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Yong Zhao "What Works May Hurt: Side Effects in Education" - YouTube
"Proponents of standardized testing and privatization in education have sought to prove their effectiveness in improving education with an abundance of evidence. These efforts, however, can have dangerous side effects, causing long-lasting damage to children, teachers, and schools. Yong Zhao, Foundation Distinguished Professor in the School of Education at the University of Kansas, will argue that education interventions are like medical products: They can have serious, sometimes detrimental, side effects while also providing cures. Using standardized testing and privatization as examples, Zhao, author of the internationally bestselling Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Dragon? Why China Has the Best (and Worst) Education System in the World, will talk about his new book on why and how pursuing a narrow set of short-term outcomes causes irreparable harm in education."
yongzhao  2018  schools  schooling  pisa  education  testing  standardizedtesting  standardization  china  us  history  testscores  children  teaching  howweteach  howwelearn  sideeffects  privatization  tims  math  reading  confidence  assessment  economics  depression  diversity  entrepreneurship  japan  creativity  korea  vietnam  homogenization  intolerance  prosperity  tolerance  filtering  sorting  humans  meritocracy  effort  inheritance  numeracy  literacy  achievementgap  kindergarten  nclb  rttt  policy  data  homogeneity  selectivity  charterschools  centralization  decentralization  local  control  inequity  curriculum  autonomy  learning  memorization  directinstruction  instruction  poverty  outcomes  tfa  teachforamerica  finland  singapore  miltonfriedman  vouchers  resilience  growthmindset  motivation  psychology  research  positivepsychology  caroldweck  intrinsicmotivation  choice  neoliberalism  high-stakestesting 
6 weeks ago by robertogreco
The perils of “Growth Mindset” education: Why we’re trying to fix our kids when we should be fixing the system - Salon.com
"Having spent a few decades watching one idea after another light up the night sky and then flame out — in the field of education and in the culture at large — I realize this pattern often has less to do with the original (promising) idea than with the way it has been oversimplified and poorly implemented. Thus, I initially thought it was unfair to blame Dweck for wince-worthy attempts to sell her growth mindset as a panacea and to give it a conservative spin. Perhaps her message had been distorted by the sort of people who love to complain about grade inflation, trophies for showing up, and the inflated self-esteem of “these kids today.” In the late 1990s, for example, right-wing media personality John Stossel snapped up a paper of Dweck’s about praise, portraying it as an overdue endorsement of the value of old-fashioned toil — just what was needed in an era of “protecting kids from failure.” Their scores stink but they feel good about themselves anyway — and here’s a study that proves “excellence comes from effort”!

This sort of attack on spoiled kids and permissive (or excessive) parenting is nothing new — and most of its claims dissolve on close inspection. Alas, Dweck not only has failed to speak out against, or distance herself from, this tendentious use of her ideas but has put a similar spin on them herself. She has allied herself with gritmeister Angela Duckworth and made Stossel-like pronouncements about the underappreciated value of hard work and the perils of making things too easy for kids, pronouncements that wouldn’t be out of place at the Republican National Convention or in a small-town Sunday sermon. Indeed, Dweck has endorsed a larger conservative narrative, claiming that “the self-esteem movement led parents to think they could hand their children self-esteem on a silver platter by telling them how smart and talented they are.” (Of course, most purveyors of that narrative would be just as contemptuous of praising kids for how hard they’d tried, which is what Dweck recommends.)

Moreover, as far as I can tell, she has never criticized a fix-the-kid, ignore-the-structure mentality or raised concerns about the “bunch o’ facts” traditionalism in schools. Along with many other education critics, I’d argue that the appropriate student response to much of what’s assigned isn’t “By golly, with enough effort, I can do this!” but “Why the hell should anyone have to do this?” Dweck, like Duckworth, is conspicuously absent from the ranks of those critics.

It isn’t entirely coincidental that someone who is basically telling us that attitudes matter more than structures, or that persistence is a good in itself, has also bought into a conservative social critique. But why have so many educators who don’t share that sensibility endorsed a focus on mindset (or grit) whose premises and implications they’d likely find troubling on reflection?

I’m not suggesting we go back to promoting an innate, fixed, “entity” theory of intelligence and talent, which, as Dweck points out, can leave people feeling helpless and inclined to give up. But the real alternative to that isn’t a different attitude about oneself; it’s a willingness to go beyond individual attitudes, to realize that no mindset is a magic elixir that can dissolve the toxicity of structural arrangements. Until those arrangements have been changed, mindset will get you only so far. And too much focus on mindset discourages us from making such changes."
alfiekohn  grit  motivation  education  growthmindset  caroldweck  angeladuckworth  parenting  children  schools  fads  praise  effort 
august 2015 by robertogreco
Beyond Measure Film
"Every day we hear stories about the troubles in American education: our test scores are stagnant, we’re falling behind our international peers, and our schools are failing to prepare future generations to succeed in the 21st century. For the last decade, this story – and the fear it inspires – has shaped the way we talk about our education system and informed our national education policies.

More pressure. More assessments. More of the same.

But what if the efforts we’ve been pushing so hard in our schools are actually the things that are leaving our education system worse off? What if the initiatives that narrow, standardize and pressure our school environments, are the reasons our children are less engaged in school and less prepared to be thoughtful, capable, contributing adults?

In Beyond Measure, we set out to challenge the assumptions of our current education story.

Rather than ask why our students fail to measure up, this film asks us to reconsider the greater purpose of education. What if our education system valued personal growth over test scores? Put inquiry over mimicry. Encouraged passion over rankings? What if we decided that the purpose of school was not the transmission of facts or formulas, but the transformation of every student? And what if this paradigm-shift was driven by students, parents, and educators, not by politicians and policymakers?

In Beyond Measure, we went in search of those answers and found a revolution brewing in public schools across the country. From rural Kentucky to New York City, we share the stories of schools that are breaking away from our outmoded, test-driven education culture and pioneering a new vision for our classrooms. These are schools that are asking our students to invent, to make, to think beyond their school walls, and to imagine how they can effect change in the world. These are schools that are transforming the roles of students and teachers and putting more faith in the ingenuity of our children. These are schools that see critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity as the bedrock of a good education and the key to success after graduation. And these are schools that are dramatically improving outcomes for children of all backgrounds; schools where practically every student graduates and goes on to finish college.

Beyond Measure fills a void that too many other education stories have left empty – a positive picture of what’s innovative and possible in American education when communities decide they are ready for change."

[see also: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/890507170/beyond-measure ]

[and: http://www.edutopia.org/blog/beyond-measure-revolution-starts-now-mark-phillips ]
education  change  learning  schools  2015  film  documentary  beyondmeasure  racetonowhere  vickiabeles  hightechhigh  howweteach  kenrobinson  danielpink  lindadarling-hammond  alisongopnik  yongzhao  caroldweck  children  competition  unschooling  deschooling 
january 2015 by robertogreco
Actually, practice doesn’t always make perfect — new study - The Washington Post
"We’ve long been eager to believe that mastery of a skill is primarily the result of how much effort one has put in. Extensive practice “is probably the most reasonable explanation we have today not only for success in any line, but even for genius,” said the ur-behaviorist John B. Watson almost a century ago.

In the 1990s K. Anders Ericsson and a colleague at Florida State University reported data that seemed to confirm this view: What separates the expert from the amateur, a first-rate musician or chess player from a wannabe, isn’t talent; it’s thousands of hours of work. (Malcolm Gladwell, drawing from but misrepresenting Ericsson’s research — much to the latter’s dismay — announced the magic number was ten thousand hours.)

It’s daunting to imagine putting in that kind of commitment, but we’re comforted nonetheless by the idea that practice is the primary contributor to excellence. That’s true, I think, for three reasons:

1. Common sense: It seems obvious that the more time you spend trying to get better at something, the more proficient you’ll become. That’s why so many educators continue to invoke the old phrase “time on task,” which, in turn, drives demands for longer school days or years. Common sense, however, isn’t always correct. Researchers have found that only when “achievement” is defined as rote recall do we discover a strong, linear relationship with time. When the focus is on depth of understanding and sophisticated problem solving, time on task doesn’t predict outcome very well at all – either in reading or math.

2. Protestant work ethic: Many people simply don’t like the idea that someone could succeed without having paid his or her dues — or, conversely, that lots of deliberate practice might prove fruitless. Either of these possibilities threatens people’s belief in what social psychologists call a “just world.” This sensibility helps to explain why copious homework continues to be assigned despite dubious evidence that it provides any benefit (and zero evidence that it’s beneficial in elementary school): We just don’t want those kids goofing off, darn it — not in the evening and not even during the summer! Hence the recent enthusiasm for “grit,” which is basically a repackaging of age-old exhortations to stick with whatever you’ve been told to do. (Indeed, Ericsson collaborated with grit maven Angela Duckworth on a study of spelling bee champions.)

3. Nurture over nature: “Innate? Necessarily so!” is what we’ve heard for centuries. Given the tawdry history of biological reductionism, which usually manages to rationalize current arrangements of power as being due to the natural superiority of privileged groups, is it any wonder we remain leery of attributing success to inherited talent? It’s more egalitarian to declare that geniuses are made, not born. Indeed, that skepticism is bolstered by evidence (from Carol Dweck and others) indicating that students are more likely to embrace learning if they believe their performance results from effort, something under their control, rather than from a fixed level of intelligence that they either possess or lack.

*

For many of us, then, Ericsson’s conclusion has been deeply reassuring: Practice hard and you’ll do well. But along comes a brand-new meta-analysis, a statistical summary of 157 separate comparisons in 88 recent studies, that finds practice actually doesn’t play nearly as significant a role as we’d like to think.

“The evidence is quite clear that some people do reach an elite level of performance without copious practice, while other people fail to do so despite copious practice,” wrote Brooke Macnamara, David Hambrick, and Frederick Oswald in Psychological Science. In fact, they calculated that, overall, the amount of deliberate practice in which someone engages explains only 12 percent of the variance in the quality of performance. Which means 88 percent is explained by other factors."
grit  practice  2014  alfiekohn  angeladuckworth  kandersericsson  malcolmgladwell  workethic  nurture  caroldweck  brookemacnamara  davidhambrick  frederickoswald 
august 2014 by robertogreco
Chloe Varelidi's Blog - Legendary Lands And The Design Of Learning Pathways
"I recently stumbled upon Umberto Eco’s Book of Legendary Lands. This wondrous book is an illustrated journey into some of history’s greatest imaginary places; from Jules Verne’s ‘Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (one of my childhood favorites and probably the only book I ever read in French) to Thomas More’s ‘Utopia below.

As Eco talks about in the book, maps have always been a way for us humans to make sense of our world. They often present a way to explore abstract ideas, the cosmos and our self.
Given it was a lazy Sunday afternoon when I first got a hold of this book and started going through it’s pages, it made me ponder about the connection between these imaginary maps and the way we have been talking about the Discovery Project.

We have talked a lot about the notion of empowering youth to take on the “Explorer Mindset” through openbadges pathways and we envisioned those as highly customizable maps of one’s personal career journey (or flight if you are Amelia Earhart fan like me :)).

Learning Pathways Are Malleable 
We view pathways as non-prescriptive and highly customizable experiences that evolve according to a learners’ personal needs. For that reason we are creating a  tool that allows for pathways to be re-mixable and personalized. Carol Dweck talks a lot about the idea of a growth mindset within it intelligence and talent are malleable factors. In her book Mindset she says; “This view creates a love of learning  and a resilience that is essential for great accomplishment.”

They Are Also Playful
We use the notion of playfulness as one that both creates a joyful user experience that makes taking a pathway exciting but also playfulness as a means to think creatively about your future. "Play enables the  individual to discover new approaches to dealing with the world"- Bateson & Martin say in their book “Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation.”

And….Storylike!
This is something that emerged from the interviews and user research that our esteemed team members Lucas Blair (Content Specialist) and Emily Goligoski (User Research Lead) worked on. Telling the story of your pathway is a story people love both telling and listening to. For that reason we are introducing story bits, a pathway element that highlights the narrative side of your learning and career pathway. In addition research literature, like Savitz-Romer & Bouffards’ book Ready Willing and Able, A Developmental Approach To College Access and Success,  tells us that trying on an identity and following a narrative is especially important to youth when it comes to pursuing a career pathway.

With all these ideas in mind we have started to create a UI that is greatly inspired by maps and a UX that allows for this kind of playfulness and malleabl-ity (if that is a word:)). Here is a sneak peak on what our UI Designer (and Amsterdam native/map lover) Sander Giesing has been working on. From a UX point of view the badges are re-arrangeable like a puzzle and users can add new badges they have wishlisted and/or remove existing ones that are not relevant to them. In addition the little books represent what we mentioned above as story-bits, little notes that add a narrative flair to the pathway."
umbertoeco  chloevarelidi  play  discovery  learning  howwelearn  2014  julesverne  thomasmore  maps  mapping  discoveryproject  pathways  caroldweck  malleability  growthmindset  storytelling  narrative  creativity  playfulness 
march 2014 by robertogreco
Syllabus | Technologies for Creative Learning
"This course explores how new technologies can engage people in creative learning experiences – and transform the ways we think about learning. Students will experiment with new learning technologies, discuss educational ideas underlying the technologies, analyze design strategies for creating new technologies, and examine how and what people learn as they use these technologies."

[Wayback: http://web.archive.org/web/20120808072239/http://mas714.media.mit.edu/syllabus ]
syllabus  learning  creativity  mit  constructivism  coding  children  technology  computing  computers  scratch  mindstorms  ivanillich  davidresnick  seymourpapert  mimiito  henryjenkins  barbararogoff  alfiekohn  caroldweck  mihalycsikszentmihalyi  sherryturkle  jamespaulgee  via:dianakimball  readinglists  education  teaching  programming  syllabi 
february 2013 by robertogreco
Believe you can change (Aaron Swartz's Raw Thought)
"Growth mindset has become a kind of safe word for my partner and I. Whenever we feel the other person getting defensive or refusing to try something because “I’m not any good at it”, we say “Growth mindset!” and try to approach the problem as a chance to grow, rather than a test of our abilities. It’s no longer scary, it’s just another project to work on."
failure  resilience  persistence  introverts  2012  growthmindset  via:litherland  caroldweck  aaronswartz  psychology 
august 2012 by robertogreco
Criticizing (common criticisms of) praise - The Answer Sheet - The Washington Post
"Like much of what is called “overparenting,” praise doesn’t signify permissiveness or excessive encouragement; to the contrary, it is an exercise in (sugar-coated) control. It is an extension of the old-school model of families, schools, and workplaces — yet, remarkably, most of the criticisms of praise you’re likely to read assume that it’s a departure from the old school, and that that’s a bad thing.

Praise is typically faulted for being given out too readily (see point #2, above), with the bar having been set too low. We’re told that kids should do more to deserve each “Good job!” they get — which is a way of saying it should be more conditional. Again, this is exactly the opposite of my objection to the conditionality inherent in rewards. The problem isn’t that kids expect praise for everything they do. The problem is with our need for control, our penchant for placing conditions on our love, and our continued reliance on the long-discredited premises of behaviorism."
obedience  children  teaching  parenting  encouragement  control  manipulation  praise  caroldweck  alfiekohn  2012  behaviorism 
february 2012 by robertogreco
Welcome to the Age of Overparenting - Boston Magazine - bostonmagazine.com
"…pushing kids can be just as bad for them as attending to their every desire…children of upper-class, highly educated parents…are increasingly anxious & depressed. Children with “high perfectionist strivings” were likely to see achievement failures as personal failures…being constantly shuttled between activities…ends up leaving suburban adolescents feeling more isolated from parents.

…while today’s middle- & upper-middle-class children have an unprecedented array of opportunities, their experiences are often manufactured by us…Nearly everything they do is orchestrated, if not by their parents, then by some other adult…But their experiences aren’t very rich in the messier way — in those moments of unfettered abandon when part of the thrill is the risk of harm, hurt feelings, or struggle. In our attempt to manage & support every moment of our children’s lives, they become something that belongs to us, not them.

[ http://www.bostonmagazine.com/articles/the_age_of_overparenting/ ]
parenting  children  stress  anxiety  anxiousparenting  helicopterparenting  helicopterparents  2011  caroldweck  petergray  suniyaluthar  behavior  messiness  play  unstructuredtime  learning  life  overparenting  unschooling  deschooling  freedom  independence  education 
december 2011 by robertogreco
Being Smart Considered Harmful « And Yet It Moves
"Scratch…Every project can be improved or branched. We can all improve on our own work,…help each other explore new ideas. We need to be able to start with an initial effort, knowing it will take more work to create a finished product and knowing that’s okay. This is exactly what we want students to do when they revise an essay in English class… when they use data to formulate a new hypothesis in science class…supports the growth mindset & the process of iterative improvement. All we have to do is not screw it up. But that turns out to be a harder than it looks."

"I’m going to start by trying to think and talk more about problem-solving skills rather than “intelligence”.

A student is doing a good job digging in to a problem. A student is doing a good job deepening their investigation. A student is doing a good job analyzing a situation to find new approaches. A student is doing a good job upgrading their skillset. Aren’t these all so much more important than just being smart?"
scratch  iteration  growthmindset  caroldweck  seymourpapert  programming  coding  constructivism  learning  unschooling  deschooling  intelligence  teaching  schools  problemsolving  errors  bugs  mindstorms  priming  failure  benchun  talent  beingwrong  tcsnmy  projectbasedlearning  pbl 
march 2011 by robertogreco
Smart Talking: Tell Students to Feed Their Brains | Edutopia
""in India, when we want the elephant to grow, we feed the elephant. We don't weigh the elephant." I reported on recent research by Stanford University professor Carol Dweck and her colleagues, Lisa Sorich Blackwell, of Columbia University, and Stanford's Kali Trzesniewski on how children can be taught to "feed their own brains" through understanding that their brains and intelligence can be grown and how this mind-set actually improves their academic performance...
2007  caroldweck  motivation  teaching  brainresearch  mindset  learning  tcsnmy 
july 2010 by robertogreco
The 4 S's of Adolescent Success
“In order to survive & thrive in college, students must have a stake in their own education & know how to walk toward problems. This requires an ability & willingness to approach faculty, navigate bureaucracy, tap into resources, & ask for help. In other words, it requires maturity. If students don’t possess sufficient self-discipline, resilience, impulse-control, & a keen desire to learn, the college experience can have expensive & devastating long-term consequences."

[via: http://stevemiranda.wordpress.com/2010/07/26/the-answer-lies-in-recognizing-that-the-real-goal-of-childhood-is-maturity/ ]
nais  tcsnmy  schools  schooloness  stress  psychology  maturity  edication  unschooling  deschooling  impulse-control  self-discipline  resilience  learning  2008  toshare  topost  integrity  honor  character  responsibility  self-confidence  admissions  collegeadmissions  colleges  universities  readiness  ivyleague  caroldweck  margaretmead  stressmanagement  michellegall  williamstixrud  success  relationships  self-knowledge  sat  well-being  parenting  happiness 
july 2010 by robertogreco
Motivating Students to Get Behind the Counter
"The clarifying metaphor that strikes me, however, is that autonomy, mastery, and purpose — which are really the core ingredients of generative thinking — can be made available to students if we can get our young people out of the single-file line that has formed in front of the counter and motivate them to grab an apron and explore what’s behind the counter."
teaching  learning  autonomy  motivation  danielpink  carriezuberbuhlerkennedy  mastery  purpose  inquiry  relevance  tcsnmy  generativethinking  thinking  unschooling  deschooling  independent  caroldweck  flow  intrinsicmotivation  inquiry-basedlearning  mihalycsikszentmihalyi  choices  studentdirected  student-led  student-centered  assessment  grades  grading  effort  risktaking 
april 2010 by robertogreco
STANFORD Magazine: March/April 2007 > Mind-set Research
"Students for whom performance is paramount want to look smart even if it means not learning a thing in the process. For them, each task is a challenge to their self-image, and each setback becomes a personal threat. So they pursue only activities at which they’re sure to shine—and avoid the sorts of experiences necessary to grow and flourish in any endeavor. Students with learning goals, on the other hand, take necessary risks and don’t worry about failure because each mistake becomes a chance to learn. Dweck’s insight launched a new field of educational psychology—achievement goal theory." via: http://www.boingboing.net/2008/11/25/why-does-failure-ins.html
learning  education  productivity  creativity  teaching  tcsnmy  leadership  parenting  advice  motivation  self-improvement  perseverance  goals  psychology  management  intelligence  development  brain  success  failure  research  mindset  lifehacks  caroldweck  assessment  grades  grading 
november 2008 by robertogreco
Better living through self deception (kottke.org)
"Interesting article about how people tell their stories and think of their past experiences and how that influences their mood and general outlook on life."
happiness  psychology  stories  memory  experience  health  learning  life  exercise  sports  thinking  visual  brain  change  depression  kottke  self  mindset  perception  productivity  behavior  lifehacks  forgetting  thirdperson  firstperson  achievement  focus  edwardvogel  information  filtering  caroldweck  alleniverson  psychocybernetics  self-deception 
may 2007 by robertogreco

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