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pierredv : placebo   10

You can train your body into thinking it’s had medicine | Mosaic Feb 2016
"Ader concluded that when the animals received saccharin and the drug together, they hadn’t just associated the sweet taste with feeling sick, they’d also learned the immunosuppression."
"Just like other learned associations, the phenomenon of conditioned immune responses makes evolutionary sense."
"The immune system and nervous system were thought to be completely independent, so Ader’s theory that the two networks communicate was seen as crazy"
"Manfred Schedlowski,... first set out to study conditioned immune responses for himself."
"David Felten, then a neuroscientist at the Indiana University School of Medicine, found what the critics said was missing – proof that the immune system and nervous system were linked. ... He found nerves connecting to blood vessels, for example, just as expected, but was flabbergasted to see them also running into immune organs such as the spleen and thymus."
"Felten moved to the University of Rochester to work with Ader and his colleague Nicholas Cohen, and the three are credited with founding the field known as psychoneuroimmunology, which is based on idea that the brain and immune system work together to protect us from illness."
"Schedlowski has shown that after being associated with CsA, the [famous green drink] reliably induces immunosuppression in healthy volunteers, creating on average 60–80 per cent of the effect of the drug"
"Key questions include pinning down the precise mechanism of conditioned immune responses, and working out why some individuals respond more strongly to conditioning than others. ... Another important area for future research is looking at which physiological responses – not just immune responses but among other systems too – can be conditioned. For example, Schedlowski hasn’t been able to condition the effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone, which is involved in the stress response. On the other hand, learned associations are known to be strong in pain and psychiatric disorders such as depression. It’s one reason why placebos are so effective in these conditions"
placebo  immunology  MosaicScience  psychoneuroimmunology 
may 2016 by pierredv
How Meditation, Placebos And Virtual Reality Help Power 'Mind Over Body' : Shots - Health News : NPR
Jo Marchant, about her book "Cure: A Journey into the Science of Mind Over Body"

"The researchers explained it as our brains only have a certain capacity for attention," Marchant says. "If you've got something that's really commanding your attention, there's less attention left over for experiencing the pain."
"... if you calm the breathing down, you're kind of forcing your body into a more relaxed state and you will then experience probably fewer negative thoughts as a result."
NPR  meditation  placebo  pain  books  ritual 
may 2016 by pierredv
Tap the placebo effect to unlock your body's healing powers - New Scientist 9 Mar 2016
"We now know that when a person is given a pill they’re told is a real medication, or any of a wide range of medical interventions, including surgery, their body creates a real physiological effect. In pain studies, placebos have been shown to dampen activity in the brain’s pain-processing areas and increase the production of the body’s own analgesic chemicals."
"One key to unlocking the body’s self-healing mechanisms seems to be the setting up of an expectation of improvement. And it works the other way too: if you think your drug has been replaced with a placebo, even a strong painkiller’s effects will be dulled."
“One theory concerns the expectations set by the intervention itself. “It’s not just the drug, it’s everything that surrounds the drug,” says Kaptchuk. Placebos are not inert substances: they are made of verbal suggestion, classical conditioning, and a lifetime’s associations learned about the cues of the medical ritual: the white coat, the office, the doctor’s manner."
NewScientist  placebo  psychology 
april 2016 by pierredv
I can tell you how to heal yourself with hypnosis - New Scientist interview, 9 March 2016
"We all hypnotise ourselves everyday but we don't always get it right, says Laurence Sugarman, who believes it can take healthcare to a new level"
“My colleagues and I propose that hypnosis is simply a skill set for influencing people. It involves facial expression, language, body movement, tone of voice, intensity, metaphor, understanding how people interpret and represent things.”
"Hypnosis is a medium for delivering placebo effects .... My definition of placebo is the use of conditioning, expectation, social relationships and narrative paradigm to change a person’s physiology in a way that they attribute to an external intervention."
"I may offend lots of people by saying that mindfulness meditation is an example of hypnosis"
NewScientist  hypnosis  placebo  psychology  meditation 
april 2016 by pierredv
Strong placebo response thwarts painkiller trials : Nature News & Comment
"Simply being in a US trial and receiving sham treatment now seems to relieve pain almost as effectively as many promising new drugs. Mogil thinks that as US trials get longer, larger and more expensive, they may be enhancing participants’ expectations of their effectiveness."
placebo  healthcare  NatureJournal 
october 2015 by pierredv
It hurts to be human: Why pain is fundamentally different for us - opinion - 11 May 2015 - Control - New Scientist
"Patrick Wall ... was the first person to suggest a functional view of pain – that it should be understood as a mixture of sensation and the motivation to make it stop, not sensation alone. . . placebo effect. His account explained how rituals or procedures offered by a doctor or shaman, regardless of the efficacy or even existence of an actual treatment, could reduce pain. . . Wall argued that one of its roles in humans is as a motivation to seek help from some trusted source. When that goal is satisfied, pain is relieved." - "There is much indirect evidence in support of this "pain of altruism". Take, for instance, the fact that certain types of pain are not associated with any physiological damage, and studies that show the presence of others can affect reported sensations of pain. Labour pain is another good example." - "I think that the pain of altruism may be connected to the concept of honest signalling in behavioural biology"
NewScientist  pain  placebo  neuroscience 
june 2015 by pierredv
Your own personal placebo: Genes reveal response to sugar pill - health - 13 April 2015 - New Scientist
Estimates put placebo responders at about a third - 4 weird things about the placebo effect: 1. It doesn't have to be a secret. 2. It works better if it's expensive. 3. It's not just us, animals can get it too. 4. It has an evil twin - the nocebo effect
NewScientist  placebo 
june 2015 by pierredv
Placebo Buttons « You Are Not So Smart
“The grim truth is that a significant percentage of the [elevator] close-door buttons in this world…don’t do anything at all.” "In many offices and cubicle farms, the thermostat on the wall isn’t connected to anything."
placebo  design 
august 2013 by pierredv
Placebos can work even when you know they're fakes - health - 23 December 2010 - New Scientist
In the latest study, Kaptchuk tested the effect of placebo versus no treatment in 80 people with irritable bowel syndrome. Twice a day, 37 people swallowed an inert pill could not be absorbed by the body. The researchers told participants that it could improve symptoms through the placebo effect. While 35 per cent of the patients who had not received any treatment reported an improvement, 59 per cent of the placebo group felt better. "The placebo was almost twice as effective as the control," says Kaptchuk. "That would be a great result if it was seen in a normal clinical trial of a drug."
placebo  research  medicine  NewScientist 
february 2012 by pierredv
Getting wise to the real power of placebos - opinion - 13 December 2010 - New Scientist
Irving Kirsch making the case for "active placebos", ones that have side effects of similar degree to the drugs being tested
pharma  placebo  healthcare  NewScientist 
december 2010 by pierredv

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