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OneWeb says regulatory concerns main reason it’s forgoing inter-satellite links - Jul 2018
"Among the major new privately financed satellite broadband constellations, OneWeb stands alone in not planning to feature inter-satellite links on its spacecraft.

Greg Wyler, OneWeb’s founder, told SpaceNews the reason his constellation of 900 or more low Earth orbit satellites won’t include inter-satellite links is because national regulators have expressed concerns about where traffic from their country will travel and where it will come back down to Earth. "

"Not everyone agrees with Wyler’s view. Erwin Hudson, vice president of Telesat LEO, said Telesat is prepared to address sovereignty concerns nations have on a case-by-case basis."

"Wyler said regulators are concerned about eavesdropping and manipulation of their country’s data. The “fundamental problem” with inter-satellite links, he said, is that once traffic goes up, “you have no idea whether it is being copied and sent to a secondary location.”"

"Wyler said regulators are concerned about eavesdropping and manipulation of their country’s data. The “fundamental problem” with inter-satellite links, he said, is that once traffic goes up, “you have no idea whether it is being copied and sent to a secondary location.”"
SpaceNews  OneWeb  Telesat  LeoSat  regulations  sovereignty 
july 2018 by pierredv
Legal Legacies: Milestones In Satellite History - From our Archive - Via Satellite -
Communications Satellite Act
Domestic Satellites - "Open Skies"
Earth Stations
Reduced Orbital Spacing
The Transponder Sales Decision
Separate (from Intelsat) Systems
Satellite Radio
ViaSatellite  history  satellite  regulations  FCC  Comsat  Echostar  Hughes  Intelsat 
june 2018 by pierredv
EU institutions reach agreement on Electronic Communications Code | PolicyTracker June 2018
"It adds that countries must allow the use of at least 1 GHz of the 26 GHz band, provided there is clear evidence of market demand and no significant constraints from existing users. The 32 GHz and the 40 GHz bands have also been identified as priority bands for 5G deployment.

The code says the EU welcomes increased cooperation among member states in spectrum management but underlines that spectrum usage varies across the Union and that flexibility for national governments must be preserved. For instance, the EECC proposes that the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC) will issue standardised declarations for service providers, but national regulatory authorities (NRAs) will continue to have the lead role in general authorisations. "

“Peer review should contribute to a better exchange of best practices between Member States and increase transparency… but it should not be a formal condition of national authorisation procedures,” the draft document says. The peer review of national spectrum assignments will be led by the European Commission’s advisory body the Radio Spectrum Policy Group (RSPG), not BEREC.

"The decision to increase spectrum licences to 20 years, short of the 25 years the industry wanted, aims to secure return on investment."
EU  PolicyTracker  Europe  spectrum  BEREC  regulations  mmwave  RSPG  licensing  spectrum-licensing 
june 2018 by pierredv
Consultation: Satellite filings cost recovery - Ofcom
"This consultation document provides our proposed charging approach to recovering the costs of our satellite filings work, and the charges that we propose to apply."
Ofcom  satellite  regulations  fees 
june 2018 by pierredv
Proposed Directive establishing the European Electronic Communications Code | Digital Single Market - Sep 2016
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing the European Electronic Communications Code (Recast) - COM(2016)590 and Annexes 1 to 11 - Impact Assessment - SWD(2016)303 - Executive Summary of the Impact Assessment - SWD(2016)304 - Evaluation and Executive Summary - SWD(2016)305

text at
EC  EuropeanCommission  regulations  Europe 
may 2018 by pierredv
47 CFR 25.261 - Sharing among NGSO FSS space stations. | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute
Absent coordination between two or more satellite systems, whenever the increase in system noise temperature of an earth station receiver, or a space station receiver for a satellite with on-board processing, of either system, ΔT/T, exceeds 6 percent due to interference from emissions originating in the other system in a commonly authorized frequency band, such frequency band will be divided among the affected satellite networks in accordance with the following procedure
FCC  satellite  interference  coordination  NGSO  regulations 
april 2018 by pierredv
Gorsuch Ruling On Immigration Case: A Blow Against The Administrative State - april 2018
Last week, one week after the first anniversary of Neil Gorsuch's ascension to the Supreme Court, he delivered an opinion that was excellent as it pertained to the case at issue and momentous in its implications pertaining to the institutional tangle known as the administrative state.

If he can persuade his fellow court conservatives to see why they were mistaken in disagreeing with him, and if he can persuade his liberal colleagues to follow the logic of their decision with which he concurred, the judiciary will begin restoring constitutional equilibrium. It will limit Congress' imprecise legislating that requires excessive unguided improvising by all those involved in seeing that the laws are "faithfully" executed.
opinion  George-Will  law  regulations 
april 2018 by pierredv
Head of FAA commercial space office to retire - Feb 2018
“In recent months, Nield has advocated for regulatory reform efforts to streamline the launch licensing process. Vice President Mike Pence, at the first National Space Council meeting in October, requested a 45-day review of the regulatory framework for commercial space. However, Nield said even before the Council meeting he was seeking ideas for reforms that could reduce the burden on AST [the FAA’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation] given growing commercial launch activity.”

He may have lost this argument with Commerce:

“Nield has also, in recent years, advocated that AST take on the role of overseeing “non-traditional” commercial space activities that are not currently under the jurisdiction of the FAA or other agencies, such as the Federal Communications Commission or, for remote sensing missions, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.”

AST: "oversees commercial launch activity in the United States and by American companies regardless of location, licensing launches and spaceports to protect the safety of the uninvolved public. AST also has a mandate to encourage, facilitate and promote the U.S. commercial launch industry."

"allowing a single launch license to be used for vehicles launching from multiple locations, were accepted by the Council at its most recent meeting Feb. 21 at the Kennedy Space Center"

"Nield has also, in recent years, advocated that AST take on the role of overseeing “non-traditional” commercial space activities that are not currently under the jurisdiction of the FAA or other agencies, ... needed to ensure the United States complies with provisions in Article 6 of the Outer Space Treaty that require “authorization and continuing supervision” of space activities. ... Nield said that AST was best suited to perform those roles, and that such oversight could be based on the payload review it already performs as part of the launch licensing process."
FAA  SpaceNews  regulations  reform  NSC  space 
february 2018 by pierredv
National Space Council Pushes for New Commercial Regulations - Via Satellite - Feb 2018
1. "under the new regulations the Department of Transportation would require a single license for all types of launch and re-entry vehicle operations. "

2. "the Department of Commerce would create a new role, an Under Secretary of Space Commerce, who would be responsible for all commercial space regulatory functions. This Secretary would work alongside the Secretaries of State and Defense, as well as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the NASA administrator to address new issues such as radio frequency spectrum surveys, rendezvous and proximity operations, and docking maneuvers."

3. "(NTIA) to coordinate with the FCC to “ensure protection and stewardship” of spectrum necessary for commercial space activities"

4. "the Executive Secretary of the National space Council will initiate a policy review of “the current export licensing regulations affecting commercial space activity.”"
NationalSpaceCouncil  space  commerce  regulations  ViaSatellite 
february 2018 by pierredv
White House report endorses FAA oversight of commercial space missions - May 2016
"The White House has endorsed a proposal where the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration would provide oversight of “non-traditional” commercial space activities, eliminating a policy barrier for proposed missions beyond Earth orbit.

In a report submitted to Congress last month by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the administration said a “mission authorization” regime, with a minimal degree of government oversight, would ensure the U.S. upholds its obligations under the Outer Space Treaty of 1967."

From Global Space Governance: An International Study, Ch. 5:

There is currently, as a generalized matter, tension being created in international space law due to the inability of the Legal Subcommittee of the UNCOPUOS, the Committee itself, and ultimately the United Nations, to successfully advance the basic principles of public international law as articulated in the space treaties in such way that is responsive to the demands and interests of space activities in the 21st century. As a result, we are seeing a proliferation of national laws that are endeavoring to implement nebulous and amorphous principles. As mentioned, this can often result in regulation that impedes and confuses space activity rather than facilitating it. National concern about international liability has often led to delay, uncertainty, and confusion. This can result in efforts to shop for States that provide the best provisions related to taxation, liability, and the licensing of launches that are not tied down by strict provisions related to orbital debris or environmental protections.

To rectify this problem, the United States has developed what it calls an "enhanced payload review," where the FAA, in conducting its normal payload review for a launch license, coordinates with other government agencies to vet pro- posed activities. The applicant, in turn, provides additional information and promises to update such information, thereby allowing authorization and continuous supervision. The FAA then issues a license if all of the concerned agencies deter- mine that it is appropriate under the circumstances. In 2016, this process was employed to issue a license to Moon Express for the launch of a commercial rover to the Moon.
SpaceNews  FAA  space  regulations 
february 2018 by pierredv
UN committee approves space sustainability guidelines -
"A United Nations committee reached agreement last week on nine guidelines intended to reduce the risk of collisions in space and other harmful space activities. . . The nine guidelines approved by the working group cover a range of issues, including improved registration of space objects and sharing of information about them, performing conjunction assessments for all objects that have the ability to control their trajectories, addressing risks associated with the uncontrolled reentry of space objects, and observing precautions when using lasers in outer space."

"The guidelines are the final product of a long-running working group on the long-term sustainability of space established by COPUOS in 2010 and chaired by Peter Martinez of South Africa. That effort, Kendall said, had its ups and downs."
SpaceNews  UN  COPUOS  space-debris  space  regulations  orbital-debris  guidelines  multi-stakeholder 
february 2018 by pierredv
Will supersonic air travel's return be another white elephant? | New Scientist - issue 3159, Jan 2018
" SpaceX said its BFR rocket – ostensibly for Mars and moon missions – could provide anywhere-on-Earth, city-to-city transport in under an hour. And Virgin Galactic, focused on suborbital tourist trips with its rocket plane, also has city-to-city travel on its radar. So a supersonic future is a done deal? One barrier to a spaceplane route is that the US may deem landing a rocket abroad as breaching a ban on exporting this technology."
NewScientist  aviation  space  regulations  SpaceX  VirginGalactic 
february 2018 by pierredv
Satellite entrepreneurs looking for sky-high revenues from internet services in space | Financial Post, Feb 2018
Jeff Foust: "Kepler Communications, a Toronto company planning a constellation of 50 small satellites to provide communications for Internet of Things applications, launched its first satellite last month on a Chinese rocket. As a Canadian company, it faces fewer restrictions on its choice of launch vehicles than U.S. companies, one Canadian entrepreneur noted, allowing it to take advantage of low-cost Chinese launches."

"Another contributor to fast iteration is launch availability. That’s an area in which Canadian companies have an advantage, Slifierz says. “Kepler benefits from being a Canadian company because there are a lot fewer restrictions on where we can launch vehicles from. They were able to use a Chinese rocket. That would not have been possible (if it were a U.S. company).”"
space  satellite  regulations  Kepler  Canada  cubesats  smallsats  China  launch 
february 2018 by pierredv
Planet sets deadline for Canadian ground station license - Feb 2018
"Stymied by extended regulatory delays, Planet is planning to remove a ground station it built in Canada if it does not receive a government license for it by June.

Speaking at the Canadian SmallSat Symposium here Feb. 13, Mike Safyan, senior director of launch and ground stations for the San Francisco-based company, said Planet was still waiting for the Global Affairs Canada (GAC) to decide on a remote sensing license the company needs to operate a ground station it has at Inuvik, Northwest Territories."

"Planet has been caught in an unusual regulatory situation. The company applied for, and received, a radiofrequency spectrum license from another ministry, Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. However, it also needed the remote sensing license from GAC even though the satellites that will use the ground station are already licensed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the United States."

"GAC has not been forthcoming regarding the reasons for the delay. “We’ve spent a lot of time with GAC, trying to get our application understood,” Safyan said. “The process is incredibly opaque. It’s very rare that we get any meaningful feedback from GAC.”

Planet highlighted the licensing problem last summer. “It’s been a series of no updates since then, and that’s been a real challenge for us,” he said in an interview after his presentation."
SpaceNews  Planet  EarthObservation  regulations  licensing  satellite  space  Canada 
february 2018 by pierredv
Gilmour Space Exec on Hybrid Fuel, Smallsat Competition - Via Satellite - Jan 2018
Although constellation operators are the company’s main focus, Gilmour said it is targeting a relatively small slice of market share, aiming at just one launch per month for the first few years. As such, Gilmour said he isn’t particularly anxious about the increasing competition from both established and NewSpace launch providers. “[I’m] not very worried about the old established players, as they have cost models that aren’t competitive for the small launch market,” he said. “Also not that concerned about Virgin or Rocket Lab, as I believe the market is large enough to support a number of small satellite launch companies for now. In fact, it would be very good for the whole smallsat industry to see the two companies launch successfully this year.”

"there are locations in Australia that could potentially be even more ideal for the company, as they would allow for launches to both polar and equatorial orbits, he said. Previously, this wasn’t an option — the stringent aerospace regulations in Australia made setting up a launch site unfeasible."
GilmourSpace  ViaSatellite  launch  Australia  regulations 
february 2018 by pierredv
“5G is our top priority this year”, says BEREC Chair at the ETNO-MLex Regulatory Summit 2018 - Jan 2018
Gungl outlined that the top priority for BEREC this year is 5G: “We have many topics to work on, but all designed to identify and eliminate hurdles to fast 5G deployment and if existing practices are adequate for 5G”.
BEREC  5G  regulations 
february 2018 by pierredv
Uber’s major pile-up with London’s regulators is no big surprise | New Scientist issue 3146, 7 Oct 2017
Obsessed with their technology’s disruptive potential, fast-moving outfits like Uber have long been on a collision course with regulation, says Paul Marks"

"Uber London disputes the decision [by TfL's that it is not going to renew Uber London’s private hire taxi operator’s licence] and says it will appeal. But instead of immediately talking to TfL about what it could do to get its licence back, its first move was characteristically brash: it organised a petition protesting the potential hit to its service and the threat to thousands of drivers’ jobs. However, the next day Uber’s global CEO was apologetic, committing the firm to change."
NewScientist  innovation  Uber  regulations 
december 2017 by pierredv
Military could have truly low-cost launch market in five years — if government puts in the effort, experts say - May 2017
he U.S. military could have access to a robust, competitive, low-cost launch market within five years with the proper investments, a group of experts said May 8 at an event hosted by the Air Force Association’s Mitchell Institute for Aerospace Studies.

“We’re at a unique moment in time that overlaps technology, policy, business, and national security,” said Lt. Col. Thomas Schilling, chief of the Commander’s Action Group at the Air Force’s Air University. “When launch is reduced to the point where it’s not a $5 billion program, you can really do some great things…Low-cost reusable launch systems offer the potential for us to do many of the same old missions much faster and at much more affordable price points.”

“Our entire system for licensing and regulating launch is set up for infrequent, expensive occasional launch, launches-per-month,” Miller said. “What we’re looking at is going to launches-per-week and eventually even launches-per-day. And it breaks everything in the regulatory structure.”
DoD  SpaceNews  USAF  NewSpace  launch  Pentagon  regulations  satellite 
november 2017 by pierredv
47 CFR 25.157 - Consideration of applications for NGSO-like satellite operation. | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute
"This section specifies the procedures for considering license applications for “NGSO-like” satellite operation, except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section."
FCC  regulations  satellite  rules  licensing  NGSO 
october 2017 by pierredv
47 CFR 2.102 - Assignment of frequencies. | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute
(f) The stations of a service shall use frequencies so separated from the limits of a band allocated to that service as not to cause harmful interference to allocated services in immediately adjoining frequency bands.
spectrum  harmful-interference  interference  regulations  FCC  47CFR  licensing 
october 2017 by pierredv
Radio Spectrum Allocation | Federal Communications Commission
Includes like to FCC Online Table, and Allocation History File
FCC  regulations  allocations  resources 
june 2017 by pierredv
EUR-Lex - 32014L0053 - EN - EUR-Lex - Radio Equipment Directive 2014/53/EU
Directive 2014/53/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of radio equipment and repealing Directive 1999/5/EC Text with EEA relevance
EU  EC  EuropeanUnion  regulations  Europe  spectrum 
january 2017 by pierredv
Fact Sheet – Small Unmanned Aircraft Regulations (Part 107)
The new rules for non-hobbyist small unmanned aircraft (UAS) operations – Part 107 of the Federal Aviation Regulations (PDF) – cover a broad spectrum of commercial uses for drones weighing less than 55 pounds. Here are the highlights of the new rule.
FAA  drones  UAS  rules  regulations 
august 2016 by pierredv
FAA Drone Rules Take Effect; Commercial Use of Drones Permitted with Certain Conditions | Global Policy Watch
"The Federal Aviation Administration’s (“FAA”) long-awaited rule on the commercial use of small unmanned aircraft systems (“UAS” or “drones”) took effect Monday, August 29, 2016, providing a comprehensive and generally applicable set of rules for anyone wishing to operate a small drone for commercial purposes."
FAA  drones  UAS  rules  regulations  Covington 
august 2016 by pierredv
FAA Announces Commercial Drone Rules - IEEE Spectrum
if you’re making money with your drone—by taking pictures or videos with it or whatever—and it weights less than 25 kg but more than 0.25 kg, these are the rules that with apply to you
IEEE-Spectrum  FAA  drones  rules  regulations  commerce 
july 2016 by pierredv - Department of Transportation seeks comments on plans to implement eLoran
"The purpose of this notice is to seek comment from the public and industry regarding potential plans by the United States Government to implement an enhanced Long Range Navigation (eLoran) system as a complementary positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) capability to the Global Positioning System (GPS). The positioning, navigation, and timing performance of eLoran will vary widely depending on the number of transmitters and monitor sites for corrections that are implemented. The Department of Transportation seeks input on: (a) A brief description of your application(s) of positioning, navigation, and timing services; (b) the positioning, navigation, and/or timing performance required for a complementary PNT capability tosupport operations during a disruption of GPS that could last for longer than a day, (c) availability and coverage area required for a complementary PNT capability, (d) willingness to equip with an eLoran receiver to reduce or prevent operational and/or economic co"
regulations  DOT  rules  eLoran  positioning  navigation 
march 2015 by pierredv
§ 2 Regulierung, Ziele und Grundsätze -- TKG - Einzelnorm
Via Andreas Achtzehn, Feb 2015 "regulation goals" for Bundesnetzagentur General term is in §2 (2), 1 and 2: "" "(2) Regulation goals are: 1. to protect the user, particularly the consumer interests with regard to telecommunications and protect the privacy of communications... 2. to ensure fair competition and foster sustainable competition-oriented markets ...". Also important: §2 (3), sentence 4 "[BNetzA aims at...] protection competition for the benefit of the consumers, and, where appropriate, support infrastructure-based competition." Spectrum regulation then picks up on this §52 (1) telling that frequency regulations is necessary for coexistence, and that principles defined in §2 are followed.
BNetzA  Germany  regulations 
february 2015 by pierredv
Installing Consumer-Owned Antennas and Satellite Dishes |
See also "In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) adopted rules for Over-the-Air-Reception Devices (“OTARD” rules). The OTARD rules protect a property owner or tenant’s right to install, maintain or use an antenna to receive video programming from direct broadcast satellites (DBS), broadband radio services (formerly referred to as multichannel multipoint distribution services or MMDS) and television broadcast stations (TVBS). However, there are exceptions to the OTARD rules, including provisions for safety and preservation of historic areas. The FCC later amended the OTARD rules to apply to rental property where the renter has exclusive use of an area, and to customer-end antennas that receive and transmit fixed wireless signals."
FCC  OTARD  rules  regulations 
may 2014 by pierredv
Kirkland Codes and Laws
For Animals in residential zones, see 115.20: 40 ft setback for goats
kirkland  regulations  chickens  goats  animals 
may 2014 by pierredv
FM and TV Propagation Curves Graphs - Sections 73.333, 73.525, and 73.699 |
"The table below contains graphical implementations of the FM and TV propagation curves graphs contained in Sections 73.333 and 73.699 of the FCC's rules. We include F(50,90) digital television service graphs, although these are not in the FCC's rules. Lastly, we provide Figures 1 and 2 from Section 73.599 of the interference ratio curves from FM noncommercial educational stations to TV Channel 6 stations. "
propagation  contours  TV  regulations  FCC 
october 2012 by pierredv

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