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pierredv : resilience   41

Controversy on Way Forward for GNSS Receiver Resilience - SAE Could Be Way Forward | RNTF
"But what does “Toughen” really mean? We at RNTF suggest that it includes a receiver being able to resist jamming, spoofing, adjacent band interference, and other disruptions, and accessing more than one signal source. While that’s a start on describing “toughened,” it’s not exactly procurement language. It doesn’t provide a lot of help for users who want to go out and select a toughened receiver and buy today."

"we support SAE Project SAE1013 “Guidelines for Resilient GNSS Receivers” and its companion effort SAE 1014 “Standard for Interfacing Resilient PNT Receivers.”"
RNTF  GPS  SAE  resilience 
june 2019 by pierredv
The impact intrapraneurs: How Swiss Re and Oxfam joined forces to help African farmers | Ethical Corporation, Oct 2017
"In this guest blog, Karen Deignan of Net-Works interviews Christina Ulardic of Swiss Re and Marjorie Brans, formerly of Oxfam America, to find out how they worked together to create the R4 Rural Resilience Initiative to tackle climate risk in Africa"

"The R4 Rural Resilience Initiative is a comprehensive risk-management initiative that helps smallholder farmers in Africa cope with the impacts of climate change. ...
R4 currently reaches over 40,000 farmers (about 200,000 people) in Ethiopia, Senegal, Malawi and Zambia through a combination of four risk-management strategies: improved resource-management through asset creation (risk reduction), insurance (risk transfer), livelihoods diversification and microcredit (prudent risk taking) and savings (risk reserves)."

"Swiss Re provided the insurance component, but there were other components designed to ensure farmers could grow their crops successfully, get access to micro-credit to buy more seeds, and build up some savings."
Oxfam  SwissRe  climate  resilience  interviews  climate-change  insurance  risk 
february 2019 by pierredv
Road Map: Building a More Resilient Internet | National Telecommunications and Information Administration
"... the Departments of Commerce and Homeland Security have developed a road map that charts a path forward, setting out steps to stop the cyber threat to our internet infrastructure."

"The road map is organized into five lines of effort -- Internet of Things, Enterprise, Internet Infrastructure, Technology Development and Transition, Awareness and Education – that include tasks aligned with the actions prescribed in the Botnet Report."
NTIA  cybersecurity  resilience  Internet  DHS  DoC 
december 2018 by pierredv
Communications Resiliency | Homeland Security
Technology is a critical tool for improving interoperability that should meet the needs of practitioners on the front lines and should address regional needs, existing infrastructure, cost versus benefits, and sustainability. The resources below provide examples of communications resiliency. Fo
DHS  resilience  cybersecurity  spectrum  Communications 
september 2018 by pierredv
Pentagon space posture: Don’t even try to mess with us - SpaceNews.com, Jan 2018
In space, the United States has to become so strong to make it obvious to adversaries that they would have “no benefit to be gained” from attacking U.S. systems, Mattis said.

"Mattis’ explanation for how to make space more resilient echoes the thinking of other military leaders who have called for the Pentagon to stop using large, expensive spacecraft and instead put up constellations of cheaper small satellites that can be replaced quickly if a conflict erupted and U.S. systems came under attack."

Preferably, said Mattis, conflicts in space should be resolved diplomatically. “We’ll come up with arms control agreements at some point, and we’ll start getting this under control.”

One of the central themes is that the United States faces formidable military competitors like China and Russia. “Our competitive edge in every domain of warfare — air, land, sea, space, and cyberspace — is eroding,” Mattis said in the speech.

The reality is that a strategy that is written without regard for resource constraints is just a “bunch of words on a page,” [defense budget analyst Todd Harrison, CSIS] said.
SpaceNews  space  defense  DoD  resilience  arms-control 
january 2018 by pierredv
U.S. GAO - Telecommunications: FCC Should Improve Monitoring of Industry Efforts to Strengthen Wireless Network Resiliency
What GAO Found: The number of wireless outages attributed to a physical incident—a natural disaster, accident, or other manmade event, such as vandalism—increased from 2009 to 2016, as reported to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). During this time, the number of outages substantially increased from 189 to 1,079 outages, with most of the increase occurring from 2009 to 2011.

What GAO Recommends: FCC should work with industry to develop specific performance measures for the Wireless Network Resiliency Cooperative Framework, monitor the framework's outcomes, and promote awareness of it. FCC agreed with the recommendations.
GAO  FCC  resilience  telecoms  cellular 
january 2018 by pierredv
In retrospect: Normal Accidents, Charles Perrow : Nature : Nature Research Sep 2011
Via Steven Bellovin
"As Japan strives to overcome the Fukushima nuclear disaster, Nick Pidgeon reflects on Charles Perrow's classic book about why complex technologies fail."

"It made the case for examining technological failures as the product of complex interacting systems, and highlighted organizational and management factors as the main causes of failures. Technological disasters could no longer be ascribed to isolated equipment malfunction, operator error or random acts of God."

"Perrow concluded that the failure at Three Mile Island was a consequence of the system's immense complexity. Such modern high-risk systems, he realized, were prone to failures however well they were managed. It was inevitable that they would eventually suffer what he termed a 'normal accident'. Therefore, he suggested, we might do better to contemplate a radical redesign or, if that was not possible, to abandon such technologies entirely. "

"Normal Accidents introduced two concepts: 'interactive complexity', meaning the number and degree of system interrelationships; and 'tight coupling', or the degree to which initial failures can concatenate rapidly to bring down other parts of the system."

"[Barry Turner's] theory differed crucially from Perrow's — it gave a more acute description of the organizational, management and communication failings that occur before an accident."

"The fundamental question, posed by influential political scientist Scott Sagan in his book The Limits of Safety (Princeton University Press, 1993), was: are normal accidents inevitable or can the combination of interactive complexity and tight coupling be safely managed?"
complexity  accidents  resilience  Charles-Perrow 
november 2017 by pierredv
Public Safety Advocate: Hurricane Aftermath | Andrew Seybold, All Things FirstNet, Oct 2017
via Dale Hatfield
"in the Harvey hurricane most cell sites stayed up and operational"
"in the Houston area are that most of the public safety land mobile radio and Harris County Band 14 LTE public safety broadband networks remained in operation and were heavily used during and after the storm"
Irma: "the seventh day we see only 437 sites of the 14,730 reporting still out of service"
"In areas such as the Puerto Rico it was simply not possible to pre-stage people and equipment because of dire warnings posted about Maria coming ashore as a Category 5 storm. "
"During the first days after the storm it was reported that most UHF and VHF public safety land mobile radio systems were up, or at least usable on a unit-to-unit or simplex basis"

"Houston faired pretty well with its Band 14 system (FirstNet)."
"Irma was worse. " (few details?)

"I think the lessons learned in Puerto Rico are to harden high-priority sites better and to add more battery and generator backup, but more than anything to have backup capabilities in the form of drones (UAVs), flying and stationary COWs, and satellite backhaul sooner than this time around."

"If FirstNet was up and running in Puerto Rico, would it have survived what Maria did to the island? To answer that question, you have to ask another question: Just how much money should be spent on ensuring a network is reliable even during a Maria? "
public-safety  Andrew-Seybold  resilience  FirstNet 
october 2017 by pierredv
"Graceful Degradation" and the Art of Redesigning the Flashlight | Spoon & Tamago
Via Pam Heath
"It has space for two AA batteries and two AAA batteries but it will work with any combination, even just one battery. It simply emits it different glow."
design  resilience  Japan  kaizen 
october 2017 by pierredv
ATIS Issues Report on GPS Vulnerability and Its Impact on Telecom
"Sept. 15, 2017 — ATIS today announced release of a major resource to help better understand and address a formidable telecommunications industry challenge: the vulnerabilities in the Global Positioning System (GPS). . . . GPS Vulnerability (ATIS-0900005) provides insight into the sources of the most common problems with GPS and their impacts."

"Known vulnerabilities to deliver GPS time to a system include environmental phenomena, malicious interference and spoofing, incidental interference, adjacent band interference, poor antenna installations, and rare but present GPS segment errors. GPS Vulnerability discusses techniques to address these vulnerabilities as well as alternatives to GPS timing, with the goal of mitigating GPS vulnerabilities for the timing receivers used in the critical infrastructure. Alternatives covered in the report include Navigational Message Authentication on modernized GPS civil signals, atomic clock time holdover, sync over fiber, eLoran, WWVB, terrestrial beacons and more."
ATIS  GPS  resilience  vulnerability 
september 2017 by pierredv
A huge solar flare temporarily knocked out GPS communications
On the morning of 6 September the sun let out two pretty sizeable burps of radiation. Both were considered X-class -- the strongest type of solar flare -- with one of them proving to be the most powerful since 2005. If a solar flare is directed at Earth, which these ones were, it can generate a radiation storm that interferes with radio and GPS signals. The biggest flare ever recorded, in 2003, was so strong it even knocked out NASA's solar measurement equipment. These recent belches weren't quite on par with that, but they were enough to jam high frequency radios and interfere with GPS systems for about an hour on the side of the Earth facing the sun
solar-storm  GPS  resilience 
september 2017 by pierredv
Public Safety Advocate: Public Safety Grade | Andrew Seybold All Things FirstNet, Sep 2017
via Dale

"What he did not say and what I hope to show in this week’s Advocate is that there are differences between public safety grade for Land Mobile Radio (LMR) sites and an LTE network. It is important for LMR communications professionals to understand these differences and not hold AT&T to public safety grade for every cell site in the network. The methodology for hardening an LTE network is different but effective and it is these differences that need to be understood."
public-safety  LTE  AT&T  NPSTC  Andrew-Seybold  resilience 
september 2017 by pierredv
Verizon’s Palmer: ‘Our network is an absolute beast,’ resilient in wake of hurricanes | FierceWireless, Sep 2017
Nicola Palmer, chief network officer at Verizon: “Our network is an absolute beast,” she said. “It is so resilient and so layered” that it can withstand an amazing amount of what Mother Nature can dish out. In Florida, 92% of sites reportedly were up line, she said, with reports out by the FCC. “I’m anxious to get down there and get my boots on.”  

"Palmer said the resiliency of Verizon’s network is all due to careful planning before disasters strike, and they plan every year. “You don’t make the calls on game day,” she said. It’s about things like architecture, the back-up power strategy, generator penetration and batteries. “We didn’t have a single switch location that lost connectivity or power” because of the architecture and forethought."
FierceWireless  resilience  cellular  Verizon 
september 2017 by pierredv
Double trouble: GNSS over-reliance and its costs : GPS World, June 2017
This month’s column deals with two troublesome topics: the U.S. government’s over-reliance on GPS, and the potential costs of GPS disruption toward which such a policy may be leading us.
GPSWorld  GPS  GNSS  risk-assessment  resilience 
july 2017 by pierredv
Error and attack tolerance of complex networks : Abstract : Nature
Nature 406, 378-382 (27 July 2000) | doi:10.1038/35019019; Received 14 February 2000; Accepted 7 June 2000

Error and attack tolerance of complex networks
Réka Albert, Hawoong Jeong and Albert-László Barabási

Here we demonstrate that error tolerance is not shared by all redundant systems: it is displayed only by a class of inhomogeneously wired networks, called scale-free networks, which include the World-Wide Web, the Internet, social networks and cells.
complexity  failure  resilience 
april 2017 by pierredv
Resilience and survivability in communication networks: Strategies, principles, and survey of disciplines
Computer Networks, Volume 54, Issue 8, 1 June 2010, Pages 1245–1265
James P.G. Sterbenz, David Hutchison, Egemen K. Çetinkaya, Abdul Jabbar, Justin P. Rohrer, Marcus Schöller, Paul Smith
http://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2010.03.005

See Fig. 2 for taxonomy of resilience disciplines

Abstract
The Internet has become essential to all aspects of modern life, and thus the consequences of network disruption have become increasingly severe. It is widely recognised that the Internet is not sufficiently resilient, survivable, and dependable, and that significant research, development, and engineering is necessary to improve the situation. This paper provides an architectural framework for resilience and survivability in communication networks and provides a survey of the disciplines that resilience encompasses, along with significant past failures of the network infrastructure. A resilience strategy is presented to defend against, detect, and remediate challenges, a set of principles for designing resilient networks is presented, and techniques are described to analyse network resilience.
resilience  networks  taxonomy  case-studies  communications  cybersecurity 
april 2017 by pierredv
Quantifying sustainability: Resilience, efficiency and the return of information theory, "Ecological Complexity" 2009
Abstract
Contemporary science is preoccupied with that which exists; it rarely accounts for what is missing. But often the key to a system's persistence lies with information concerning lacunae. Information theory (IT), predicated as it is on the indeterminacies of existence, constitutes a natural tool for quantifying the beneficial reserves that lacunae can afford a system in its response to disturbance. In the format of IT, unutilized reserve capacity is complementary to the effective performance of the system, and too little of either attribute can render a system unsustainable. The fundamental calculus of IT provides a uniform way to quantify both essential attributes – effective performance and reserve capacity – and results in a single metric that gauges system sustainability (robustness) in terms of the tradeoff allotment of each. Furthermore, the same mathematics allows one to identify the domain of robust balance as delimited to a “window of vitality” that circumscribes sustainable behavior in ecosystems. Sensitivity analysis on this robustness function with respect to each individual component process quantifies the value of that link “at the margin”, i.e., how much each unit of that process contributes to moving the system towards its most sustainable configuration. The analysis provides heretofore missing theoretical justification for efforts to preserve biodiversity whenever systems have become too streamlined and efficient. Similar considerations should apply as well to economic systems, where fostering diversity among economic processes and currencies appears warranted in the face of over-development.
resilience  efficiency  information-theory 
april 2017 by pierredv
Energy-efficiency versus resilience, Journal Photonic Network Communications 2015
"This article proposes to solve the trade-off between energy-efficiency and resilience with a focus on business mechanisms. Risk engineering is used as a foundation. Financial impact (penalty) quantification with various compensation policies is applied, and business-relevant risk measures are used during the risk assessment. Then, risk mitigation strategies are evaluated to select the appropriate risk response. The approach is presented in networks with energy profiles supporting a sleep mode. An effective heuristic is used to assign flows, and it is shown that the energy-efficiency performance is substantially independent of the recovery methods selected for risk mitigation. It is also demonstrated that backup resources can be switched off in the normal state without having a considerable impact from a financial viewpoint."
risk  efficiency  resilience 
april 2017 by pierredv
CERT Resilience Management Model: A Maturity Model for Managing Operational Resilience
CERT Resilience Management Model (CERT-RMM) is an innovative and transformative way to manage operational resilience in complex, risk-evolving environments. CERT-RMM distills years of research into best practices for managing the security and survivability of people, information, technology, and facilities. It integrates these best practices into a unified, capability-focused maturity model that encompasses security, business continuity, and IT operations. By using CERT-RMM, organizations can escape silo-driven approaches to managing operational risk and align to achieve strategic resilience management goals.
This book both introduces CERT-RMM and presents the model in its entirety. It begins with essential background for all professionals, whether they have previously used process improvement models or not. Next, it explains CERT-RMM's Generic Goals and Practices and discusses various approaches for using the model. Short essays by a number of contributors illustrate how CERT-RMM can be applied for different purposes or can be used to improve an existing program. Finally, the book provides a complete baseline understanding of all 26 process areas included in CERT-RMM.
This book will be valuable to anyone seeking to improve the mission assurance of high-value services, including leaders of large enterprise or organizational units, security or business continuity specialists, managers of large IT operations, and those using methodologies such as ISO 27000, COBIT, ITIL, or CMMI.
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CERT  cybersecurity  resilience 
march 2017 by pierredv
Moving Beyond Resilience to Prosilience - Summer Fowler, Feb 2017
Via Bruce Schneier
"I propose that we build operationally PROSILIENT organizations. If operational resilience, as we like to say, is risk management "all grown up," then prosilience is resilience with consciousness of environment, self-awareness, and the capacity to evolve. It is not about being able to operate through disruption, it is about anticipating disruption and adapting before it even occurs--a proactive version of resilience. Nascent prosilient capabilities include exercises (tabletop or technical) that simulate how organizations would respond to a scenario. The goal, however, is to automate, expand, and perform continuous exercises based on real-world indicators rather than on scenarios."
resilience  risk-management 
march 2017 by pierredv
Network resilience: a systematic approach - IEEE Xplore Document
Abstract:
The cost of failures within communication networks is significant and will only increase as their reach further extends into the way our society functions. Some aspects of network resilience, such as the application of fault-tolerant systems techniques to optical switching, have been studied and applied to great effect. However, networks - and the Internet in particular - are still vulnerable to malicious attacks, human mistakes such as misconfigurations, and a range of environmental challenges. We argue that this is, in part, due to a lack of a holistic view of the resilience problem, leading to inappropriate and difficult-to-manage solutions. In this article, we present a systematic approach to building resilient networked systems. We first study fundamental elements at the framework level such as metrics, policies, and information sensing mechanisms. Their understanding drives the design of a distributed multilevel architecture that lets the network defend itself against, detect, and dynamically respond to challenges. We then use a concrete case study to show how the framework and mechanisms we have developed can be applied to enhance resilience.

Published in: IEEE Communications Magazine ( Volume: 49, Issue: 7, July 2011 )
resilience  networking  networks 
february 2017 by pierredv
Resilience Metrics [pdf] April 2014, Argonne Nat'l Labs slide deck
slide deck by Dr. Julia Phillips and Angeli Tompkins
Infrastructure Assurance Center, Argonne National Lab
Prepared for
Quadrennial Energy Review Technical Workshop on Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure
April 28, 2014
Argonne  ANL  resilience  metrics  critical-infrastructure 
february 2017 by pierredv
Resilience Metrics — ENISA
"ENISA is working on the measurement frameworks and metrics for resilient networks and services. This belongs is under the broader umbrella of the of network resilience."

"In this area of activities ENISA launched in 2010 a study on Measurement Frameworks and Metrics for Resilient Networks and Services. The methodology included both a survey, a desktop research and further consultation through a Workshop. The overall work is also summarised in this video. "

"The European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) is a centre of expertise for cyber security in Europe. The Agency is located in Greece with its seat in Heraklion Crete and an operational office in Athens."
resilience  networking  networks  ENISA  metrics 
february 2017 by pierredv
Memo to: the next president - CSMonitor.com
Resilience quote:
“People want economic development to be a silver bullet, but it’s not. It’s like spinning plates,” says Beth Doughty, head of the Roanoke Regional Partnership, which markets the region to potential investors. “No one person or entity is responsible for all of the plates, but you do want them all spinning at the same time.”
cities  CSMonitor  resilience  urbanism 
january 2017 by pierredv
Critical Resilient Infrastructure Systems and Processes | NSF - National Science Foundation
"The goals of the Resilient Interdependent Infrastructure Processes and Systems (RIPS) solicitation are (1) to foster an interdisciplinary research community that discovers new knowledge for the design and operation of infrastructures as processes and services (2) to enhance the understanding and design of interdependent critical infrastructure systems (ICIs) and processes that provide essential goods and services despite disruptions and failures from any cause, natural, technological, or malicious, and (3) to create the knowledge for innovation in ICIs to advance society with new goods and services. "

"a primary objective is integrative predictive modeling that can use the data to validate the models and which can be integrated into decision making"
resilience  NSF 
november 2016 by pierredv
Resilience: A risk management approach | Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
"Resilience, a concept concerned fundamentally with how a system, community or individual can deal with disturbance, surprise and change, is framing current thinking about sustainable futures in an environment
of growing risk and uncertainty. This Background Note explores the concept of 'resilience' and investigates whether a common definition and understanding can be reached and whether resilience can be translated into a practical set of tools and approaches."
resilience  risk-management  ODI 
july 2016 by pierredv
Want a computer that never crashes? Don’t let bugs freak it out - New Scientist Dec 2015
"]Martin] Rinard [at MIT] has developed a technique called failure-oblivious computing, which aims to avoid programs crashing at all costs.

When a computer program crashes, it has usually encountered an error that it doesn’t know how to handle. In such situations, Rinard thinks the program should just do the easiest thing it can. This might not be the correct solution and might even cause the software to do something wrong, but the result is often better than a full-scale crash."
softwaredevelopment  resilience  bugs  NewScientist 
april 2016 by pierredv
ChemChina-Syngenta: Why This Round Of Ag-Chem Industry Consolidation Worries Me
via Phil Weiser "I am concerned that we may be on the verge of a major loss of knowledge and experience in the agricultural sector" due to layoffs as a result of mergers
resilience  agriculture  science  employment  antitrust 
february 2016 by pierredv
Two-thirds of PSAPs experienced outages last year, according to Stratus Technologies survey | PSAP content from Urgent Communications
"Public-safety answering points (PSAPs) strive to operate at all times, regardless of the challenging circumstances that surround them. But 70% of them experienced some sort of an outage during 2013, and 28% suffered downtime lasting more than an hour, according to a survey recently released by Stratus Technologies. These results were among the finding of a survey that gathered input from more than 900 public-safety professionals in North America, said Dave LeClair, senior director of strategy and for Stratus Technologies, which provides solutions designed to ensure operational continuity of communications for myriad organizations."
resilience  public-safety  PSAP  outage  urgentcomm 
february 2014 by pierredv
Scarcity and globalisation: A needier era | The Economist
As reported by The Economist, a report for the Brookings Institution on international politics in an age of want suggests that Governments should think more in terms of reducing risk and increasing resilience to shocks than about boosting sovereign power. This is analogous to advocating reducing risk and increasing resilience vs. boosting wealth creation in the economy. The reason given is that the new threats are networks (of states and non-state actors) and unintended consequences (of global flows of finance, technology and so on).
economics  environment  policy  complexity  resilience 
february 2010 by pierredv
Heat sends Southwest climate back in time | csmonitor.com
Includes survey of fire practice, resilience, and water: "Until around 1910, wildfires had burned through Southwestern eco­­systems about every five to 15 years locally, according to tree-ring records – apparently for millennia. Fires continually burned back encroaching juniper and pinyon trees, leaving only those trees mature and strong enough to withstand a burning understory. Absent the fires, young trees moved in unchecked. During the 20th century, areas that were once predominantly grassy ... became scrubby, erosion-prone pinyon-juniper forest." "Ecosystems are shaped by extremes of hot and cold, wet and dry. If those extremes are pushed even a little further away from the mean, the effect can be drastic, especially when relatively slow-growing trees are involved." "in Arizona in 2000, agriculture used four times as much water as everything else combined. But farming contributed less than 1 percent of the state’s GDP"
ecosystems  policy  fire  csmonitor  factoids  resilience 
january 2009 by pierredv
Buzz Holling’s Volvo Environment Prize video at Resilience Science
"Buzz Holling was recently in Stockholm to receive the 2008 Volvo Environment Prize. Volvo made a short video about Buzz"
people  complexity  policy  environment  resilience 
december 2008 by pierredv

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