to celebrate. The first satellite is on track for a 2018 launch. The digital navigation payload has been fixed after earlier setbacks, and units are in production. And the ground-control software is starting to recover from years of schedule delays.... But there’s also bad news. Government auditors have warned that the GPS 3 program increasingly is becoming harder to manage because of the complexity and scope of the upgrades required to military weapon systems to receive the encrypted signals. The satellites might be up and running by 2021 but it could take many more years to get the ground infrastructure and equipment terminals in synch with the new satellites."
SpaceNews  GPS  USAF  satellite  navigation 
january 2018 by pierredv
Ships fooled in GPS spoofing attack suggest Russian cyberweapon | New Scientist 19 Aug 2017
"[Todd] Humphreys thinks this is Russia experimenting with a new form of electronic warfare. Over the past year, GPS spoofing has been causing chaos for the receivers on phone apps in central Moscow to misbehave. "

" There have not yet been any authenticated reports of criminal spoofing, but it should not be difficult for criminals to use it to divert a driverless vehicle or drone delivery, or to hijack an autonomous ship. Spoofing will give everyone affected the same location, so a hijacker would just need a short-ranged system to affect one vehicle."
NewScientist  GPS  spoofing  Russia  navigation 
december 2017 by pierredv
Resolution 609 (Rev. WRC-07) Consultation meeting
via Alex Epshteyn

"The World Radiocommunication Conference, Geneva 2003 (WRC-03), adopted Resolution 609 (Rev. WRC-07), whereby Consultation Meetings between administrations operating or planning to operate systems in the aeronautical radionavigation service (ARNS) and systems in the radionavigation-satellite service (RNSS) in the 1 164-1 215 MHz frequency band, should be held on a regular basis to achieve the level of protection for ARNS systems foreseen in resolves 1 of that Resolution. For more information see CR/202."
ITU  ITU-R  RNSS  coordination  multi-stakeholder  ARNS  navigation  GPS  PNT  GNSS 
september 2017 by pierredv
[1610.06754] A Localization Approach for Crowdsourced Air Traffic Communication Networks
In this work, we argue that current state-of-the-art methods of aircraft localization such as multilateration are insufficient, in particular for modern crowdsourced air traffic networks with random, unplanned deployment geometry. We propose an alternative, a grid-based localization approach using the k-Nearest Neighbor algorithm, to deal with the identified shortcomings. Our proposal does not require any changes to the existing air traffic protocols and transmitters, and is easily implemented using only low-cost, commercial-off-the-shelf hardware.
Arxiv  crowdsourcing  aviation  navigation 
october 2016 by pierredv
Protecting GPS From Spoofers Is Critical to the Future of Navigation - IEEE Spectrum
"The drone demonstration starkly indicated GPS’s vulnerabilities, but we believe that other targets are far more worrisome. Cellphone towers, stock exchanges, and the power grid all rely at least partly on GPS for precise timing. A well-coordinated spoof could interrupt communications, confuse automated financial traders, and inflict crippling power outages. In a worst-case scenario, a spoofer’s operator could overtake airplanes or ships to induce a crash, facilitate a heist, or even kidnap a VIP."
"There are three main ways to protect against GPS spoofing: cryptography, signal-distortion detection, and direction-of-arrival sensing."
IEEE-Spectrum  spoofing  GPS  navigation  shipping  * 
july 2016 by pierredv
The firms who will beat Google to get us into self-driving cars - New Scientist Jan 2016
"The world's biggest car companies are now taking autonomous cars seriously – and that spells bad news for Google's hopes of leading the way"
"They plan to use the sensors on new car models to collectively gather mapping data, rather than having an expensive fleet of dedicated vehicles."
"It’s an unusual position for Google, whose power has always come from having more data than its competition. “When it comes to information about the physical world that we live in, Google doesn’t really have a presence,” says Rajkumar."
automation  NewScientist  mapping  navigation  Google  transportation  sensors 
march 2016 by pierredv
GPS Disruption Halts Ports, Endangers Ships – US Coast Guard « Resilient Navigation and Timing Foundation
"At a public meeting last month, US Coast Guard officials described how interference with GPS signals disrupted operations for seven hours at a major east coast port last year."
CoastGuard  GPS  jamming  navigation  shipping 
january 2016 by pierredv
US Coast Guard issues GPS jamming alert : GPS World
"The Coast Guard states that this past summer, multiple outbound vessels from a non-U.S. port suddenly lost GPS signal reception. The net effect was various alarms and a loss of GPS input to the ship’s surface search radar, gyro units and ECDIS, resulting in no GPS data for position fixing, radar over ground speed inputs, gyro speed input and loss of collision avoidance capabilities on the radar display."
GPS  jamming  GPSWorld  CoastGuard  navigation  shipping 
january 2016 by pierredv
Innovation: Enhanced Loran : GPS World Nov 2015
Detailed survey by a vendor of eLoran equipment, UrsaNav I was intrigued by the parameters used in the perf requirements (Table 1): accuracy, availability, integrity, continuity. It’s a neat measure of baseline performance one could use in risk analysis, e.g. for GPS. I was struck by the “0.999 to 0.9999” availability requirement for aviation. Four nines is an outage of an hour a year, which seems quite a lot.
GPS  GNSS  GPSWorld  navigation  eLoran  performance-requirements  baseline 
december 2015 by pierredv
Seeing stars again: Naval Academy reinstates celestial navigation - Capital Gazette - Oct 2015
Via Dale H "The threat of cyber warfare has led academy officials to reinstate instruction in celestial navigation, the ancient methods of steering a ship by the stars."
GPS  navigation  maritime  navy 
october 2015 by pierredv - Department of Transportation seeks comments on plans to implement eLoran
"The purpose of this notice is to seek comment from the public and industry regarding potential plans by the United States Government to implement an enhanced Long Range Navigation (eLoran) system as a complementary positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) capability to the Global Positioning System (GPS). The positioning, navigation, and timing performance of eLoran will vary widely depending on the number of transmitters and monitor sites for corrections that are implemented. The Department of Transportation seeks input on: (a) A brief description of your application(s) of positioning, navigation, and timing services; (b) the positioning, navigation, and/or timing performance required for a complementary PNT capability tosupport operations during a disruption of GPS that could last for longer than a day, (c) availability and coverage area required for a complementary PNT capability, (d) willingness to equip with an eLoran receiver to reduce or prevent operational and/or economic co"
regulations  DOT  rules  eLoran  positioning  navigation 
march 2015 by pierredv
Why Is America Dotted with Giant, Concrete Arrows? - CityLab
"These old air-mail beacons are visible all over the land (if you know where to look)."
aviation  mapping  navigation  US 
february 2015 by pierredv
SWATs, SWEATERs, and ANSWERs: Air Force gets serious about spectrum warfare
"First, the term "spectrum warfare" is evolving quickly well-understood mainstream usage, and second, spectrum warfare rapidly is taking its place as a top U.S. military priority. For the uninitiated, spectrum warfare is an umbrella term that comprises the hitherto separate military disciplines of electronic warfare, cyber warfare, optical warfare, and navigation warfare."
USAF  spectru-warfare  war  cyberwar  navigation  jamming  EW  electronic-warfare 
november 2014 by pierredv
Expert Advice: The Low Cost of Protecting America : GPS World
"The U.S. National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Advisory Board published a seminal white paper in 2010 on the topic, strongly recommending the establishment of an eLoran system." "A well-configured eLoran system can provide navigation accuracy to within 8 to 10 meters and timing accuracy to within 30 nanoseconds. This meets the needs of an estimated 95 percent of users in the United States." "There are also signs that the U.S. intelligence, cyber, and defense communities are becoming more and more concerned. North Korea’s repeated jamming of satellite navigation and timing signals has delivered a particularly powerful lesson. South Korea has reacted by committing to establishment of a robust eLoran system. The UK has established an eLoran system and is expanding it. Russia and China have retained their versions "
GPS  GPSWorld  eLoran  navigation  public  private  partnership  jamming  aviation  spoofing  NPEC  DHS  DoD  South  Korea 
february 2014 by pierredv
New Foundation Formed to Pursue eLoran as Backup for GPS | Inside GNSS Nov 2013
"A new nonprofit has been launched to push for repurposing the United States’ old C-Loran infrastructure to support a new, privately funded Enhanced Loran (eLoran) service as a backup to GPS. The Resilient Navigation and Timing Foundation (RNT Foundation), headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia, was formed to support the creation of an Enhanced Loran or eLoran service, possibly through a public private partnership to be funded by the system’s users. "
eLoran  navigation  GPS  InsideGNSS  RNT  Foundation 
november 2013 by pierredv
GPS jamming: Out of sight | The Economist July 2013
"EVERY day for up to ten minutes near the London Stock Exchange, someone blocks signals from the global positioning system (GPS) network of satellites. The most likely culprit ... is a delivery driver dodging his bosses’ attempts to track him." "In April South Korea announced plans for a network of 43 eLoran (enhanced long-range navigation) ground-based radio towers, based on technology first used in the second world war. It uses a far stronger signal than GPS, and should give pilots and ships’ captains a safer alternative by 2016. With Chinese and Russian help, South Korea hopes to expand coverage across the region. Britain’s General Lighthouse Authorities (GLA) are following suit with seven new eLoran stations. " "DARPA has an experimental “single-chip timing and inertial measurement unit” (TIMU). When finished, according to the project’s boss, Andrei Shkel, it will use tiny gyroscopes and accelerometers to track its position without using satellites or radio towers."
TIMU  eLoran  interference  jamming  GPS  DARPA  inertial  navigation  South  Korea 
august 2013 by pierredv
Indoor Location Highlighted at Famous Vehicle Research Center | GPS World July 2013
Via Jim Litton "The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) has contracted Locata to provide local, ground-based precision positioning signals for vehicle testing in a new $30-million expansion at the famous Vehicle Research Center, focused on vehicle automation testing. A novel indoor section of the expansion will allow replication of parking garages and urban canyons — where GPS will be largely masked — and will enable evaluation of technologies such as forward collision-avoidance systems in adverse conditions." "LocataNet, which will provide the VRC with high-precision positioning to enable rigorous, consistent and repeatable scientific evaluation of new vehicle crash avoidance systems." "ocata’s autonomous positioning technology uses terrestrial networks that function as a “local ground-based replica” of GPS-style positioning. Locata works with GPS, but can also operate independently when GPS is not robust or is completely unavailable."
IIHS  navigation  LocataNet  GPSWorld  Vehicle  Research  Center  (VRC)  GPS  Locata  positioning 
july 2013 by pierredv
GPS III explained: Everything you need to know about the next generation of GPS | Digital Trends
"$5.5 billion upgrade to GPS that should make it stronger, more accurate, and interoperable with other positioning systems worldwide." "The new GPS signals can’t be particularly effective until they’re available on at least 18 GPS satellites. Support for the L2C signal has been included in every Block IIR-M satellite that’s been launched since 2005: As of right now, L2C is supported by about 10 GPS satellites, and by 2016, that should be about two dozen. So L2C will get out the door first, improving GPS reception and accuracy. The first satellites with L5 signal capability were launched in 2010, and L5 is currently deployed for testing on two GPS satellites. Unfortunately, the GPS III rollout doesn’t have the L5 signal getting out to 24 satellites until about 2019. Finally, the L1C signal (which works with Galileo and other positioning systems) won’t start launching until 2013 with the GPS IIIA satellites. Current estimates put L1C on 24 GPS satellites around 2020 or 2021."
L2C  satellite  GPS  III  L1  navigation  GPS  L5 
july 2013 by pierredv
New positioning technology could compete with GPS - tech - 03 January 2013 - New Scientist
"A ground-based system that uses much stronger signals than GPS can pinpoint your location in cities and indoors" Per, it's a " ground-based local positioning system that provides positioning information which is indistinguishable from GPS to an appropriately configured receiver"
indoor  navigation  location  GPS 
april 2013 by pierredv
GPS and shipboard TV (DOC) - Steve Harding, The Digital Ship
"The US Coastguard has announced that shipboard terrestrial TV antennas (not satellite antennas) may interfere with GPS causing a position reading 600 feet inaccurate. This is of great concern, writes Steve Harding "
cellular  shipping  navigation  jamming  GPS  intermodulation  700MHz  TV 
april 2013 by pierredv
SCPNT — 2012 PNT Symposium
Stanford's 2012 PNT Challenges and Opportunities Symposium

Note Rich Lee presentation, #2
navigation  interference  GPS  conference  Stanford 
december 2012 by pierredv
About « Serendipitor
"Serendipitor is an alternative navigation app for the iPhone that helps you find something by looking for something else. The app combines directions generated by a routing service (in this case, the Google Maps API) with instructions for action and movement inspired by Fluxus, Vito Acconci, and Yoko Ono, among others. Enter an origin and a destination, and the app maps a route between the two. You can increase or decrease the complexity of this route, depending how much time you have to play with. As you navigate your route, suggestions for possible actions to take at a given location appear within step-by-step directions designed to introduce small slippages and minor displacements within an otherwise optimized and efficient route. You can take photos along the way and, upon reaching your destination, send an email sharing with friends your route and the steps you took."
NewScientist  geography  navigation  maps  psychogeography  serendipity  mapping  art 
november 2012 by pierredv
Ofcom | Authorisation regime for GNSS repeaters 1164-1215 MHz, 1215-1300 MHz &1559-1610 MHz - Mar 2012
This consultation sets out our proposals for a light licence regime to authorise the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) repeaters in the UK to operate in any of the following RNSS frequency bands 1164-1215 MHz, 1215-1300 MHz and 1559-1610 MHz.
GPS  navigation  GNSS  satellite  spectrum  ofcom 
march 2012 by pierredv
GPS jamming rife, could PARALYSE Blighty, say usual suspects • The Register
Rather a balanced and slightly jaded account of the doom-mongering regarding GPS jamming and spoofing "Technical experts are once again predicting imminent doom caused by interference with Global Positioning System (GPS) sat-nav receivers. A nationwide UK network of detectors has reportedly discovered widespread employment of GPS jammer devices, and calls are being made for a harsh crackdown on users of such devices."
GPS  navigation  jamming  spoofing  TheRegister 
february 2012 by pierredv
Straight Talk on Anti-Spoofing | GPS World Jan 2012
"Disruption created by intentional generation of fake GPS signals could have serious economic consequences. This article discusses how typical civil GPS receivers respond to an advanced civil GPS spoofing attack, and four techniques to counter such attacks: spread-spectrum security codes, navigation message authentication, dual-receiver correlation of military signals, and vestigial signal defense. Unfortunately, any kind of anti-spoofing, however necessary, is a tough sell." "Effective techniques exist to defend receivers against spoofing attacks. This article summarizes state-of-the-art anti-spoofing techniques and suggests a path forward to equip civil GPS receivers with these defenses. "
cybersecurity  GPS  hacking  navigation  GPSWorld  spoofing  jamming 
january 2012 by pierredv
Did Iran hijack the 'beast'? US experts cautious about bold claims. (Video) - Dec 2011
To hijack the lost US drone, Iran would have to have overcome major technical hurdles. None are impossible, but US experts question Iran's capabilities in such high-end cyberwarfare.
Iran  GPS  navigation  jamming  hacking  CSMonitor 
december 2011 by pierredv
Exclusive: Iran hijacked US drone, says Iranian engineer - Dec 2011
"Iran guided the CIA's "lost" stealth drone to an intact landing inside hostile territory by exploiting a navigational weakness long-known to the US military, according to an Iranian engineer now working on the captured drone's systems inside Iran."
navigation  GPS  jamming  warfare  cyberwar  CSMonitor 
december 2011 by pierredv
Federal agencies say LightSquared's operations interfere with GPS - FierceBroadbandWireless
"in a filing with the FCC, LightSquared proposed that its upper 10 MHz of downlink spectrum (1545-1515 MHz) closest to GPS frequencies not be under the FCC's jurisdiction but rather the PNT ExComm, an executive branch body that helps advise policy makers on issues around GPS. LightSquared previously said it intends to deploy its terrestrial network only on its lower 10 MHz of downlink spectrum (1526-1535 MHz) after tests earlier this year showed crippling interference to GPS receivers in the upper 10 MHz."
LightSquared  gps  aviation  interference  navigation  FierceWireless 
december 2011 by pierredv
GPS jamming: No jam tomorrow | The Economist
"Navigation: As the uses of satellite-positioning technology continue to grow, what can be done to stop deliberate and dangerous jamming of the signals?"
navigation  GPS  jamming  interference  TheEconomist  RF  Examples 
march 2011 by pierredv
Despite Jamming GPS System Ubiquitous Low Risk Interference News |
Article about (and to some extent debunking of) recent report by the U.K.’s Royal Academy of Engineering on the vulnerability of the GPS system
GPS  navigation  eLORAN 
march 2011 by pierredv
British Infrastructure’s over reliance on GPS needs to be reviewed: Report | Social Barrel Mar 2011
"A report by Royal Academy of Engineers has released a report reviewing the dangers associated with over reliance of UK’s national infrastructure on GPS. According to British engineers, dependence of services like freight movement to synchronization of computer networks has become wholly dependent on satellite navigation and that reliance is constantly growing that can lead to disastrous situation. So, the government needs to review its policies regarding GPS and take the necessary steps until it is not tool late."
GPS  navigation 
march 2011 by pierredv

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