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pierredv : space-debris   33

ESA spacecraft dodges potential collision with Starlink satellite - Sep 2019
"The European Space Agency said Sept. 2 it maneuvered one of its Earth science satellites to avoid a potential collision with a SpaceX Starlink satellite, the first time the agency said it’s had to maneuver to avoid a satellite associated with a broadband megaconstellation."

“The case just showed that, in the absence of traffic rules and communication protocols, collision avoidance has to rely on the pragmatism of the involved operators,” Krag said. “This is done today by exchange of emails. Such a process is not viable any longer with the increase of space traffic.”

"While ESA sounded worried about the close approach, others in the industry were nonplussed by the attention it received. "
SpaceNews  SpaceX  Starlink  ESA  space-debris  space-junk 
6 weeks ago by pierredv
Might Satellite Constellations Learn to Avoid Debris? Larry Press, May 2019
The ESA estimates that there have been over 500 break-ups, explosions, collisions, or anomalous events resulting in fragmentation and they estimate that there are 34,000 debris objects >10 cm, 900,000 from 1 to 10 cm and 128 million from 1 mm to 1 cm. NASA says there are there are more than 20,000 pieces of debris larger than a softball, 500,000 the size of a marble or larger many millions so small they can't be tracked. (watch: NASA's Animation Shows Massive Space Junk Around Earth)
CircleID  orbital-debris  space-junk  space-debris  SpaceX 
may 2019 by pierredv
Amazon lists more than 70 jobs for Project Kuiper satellite operation – GeekWire
"Boy, that escalated quickly: Just hours after GeekWire revealed that Amazon is planning a 3,236-satellite constellation to provide global broadband access, code-named Project Kuiper, the company posted scores of job openings for the new space venture."

"Meanwhile, the Secure World Foundation’s Brian Weeden voiced concern over Project Kuiper’s potential impact on orbital debris."
Virtually all of the 73 Kuiper-related jobs listed on Amazon’s website are in Bellevue, Wash. One exception is a Seattle opening for a senior corporate counsel specializing in international trade and export control.

The timing is notable given Amazon’s decision to relocate its worldwide operations team from Seattle to Bellevue — a decision that seems to signal that the tech giant is cooling on its hometown.
GeekWire  space  Amazon  satellite  Seattle  Bellevue  employment  space-debris  orbital-debris 
april 2019 by pierredv
We could find advanced aliens by looking for their space junk | New Scientist Mar 2018
"Technologically advanced aliens could be revealed by the space junk around their planets."

"Many satellites work best in geosynchronous orbits, where the satellite matches the planet’s rotation so it stays over the same general location on the surface. This is key for surveillance and telecommunications satellites. These orbits are all at about the same altitude – on Earth, around 35,800 kilometres up. So, geosynchronous satellites form a ring around the planet, known as the Clarke belt.

Socas-Navarro calculated that the opacity of Earth’s Clarke belt has increased exponentially over the past 15 years. He found that if this trend continues, it will be observable from nearby alien worlds around the year 2200."
orbital-debris  space-debris  space-junk  NewScientist  GEO 
september 2018 by pierredv
The Curious Case of the Rogue 'SpaceBee' Satellites - The Atlantic,May 2018
"The SpaceBee is a prototype satellite from Swarm Technologies, a start-up founded in 2016 and based in Los Altos, California. There is little publicly available information about Swarm. According to Mark Harris, the reporter at IEEE Spectrum who first broke the story about the satellites’ unauthorized launch, the company is in stealth mode"

"As of April, there are 589 nanosatellites in orbit—satellites with masses between one kilogram and 10 kilograms (2.2 pounds to 22 pounds), according to a comprehensive database run by Erik Kulu, a spacecraft systems engineer in Glasgow"

"Lockheed Martin is currently building a radar system that would allow the Space Surveillance Network to track smaller objects than is possible now. The program is expected to be finished by the end of this year. "
theAtlantic  satellite  Space  orbital-debris  space-debris  FCC  nanosatellites  cubesats 
may 2018 by pierredv
Avoiding Collisions in Outer Space - Yousaf Butt -The New York Times Mar 2019
"How much distance should separate these various constellations so that any collision in one doesn’t create havoc for those in higher or lower orbits? Currently, orbital slots in low Earth orbit are not assigned — you launch to wherever you like — but this laissez-faire attitude may soon need revisiting."

"If regulatory streamlining doesn’t happen soon, there’s a real danger that space start-ups may get fed up and decide to base their headquarters overseas."

"This concern underscores the importance of an international agreement on norms or a code of conduct. For instance, Gen. John Hyten, commander of the United States Strategic Command, has called for “international norms of behavior in space.” Norms can serve to highlight aggressive or abnormal behavior by adversaries and would be militarily useful."
NYTimes  opinion  Space  space-debris 
march 2018 by pierredv
Space situational awareness experts urge Russia to join orbital neighborhood watch - Mar 2018
"To prevent collisions in space, nations with advanced orbital monitoring abilities need to share data with each other. Russia, being skilled in space situational awareness (SSA), should be part of the global effort to protect the space environment, experts said March 15 at the Satellite 2018 conference here."

"Neither Roscosmos, nor Russia’s two largest satellite telecom operators, the Russian Satellite Communications Company and Gazprom Space Systems, are SDA members."
SpaceNews  SSA  orbital-debris  space-debris  SpaceSituationalAwareness  SWF  SDA  JSpOC 
march 2018 by pierredv
FCC Accuses Stealthy Startup of Launching Rogue Satellites - IEEE Spectrum Mar 2018
"Federal Communications Commission (FCC) had dismissed Swarm’s application for its experimental satellites a month earlier, on safety grounds."

"On Wednesday, the FCC sent Swarm a letter revoking its authorization for a follow-up mission with four more satellites, due to launch next month. A pending application for a large market trial of Swarm’s system with two Fortune 100 companies could also be in jeopardy."

"An unauthorized launch would also call into question the ability of secondary satellite ‘ride-share’ companies and foreign launch providers to comply with U.S. space regulations."

"Swarm would provide solar-powered gateways that would collect data from nearby IoT devices using Bluetooth, LoRa, or Wi-Fi, then beam them up to an orbiting SpaceBee using VHF radio. When the SpaceBee passed over a ground station that was connected to the Internet, it would beam the data down again, and on to its end user."
FCC  enforcement  satellite  IoT  launch  space-debris 
march 2018 by pierredv
The FCC says a space startup launched four tiny satellites into orbit without permission - The Verge Mar 2018
Even though both the FCC and FAA can consider space debris during the licensing process, the two agencies do not have full authority over what companies do in space. “At the moment no US entity has oversight over on-orbit activities,” says Weeden. “It’s all done pre-launch licensing.” In fact, this is a good illustration of a strange regulatory gap that’s plagued the space industry: there’s no framework in place for how the government will oversee ambitious commercial missions in orbit.
FCC  FAA  space  Brian-Weeden  orbital-debris  space-debris  TheVerge 
march 2018 by pierredv
UN committee approves space sustainability guidelines -
"A United Nations committee reached agreement last week on nine guidelines intended to reduce the risk of collisions in space and other harmful space activities. . . The nine guidelines approved by the working group cover a range of issues, including improved registration of space objects and sharing of information about them, performing conjunction assessments for all objects that have the ability to control their trajectories, addressing risks associated with the uncontrolled reentry of space objects, and observing precautions when using lasers in outer space."

"The guidelines are the final product of a long-running working group on the long-term sustainability of space established by COPUOS in 2010 and chaired by Peter Martinez of South Africa. That effort, Kendall said, had its ups and downs."
SpaceNews  UN  COPUOS  space-debris  space  regulations  orbital-debris  guidelines  multi-stakeholder 
february 2018 by pierredv
Trump administration continues support of outer space norms of behavior -
A former Obama administration official is optimistic that the Trump administration will continue to pursue the development of non-binding international agreements to promote norms of behavior in outer space.

... Frank Rose, ..., said he was encouraged by statements by administration officials calling for continued development of such agreements on issues like orbital debris and proximity operations.

Rose cited a Dec. 13 speech at a space law conference where Pace said the administration “seeks to develop non-binding international norms that are complementary to the existing legal regime through both ‘bottom-up’ best practices developed cooperatively with other space actors, and ‘top-down’ non-legally binding confidence-building measures.”

Pace, in his December speech, suggested issues like proximity operations and the implications of large constellations of small satellites might be best addressed through guidelines that are not legally binding.

Rose added, though, that the United States needs to first determine its own position on some issues, in particular satellite servicing and debris removal, before it seeks to establish international norms.
space  SpaceNews  space-debris  norms 
february 2018 by pierredv
[pdf] Satellite vulnerability to space debris risk - Denis Bensoussan, World Space Risk Forum 2012
Average current risk of collision at GEO is 1 every 135 years

LEO: Probability that any given satellite at 800-900km will be hit by debris larger than 1 cm approaching 3% over 5 to 10 year lifetime (est. NASA) (Failure risk due to debris impact remains a substantially lower
probability than risks of launcher or satellite mechanical failure)
satellite  space  space-debris  risk-assessment  GEO  LEO  insurance 
january 2018 by pierredv
10 Satellite Stocks for Your NewSpace Portfolio - Nanalyze Jan 2018
"A U.K research firm called Pixalytics put out an interesting article late last year which talks about the number of working satellites orbiting the earth (1,738), a number that is dwarfed by the number of satellites in space that are not working (2,897). Imagine trying to collect all those broken satellites that are screaming around our planet at 17,500 miles an hour. Better just to forget about all that space rubbish for now and launch a isht load more of them, which is exactly what’s happening. By November of 2017, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) had recorded 357 objects launched into space in 2017 which is almost 50% more than have ever previously occurred in a single year. "

We present you with our list of 10 satellite stocks involved in various aspects of satellite production, operation, and services.
= Maxar
= Intelsat
= Eutelsat
= Viasat
= Inmarsat
= GomSpace
= Iridium
= Loral
Nanalyze  NewSpace  investing  space  space-debris 
january 2018 by pierredv
US space policy, organizational incentives, and orbital debris removal (page 2) - The Space Review
Page 2: The economics of space debris, revisited

"The situation is made even more challenging with the existing legal obstacles to ADR. Under the current international legal framework, there is no distinction between a functional satellite and a piece of space debris: all are equally considered to be merely “space objects.” "

"While the DOD has recently shifted a significant amount of money to deal with space threats, the vast majority of it appears to be directed at counterspace threats and not dealing with space debris. "
SpaceReview  space  space-debris  policy  Brian-Weeden  orbital-debris  satellite  STM  space-traffic-management 
december 2017 by pierredv
US space policy, organizational incentives, and orbital debris removal (page 1) The Space Review: Oct 2017
"Our use of space has grown, which in turn has increased the amount of human-generated space debris we have left in orbit. The growing congestion of critical orbital regions, such as the 700-to-900-kilometer region in low Earth orbit (LEO) and the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) region 36,000 kilometers above the equator, poses significant challenges for humanity’s ability to derive benefits from space over the long term."

"This article attempts to explain why the US government has only taken small steps toward implementing the ADR policy."

"However, the Obama Administration was unable to go beyond the DOD’s efforts and create a more holistic space traffic management (STM) effort with civil agencies. Shortly after issuing the 2010 policy, the Obama Administration convened an interagency group to develop recommendations for STM, and specifically to shift authority for SSA data sharing and providing close approach warnings from the DOD to a civil agency. However, after several years of discussions, no decisions were reached, mainly due to national security concerns, debates over which civil agency would be the best choice, and how it would coordinate with the other agencies that have oversight authorities over private sector space activities. "

"In addition, there is evidence that Russia has reactivated some of its own ASAT programs that were left fallow after the end of the Cold War, and may have used counterspace jamming capabilities in its military intervention in Ukraine. As a result, the DOD has focused a significant amount of attention to addressing the potential threat from the counterspace capabilities of potential adversaries, and less on space debris. "

From comments - weedenbc: "The average collision risk for a satellite in the 700-900 km region is a few percent per year. "
SpaceReview  space-debris  orbital-debris  satellite  Brian-Weeden  space  STM  space-traffic-management 
december 2017 by pierredv
SoftBank to Invest Around $500 Million More in OneWeb Satellite-Internet Venture - WSJ Dec 2017
"Work on OneWeb’s previously announced initial fleet of more than 700 small, low-altitude satellites is “generally on schedule” for launches beginning next year, starting to market service over Alaska in 2019 and expanding virtually around the globe by the end of 2020, according to Mr. Wyler. During a weekend interview, he also said deployment of roughly 900 second-generation, higher-orbiting satellites by the mid-2020s—intended to create the first such large-scale, hybrid constellation on orbit—is projected to increase speeds roughly fivefold to 2.5 gigabits per second."

"... Mr. Wyler’s project has final approval from the Federal Communications Commission to turn on domestic service within two years, barring major technical or manufacturing problems. The approval also is contingent on other conditions.

According to Mr. Wyler, his team also is “trying to lead the charge” in reducing orbital debris stemming from potential satellite collisions or failures. OneWeb’s satellites, weighing hundreds of pounds and expected to cost less than $1 million apiece, are designed to be “as high or higher in quality and reliability” than much larger models costing $150 million or more, he said"

"SoftBank, which has a 40% stake in OneWeb based on a prior investment, ..."
WSJ  OneWeb  SoftBank  investing  space-debris 
december 2017 by pierredv
LEOLABS - "Space Debris Mapping Services to Enable the LEO Economy"
Via Brandt Pasco

"LeoLabs' builds and operates phased array radars. This technology was developed at Silicon Valley's leading R&D organization, SRI International. LeoLabs is building a responsive tracking service for Space 2.0."
space  space-debris  mapping  phased-array-antennas  antennas 
november 2017 by pierredv
FCC grants Telesat LEO market access despite ViaSat protests -
"Following market approval given to OneWeb in June, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission on Nov. 3 granted global fleet operator Telesat permission to reach the U.S. with a constellation of 117 low-Earth orbit satellites.
Competitor and partner ViaSat of Carlsbad, California, which operates geostationary satellites and is awaiting FCC approval for a medium-Earth orbit system, had urged the FCC to deny Telesat’s filing, but was largely rebuffed."

"The FCC also granted Space Norway market access Nov. 3 to reach the U.S. with two satellites in non-geostationary elliptical orbits. Both Telesat and ViaSat sought to block Space Norway."

"Telesat plans to select a manufacturer for its constellation next year, and start launching in 2020, leading up to activation in 2021. The full constellation will support broadband communications with several terabits of total capacity."

"The FCC did include conditions on Telesat, such as a need to clarify space debris mitigation as the constellation progresses. . . . OneWeb and Spire both took up space situational awareness issues about Telesat LEO with the FCC. "
SpaceNews  Telesat  ViaSat  OneWeb  Ka-band  satellite  FCC  SpaceNorway  space-debris  Spire 
november 2017 by pierredv
ViaSat, Intelsat, OneWeb cite access to spectrum as big concern | FierceWireless Oct 2017
"Asked about the major factors affecting investment in next-generation satellite technology, several leading satellite players said access to spectrum is the No. 1 issue. Executives from ViaSat, Intelsat and OneWeb testified Wednesday during a U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation hearing"

"Another related area: unlicensed spectrum. The business model changes dramatically when unlicensed spectrum is made available. In Africa, ViaSat needs to go through cellular operators to provide service, but the cell equipment costs thousands of dollars. In Mexico, it’s able to go directly with its own satellites and put in a Wi-Fi hotspot for $1,000, so seeing regulations to support those kinds of models would be very helpful, Dankberg said."

"As more satellites are launched, the potential for collisions rises, and OneWeb’s Wyler stressed that a more formal process needs to be created to prevent catastrophe in space."
FierceWireless  ViaSat  Intelsat  OneWeb  SpaceX  satellite  unlicensed  Wi-Fi  space-debris 
november 2017 by pierredv
Russian Satellite Maneuvers, Silence Worry Intelsat - Oct 2015
A mysterious Russian military satellite parked itself between two Intelsat satellites in geosynchronous orbit for five months this year, alarming company executives and leading to classified meetings among U.S. government officials.
SpaceNews  Intelsat  satellites  collision  space-debris  Russia 
october 2017 by pierredv
"There are a couple of reasons why commercial smallsat operators should be concerned: Firstly, nano- and microsatellites are generally less agile in orbit ... Secondly, these small satellites are especially likely to become space debris, due to the unprecedented volume of units in orbit"

"Entrepreneurial space companies are stepping in to offer novel solutions to this pressing problem."

"... industry leaders proposed a “bottom-up” framework which would enable a “coherent, collaborative, and community-wide” approach to the problem of orbital debris ... Called the Smallsat Space Traffic Safety Consortium, or SSSC, this proposed organization would enable the entrepreneurial satellite industry to continue to flourish and evolve—while simultaneously assuring responsible growth"
smallsats  nanosats  space-debris  space-junk  satellite 
september 2017 by pierredv
Catalog of Earth Satellite Orbits : Feature Articles
Two good graphics of orbiting objects

"Together, the satellite’s height, eccentricity, and inclination determine the satellite’s path and what view it will have of Earth."

"A satellite in a circular geosynchronous orbit directly over the equator (eccentricity and inclination at zero) will have a geostationary orbit that does not move at all relative to the ground."

" When the Sun is quiet, satellites in low Earth orbit have to boost their orbits about four times per year to make up for atmospheric drag. When solar activity is at its greatest, a satellite may have to be maneuvered every 2-3 weeks."
astronomy  satellite  orbits  NASA  reference  space-debris  space-junk  graphics 
august 2017 by pierredv
Why We Need a Civil Space Traffic Management System (STM), Moriba Jah - Via Satellite, Aug 2017
"Do we have an equivalent Civil Space Traffic Management (CSTM) System? No. Do we need one? Absolutely. Why? The uncontrolled and unpredictable growth of the use of near-Earth space. But what form could a CSTM System take? And what role should America have in it?"

"The CSTM’s primary functions would be to:
= Observe and Monitor: Space domain and traffic observations, Space Situational Awareness (SSA)
= Track and Catalog: Identify, characterize, and catalog objects; relational statistics, catalog updates, traffic attribution, achieve track “custody”
= Analyze and Inform: Information dissemination, safety products, conjunction data messages"

"I’ll begin by saying that our space domain and environment is no longer the sparsely populated, state-actor-dominant sphere of activity it was decades ago."

"So, who is rigorously and comprehensively analyzing the growth of the Resident Space Object (RSO) population and how does this affect orbital safety of operations and the long-term sustainability of space activities? The view of most space actors and investors is that it is someone else’s problem!"

The US "has developed, maintains, and distributes to the rest of the world the largest free record of cataloged man-made objects in space, so called RSOs. This catalog is owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Defense ... However, for the growing needs and demands of the space community, these products have been shown many times to be inadequate."

"We need a CSTM system because orbital debris experts worldwide agree that, compared to what is being tracked in our USSTRATCOM catalog, the number of mission-damaging and debris-generating RSOs (1 centimeter in diameter and larger) is at least 100 times greater."

"For reasons of national security, USSTRATCOM cannot be fully transparent in providing knowledge of where all trackable RSOs are located in space. This is at odds with efforts at the United Nations Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS) ... Other countries are developing their own Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program and their own catalog of RSOs, in part because the USSTRATCOM products do not meet their SSA and STM needs and requirements"

"In order to put this CTSM system in place, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) needs an adequately funded and resourced mandate to: 1) use their STM Pilot Program to work with the community and provide the first instance of a Civil STM system, and 2) begin collecting and exploiting space object (e.g. non-SSN tracking) data for orbital safety purposes, with an eye to do this via a Public-Private-Partnership (PPP)."

"NASA should expand its existing role ..."
SatelliteToday  satellite  space-debris  space-junk  FAA  NASA  opinion 
august 2017 by pierredv
Engineering Tools | AGI
"Systems Tool Kit (STK) is the premier software for providing four-dimensional modeling, simulation, and analysis of objects from land, sea, air, and space in order to evaluate system performance in real or simulated-time."
satellite  space  modeling  simulation  space-debris  tracking 
august 2017 by pierredv
Sweating the Small Stuff: CubeSats Swarm Earth Orbit - Scientific American July 2017
"A boom in nanosatellites could revolutionize space science and industry, but also dramatically increase the hazards of space junk"

"As the number of CubeSats and other orbiting nanosatellites continues to rise, so too do debates about their most important effects: Are CubeSats really the vital educational, scientific and technological tools that their staunchest proponents insist they are—or are they mere indulgent toys irresponsibly adding to the menacing shell of litter already encircling the planet?"
space-debris  space  space-junk  cubesats  nanosatellites  ScientificAmerican  satellite  * 
july 2017 by pierredv
7th European Conference on Space Debris in Darmstadt
7th European Conference on Space Debris in Darmstadt from 18 to 21 April
Microsatellites, megaconstellations and strategies for combatting increasing volumes of space debris
space-debris  space  space-junk  DLR 
july 2017 by pierredv
Space debris must be removed from orbit says ESA | Science | The Guardian, Apr 2017
"7th European Conference on Space Debris, which was held at ESA’s Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany."

"ESA Space Debris Office. His team monitors the 10 satellites that ESA currently operate in low Earth orbit to protect them from the swarm of human-made debris that now surrounds our planet. On average there is a high risk alert of a potential collision every week, and every ESA satellite has to be manoeuvred to avoid a collision once or twice a year."

"The nightmare scenario that space debris experts contemplate is called the Kessler syndrome, after American astrophysicist Donald Kessler. In 1978, while working for Nasa, he published an analysis that showed frequent collisions exponentially increased the amount of space debris, leading to many more collisions, leading to much more debris until we lose the use of certain orbits because anything we put there would certainly be hit."
space-debris  space  space-junk  ESA  TheGuardian 
july 2017 by pierredv
Upfront | New Scientist, issue 3122, Apr 2017, page down for the story
"Satellites swarms could increase space junk risk by 50 per cent
SWARMS of cheap CubeSats set to deliver internet access to every corner of the globe could cause a 50 per cent rise in catastrophic collisions with other satellites, unleashing hazardous space junk."

"Hugh Lewis at the University of Southampton, UK, and his colleagues used a supercomputer to simulate 200 years of possible orbits for 300 different scenarios.

The results, presented this week at a European Space Agency conference on space debris in Darmstadt, Germany, suggest that these megaconstellations boost the risk of a catastrophic collision – in which a satellite is destroyed – by 50 per cent."
NewScientist  satellite  space-junk  space-debris  space  risk-assessment 
july 2017 by pierredv
Adrift: The Secret World of Space Junk
"Adrift is an arts project by artists Cath Le Couteur and Nick Ryan. The project explores the secret world of space junk, making it personal, visible and audible. The project takes the form of an interactive experience, a documentary film and a sound installation."
art  space  space-debris  space-junk 
june 2017 by pierredv
Satellite Drag | NOAA / NWS Space Weather Prediction Center
"Drag has a significant impact on spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), generally defined as an orbit below an altitude of approximately 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi). Although the air density is much lower than near the Earth’s surface, the air resistance in those layers of the atmosphere where satellites in LEO travel is still strong enough to produce drag and pull them closer to the Earth"

"The drag force on satellites increases during times when the Sun is active. When the Sun adds extra energy the atmosphere the low density layers of air at LEO altitudes rise and are replaced by higher density layers that were previously at lower altitudes. "

"When the Sun is quiet, satellites in LEO have to boost their orbits about four times per year to make up for atmospheric drag. When solar activity is at its greatest over the 11-year solar cycle, satellites may have to be maneuvered every 2-3 weeks to maintain their orbit"

"interactions between the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetic field during geomagnetic storms can produce large short-term increases in upper atmosphere temperature and density, increasing drag on satellites and changing their orbits. The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) has to re-identify hundreds of objects and record their new orbits after a large solar storm event (Figure 2)"

"It is extremely important to keep track of spacecraft and objects flying in the space to avoid collisions with space junk and orbital debris that may be in their path. Collision avoidance has become of increasing concern due to the recent accidental hypervelocity collision of two intact spacecraft in February, 2009. "
NOAA  satellite  LEO  space  collisions  space-debris  SSN 
may 2017 by pierredv
Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC): Homepage
"The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) is an international governmental forum for the worldwide coordination of activities related to the issues of man-made and natural debris in space.

The primary purposes of the IADC are to exchange information on space debris research activities between member space agencies, to facilitate opportunities for cooperation in space debris research, to review the progress of ongoing cooperative activities, and to identify debris mitigation options."
satellite  space  space-junk  space-debris 
may 2017 by pierredv

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