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robertogreco : faces   26

Silicon Valley Thinks Everyone Feels the Same Six Emotions
"From Alexa to self-driving cars, emotion-detecting technologies are becoming ubiquitous—but they rely on out-of-date science"
emotions  ai  artificialintelligence  2018  psychology  richfirth-godbehere  faces 
january 2019 by robertogreco
Physiognomy’s New Clothes – Blaise Aguera y Arcas – Medium
"In 1844, a laborer from a small town in southern Italy was put on trial for stealing “five ricottas, a hard cheese, two loaves of bread […] and two kid goats”. The laborer, Giuseppe Villella, was reportedly convicted of being a brigante (bandit), at a time when brigandage — banditry and state insurrection — was seen as endemic. Villella died in prison in Pavia, northern Italy, in 1864.

Villella’s death led to the birth of modern criminology. Nearby lived a scientist and surgeon named Cesare Lombroso, who believed that brigantes were a primitive type of people, prone to crime. Examining Villella’s remains, Lombroso found “evidence” confirming his belief: a depression on the occiput of the skull reminiscent of the skulls of “savages and apes”.

Using precise measurements, Lombroso recorded further physical traits he found indicative of derangement, including an “asymmetric face”. Criminals, Lombroso wrote, were “born criminals”. He held that criminality is inherited, and carries with it inherited physical characteristics that can be measured with instruments like calipers and craniographs [1]. This belief conveniently justified his a priori assumption that southern Italians were racially inferior to northern Italians.

The practice of using people’s outer appearance to infer inner character is called physiognomy. While today it is understood to be pseudoscience, the folk belief that there are inferior “types” of people, identifiable by their facial features and body measurements, has at various times been codified into country-wide law, providing a basis to acquire land, block immigration, justify slavery, and permit genocide. When put into practice, the pseudoscience of physiognomy becomes the pseudoscience of scientific racism.

Rapid developments in artificial intelligence and machine learning have enabled scientific racism to enter a new era, in which machine-learned models embed biases present in the human behavior used for model development. Whether intentional or not, this “laundering” of human prejudice through computer algorithms can make those biases appear to be justified objectively.

A recent case in point is Xiaolin Wu and Xi Zhang’s paper, “Automated Inference on Criminality Using Face Images”, submitted to arXiv (a popular online repository for physics and machine learning researchers) in November 2016. Wu and Zhang’s claim is that machine learning techniques can predict the likelihood that a person is a convicted criminal with nearly 90% accuracy using nothing but a driver’s license-style face photo. Although the paper was not peer-reviewed, its provocative findings generated a range of press coverage. [2]
Many of us in the research community found Wu and Zhang’s analysis deeply problematic, both ethically and scientifically. In one sense, it’s nothing new. However, the use of modern machine learning (which is both powerful and, to many, mysterious) can lend these old claims new credibility.

In an era of pervasive cameras and big data, machine-learned physiognomy can also be applied at unprecedented scale. Given society’s increasing reliance on machine learning for the automation of routine cognitive tasks, it is urgent that developers, critics, and users of artificial intelligence understand both the limits of the technology and the history of physiognomy, a set of practices and beliefs now being dressed in modern clothes. Hence, we are writing both in depth and for a wide audience: not only for researchers, engineers, journalists, and policymakers, but for anyone concerned about making sure AI technologies are a force for good.

We will begin by reviewing how the underlying machine learning technology works, then turn to a discussion of how machine learning can perpetuate human biases."



"Research shows that the photographer’s preconceptions and the context in which the photo is taken are as important as the faces themselves; different images of the same person can lead to widely different impressions. It is relatively easy to find a pair of images of two individuals matched with respect to age, race, and gender, such that one of them looks more trustworthy or more attractive, while in a different pair of images of the same people the other looks more trustworthy or more attractive."



"On a scientific level, machine learning can give us an unprecedented window into nature and human behavior, allowing us to introspect and systematically analyze patterns that used to be in the domain of intuition or folk wisdom. Seen through this lens, Wu and Zhang’s result is consistent with and extends a body of research that reveals some uncomfortable truths about how we tend to judge people.

On a practical level, machine learning technologies will increasingly become a part of all of our lives, and like many powerful tools they can and often will be used for good — including to make judgments based on data faster and fairer.

Machine learning can also be misused, often unintentionally. Such misuse tends to arise from an overly narrow focus on the technical problem, hence:

• Lack of insight into sources of bias in the training data;
• Lack of a careful review of existing research in the area, especially outside the field of machine learning;
• Not considering the various causal relationships that can produce a measured correlation;
• Not thinking through how the machine learning system might actually be used, and what societal effects that might have in practice.

Wu and Zhang’s paper illustrates all of the above traps. This is especially unfortunate given that the correlation they measure — assuming that it remains significant under more rigorous treatment — may actually be an important addition to the already significant body of research revealing pervasive bias in criminal judgment. Deep learning based on superficial features is decidedly not a tool that should be deployed to “accelerate” criminal justice; attempts to do so, like Faception’s, will instead perpetuate injustice."
blaiseaguerayarcas  physiognomy  2017  facerecognition  ai  artificialintelligence  machinelearning  racism  bias  xiaolinwu  xi  zhang  race  profiling  racialprofiling  giuseppevillella  cesarelombroso  pseudoscience  photography  chrononet  deeplearning  alexkrizhevsky  ilyasutskever  geoffreyhinton  gillevi  talhassner  alexnet  mugshots  objectivity  giambattistadellaporta  francisgalton  samuelnorton  josiahnott  georgegiddon  charlesdarwin  johnhoward  thomasclarkson  williamshakespeare  iscnewton  ernsthaeckel  scientificracism  jamesweidmann  faception  criminality  lawenforcement  faces  doothelange  mikeburton  trust  trustworthiness  stephenjaygould  philippafawcett  roberthughes  testosterone  gender  criminalclass  aggression  risk  riskassessment  judgement  brianholtz  shermanalexie  feedbackloops  identity  disability  ableism  disabilities 
may 2017 by robertogreco
James & Other Apes
"While watching a nature program on primates I was struck by their facial similarity to our own. Humans are clearly different to animals, but the great apes inhabit that grey area between man and animal. I thought it would be interesting to try to photograph gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans using the aesthetic of the passport photograph- its ubiquitous style inferring the idea of identity.

I decided against photographing in zoos or using ‘animal actors’ but traveled to Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo and Indonesia to meet orphans of the bush meat trade and live pet trade."
animals  apes  gorillas  chimpanzees  bonobos  orangutans  jamesmollison  portraits  faces  photography  identity  multispecies  congo  indonesia  drc  cameroon 
may 2015 by robertogreco
Facial Weaponization Communiqué: Fag Face on Vimeo
"The Facial Weaponization Suite develops forms of collective and artistic protest against biometric facial recognition–and the inequalities these technologies propagate–by making masks in community-based workshops that are used for public intervention. One mask, the Fag Face Mask, is a response to scientific studies that link determining sexual orientation through rapid facial recognition. This mask is generated from the biometric facial data of many queer men’s faces, resulting in a mutated, alien facial mask that cannot be read or parsed by biometric facial recognition technologies."
zachblas  faces  facialrecognition  surveillance  biometrics  queer  masks  2013  via:soulellis  activism  zapatistas  pussyriot  ows  occupywallstreet  blackblock  anonymous  facelessness  nypd  homelandsecurity  privacy  law  legal  nonexistence  identification  revolution 
march 2014 by robertogreco
Neil Usher: Pareidolic Robot
"A robot that searches for faces in clouds."
via:sha  faces  clouds  neilusher  pareidolia 
august 2013 by robertogreco
GoogleFaces « this is onformative a studio for generative design.
"An independent searching agent hovering the world to spot all the faces that are hidden on earth.

The way we perceive our environment is a complex procedure. By the help of our vision we are able to recognize friends within a huge crowd, approximate the speed of an oncoming car or simply admire a painting. One of human’s most characteristic features is our desire to detect patterns. We use this ability to penetrate into the detailed secrets of nature. However we also tend to use this ability to enrich our imagination. Hence we recognize meaningful shapes in clouds or detect a great bear upon astrological observations.

Objective investigations and subjective imagination collide to one inseparable process. The tendency to detect meaning in vague visual stimuli is a psychological phenomenon called Pareidolia, and captures the core interest of this project. We were driven by the idea, to explore how the psychological phenomenon of Pareidolia, could be generated by a machine. We wrote an algorithm simulating this tendency, as it continuously searches for face-like shapes while iterating above the landscapes of the earth. As a major inspiration we took a look at the “Face on Mars” taken by Viking 1 on July 25, 1976."
faces  google  maps  mapping  pareidolia  googlefaces  2013  facerecognition  earth  topography 
may 2013 by robertogreco
Creepy or Cool? Portraits Derived From the DNA in Hair and Gum Found in Public Places | Collage of Arts and Sciences
"The 30-year-old PhD student, studying electronic arts at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, extracts DNA from each piece of evidence she collects and enters this data into a computer program, which churns out a model of the face of the person who left the hair, fingernail, cigarette or gum behind.

It gets creepier.

From those facial models, she then produces actual sculptures using a 3D printer. When she shows the series, called “Stranger Visions,” she hangs the life-sized portraits, like life masks, on gallery walls. Oftentimes, beside a portrait, is a Victorian-style wooden box with various compartments holding the original sample, data about it and a photograph of where it was found."
dna  art  science  biology  diy  heatherdewey-hagborg  humans  genetics  portraits  faces  evidence 
may 2013 by robertogreco
Specs that see right through you - tech - 05 July 2011 - New Scientist ["Boring conversation? Accessories that decipher emotional cues could save your social life – or reveal that you're a jerk"]
"Picard handed me a pair of special glasses. The instant I put them on I discovered that I had got it all terribly wrong. That look of admiration, I realised, was actually confusion and disagreement. Worse, she was bored out of her mind. I became privy to this knowledge because a little voice was whispering in my ear through a headphone attached to the glasses. It told me that Picard was "confused" or "disagreeing". All the while, a red light built into the specs was blinking above my right eye to warn me to stop talking. It was as though I had developed an extra sense.

The glasses can send me this information thanks to a built-in camera linked to software that analyses Picard's facial expressions. They're just one example of a number of "social X-ray specs" that are set to transform how we interact with each other. …Our emotional intelligence is about to be boosted, but are we ready to broadcast feelings we might rather keep private?"
technology  culture  psychology  nonverbalcommunication  nonverbal  communication  listening  rosalindpicard  paulekman  ranaelkaliouby  simonbaron-cohen  affectiva  autism  social  faces  mit 
july 2011 by robertogreco
Method of loci - Wikipedia
"'the method of loci', an imaginal technique known to the ancient Greeks and Romans and described by Yates (1966) in her book The Art of Memory as well as by Luria (1969). In this technique the subject memorizes the layout of some building, or the arrangement of shops on a street, or any geographical entity which is composed of a number of discrete loci. When desiring to remember a set of items the subject literally 'walks' through these loci and commits an item to each one by forming an image between the item and any distinguishing feature of that locus. Retrieval of items is achieved by 'walking' through the loci, allowing the latter to activate the desired items. The efficacy of this technique has been well established (Ross and Lawrence 1968, Crovitz 1969, 1971, Briggs, Hawkins and Crovitz 1970, Lea 1975), as is the minimal interference seen with its use."
memory  mnemonics  productivity  thinking  neurobiology  psychology  location  spatial  spatialawareness  spatialthinking  methodofloci  memoryplace  spacialrelationships  order  recall  lists  faces  digits  neuroscience  via:lukeneff 
december 2010 by robertogreco
World Wide Weather Guy [Related: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernoff_face]
"The World Wide Weather Guy (WWW Guy) is a weather nut. He always has The Weather Channel® on and is constantly checking weather conditions around the world on the web. As a matter of fact, he is so interested in the weather that his appearance changes depending on the weather conditions in the location he's thinking about! Talk about empathy.

His face color changes depending on the temperature.
His ear color changes depending on the dew point.
His nose size changes depending on barometric pressure.
His eyes look in the direction of the wind.
His hair waves around at a speed that is dependent on the wind speed.
He has a little perspiration problem that varies depending on the humidity.
If the visibility is below 1 mile he gets a little hard to see.
The background color changes to indicate day (pink) or night (blue)."
craighickman  weather  faces  chernofffaces  empathy 
november 2010 by robertogreco
The Do Lectures | Matt Webb
"Matt Webb is MD of the design studio BERG, which invents products and designs new media. Projects include Popular Science+ for the Apple iPad, solid metal phone prototypes for Nokia, a bendy map of Manhattan called Here & There, and an electronic puppet that brings you closer to your friends.

Matt speaks on design and technology, is co-author of Mind Hacks - cognitive psychology for a general audience - and if you were to sum up his design interests in one word, it would be “politeness.” He lives in London in a flat with a wonky floor."
mattwebb  design  designfiction  computing  ai  scifi  sciencefiction  berg  berglondon  future  futurism  retrofuture  space  speculativedesign  2010  dolectures  books  film  thinkingnebula  nebulas  history  automation  toys  productdesign  iphone  schooloscope  redlaser  mechanicalturk  magic  virtualpets  commoditization  robotics  anyshouse  twitter  internetofthings  ubicomp  anybots  faces  pareidolia  fractionalai  fractionalhorsepower  andyshouse  weliveinamazingtimes  spacetravel  spaceexploration  spimes  iot 
october 2010 by robertogreco
Wired 14.11: Face Blind
"They can see your eyes, your nose, your mouth – and still not recognize your face. Now scientists say people with prosopagnosia may help unlock some of the deepest mysteries of the brain."
prosopagnosia  brain  consciousness  neuroscience  recognition  medicine  physiology  socialnetworks  neurology  science  perception  faces 
july 2010 by robertogreco
WNYC - Radiolab » Strangers in the Mirror [Bonus: Close talks about academic failure, Robert Rauschenberg, dyslexia, and empathy.]
"Oliver Sacks, the famous neuroscientist and author, can’t recognize faces. Neither can Chuck Close, the great artist known for his enormous paintings of … that’s right, faces.

Oliver and Chuck–both born with the condition known as Face Blindness–have spent their lives decoding who is saying hello to them. You can sit down with either man, talk to him for an hour, and if he sees you again just fifteen minutes later, he will have no idea who you are. (Unless you have a very squeaky voice or happen to be wearing the same odd purple hat.)

In this podcast, we listen in on a conversation Robert had with Chuck and Oliver at Hunter College in New York City as part of the World Science Festival. Chuck and Oliver tell Robert what it’s like to live with Face Blindness and describe two very different ways of coping with this condition, which may be more common than we think."

[See also: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.11/blind_pr.html (via Luke Neff)]
psychology  perception  neuroscience  prosopagnosia  faceblindness  empathy  dyslexia  robertrauschenberg  education  vision  radiolab  faces  chuckclose  oliversacks  art  painting  science  interviews 
july 2010 by robertogreco
The Crow Paradox : NPR [see also: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/26/science/26crow.html]
"Here's a surprise: Wild crows can recognize individual people. They can pick a person out of a crowd, follow them, and remember them — apparently for years. But people — even people who love crows — usually can't tell them apart. So what we have for you are two experiments that tell this story. ... If you want to hear researchers describe what it's like to alienate a crow, and then be razzed and harassed by its family and neighbors wherever they go — tennis courts, ATM machines, parking lots — listen to our radio story. We'll also tell you how unbelievably long a crow can keep a grudge."
corvids  crows  birds  biology  memory  behavior  intelligence  nature  recognition  animals  research  science  faces 
march 2010 by robertogreco
Humanising data: introducing “Chernoff Schools” for Ashdown – Blog – BERG
"In one of our brainstorms, where we were discussing ways to visualise a school’s performance – Webb blurted “Chernoff Schools!!!” – and we all looked at each other with a grin. Chernoff Schools!!! Awesome. Matt Brown immediately started producing some really lovely sketches based on the rough concept… And imagining how an array of schools with different performance attributes might look like… Whether they could appear in isometric 3D on maps or other contexts… And how they might be practically used in some kind of comparison table… Since then Tom and Matt Brown have been playing with the data set and some elementary processing code – to give the us the first interactive, data-driven sketches of Chernoff Schools."
education  cognition  faces  datavisualization  infographics  identity  mattjones  chernofffaces  psychology  data  schools  berg  berglondon  accessibility  design 
november 2009 by robertogreco
A Language of Smiles - Olivia Judson Blog - NYTimes.com
"A set of experiments investigating the effects of facial movements on mood used different vowel sounds as a stealthy way to get people to pull different faces. (The idea was to avoid people realizing they were being made to scowl or smile.) The results showed that if you read aloud a passage full of vowels that make you scowl — the German vowel sound ü, for example — you’re likely to find yourself in a worse mood than if you read a story similar in content but without any instances of ü. Similarly, saying ü over and over again generates more feelings of ill will than repeating a or o."
psychology  language  happiness  linguistics  research  muscles  faces  smiling 
october 2009 by robertogreco
Wtf: Daito Wanabe Electroshocks His Face to Create the Best Visualizer Ever
"Sure, iTunes' new visualizer is pretty, but you can't compete with the visceral, hypnotizing weirdness of Daito Manabe's facial electric stimulus. He tapes electric stimulators, looking like the same type used for electroshock therapy, to his face, and syncs them with his music so his involuntary facial contortions match up with the tune. Shots of the machine he used after the jump."
daitowanabe  music  faces  gadgets  electronics  visualization 
october 2008 by robertogreco
Here's Looking At You // Current
"What do you think you look like? And what do others think of you? A film about first impressions from artists Lenka Clayton and James Price."
art  beauty  psychology  society  culture  faces  film  identity  perception  personality  people  via:kottke 
january 2008 by robertogreco
Police urged to drop photofits for caricatures | The Guardian | Guardian Unlimited
"Police forces should issue comical caricatures of the criminals they are hunting instead of standard photofits, according to a team of scientists who found that cartoon-like faces are better at jolting people's memories."
crime  comics  caricatures  identification  recognition  human  faces 
november 2007 by robertogreco
Mutating Pictures
"A population of 1,000 random pictures, created in October 2007. You allow the fittest pictures to survive. The higher your rating for a pic the more mutated offspring it produces."
abstract  ai  participation  participatory  psychology  evolution  faces  generator  human  algorithms  visualization  mutation  computing  design  graphics 
october 2007 by robertogreco
LiveScience.com: Americans and Japanese Read Faces Differently
"Culture is a huge factor in determining whether we look someone in the eye or the kisser to interpret facial expressions, according to a new study."
anthropology  behavior  communication  culture  emotions  expression  expressions  faces  japan  japanese  psychology  research  science  social  society  sociology 
may 2007 by robertogreco
Facial Recognition - Brain - Faces, Faces Everywhere - New York Times
"Compelling answers are beginning to emerge from biologists and computer scientists who are gaining new insights into how the brain recognizes and processes facial data."
brain  psychology  science  human  sight  faces  people  recognition  visual 
february 2007 by robertogreco
ni9e blog: Skymall Liberation
"a fun way to waste a couple of hours on your next flight. Rip out all of the faces from the Skymall Catalog. You will see from all of their smiling faces that they are pleased with their liberation. The images can then be used to create data visualizatio
advertising  art  demographics  faces  gender  graphic  race  information  infographics  travel  visualization  shopping  data  marketing 
february 2007 by robertogreco
the Face of Tomorrow: the Human Face of Globalization, photographs by Mike Mike
"The Face of Tomorrow is a concept for a series of photographs that addresses the effects of globalization on identity."
identity  global  world  globalization  anthropology  portraits  psychology  photography  visualization  society  travel  urban  international  people  ethnicity  faces  culture 
january 2007 by robertogreco
Wired 14.11: Face Blind
"They can see your eyes, your nose, your mouth – and still not recognize your face. Now scientists say people with prosopagnosia may help unlock some of the deepest mysteries of the brain"
brain  science  psychology  images  faces 
october 2006 by robertogreco

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