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James Bridle on New Dark Age: Technology and the End of the Future - YouTube
"As the world around us increases in technological complexity, our understanding of it diminishes. Underlying this trend is a single idea: the belief that our existence is understandable through computation, and more data is enough to help us build a better world.

In his brilliant new work, leading artist and writer James Bridle surveys the history of art, technology, and information systems, and reveals the dark clouds that gather over our dreams of the digital sublime."
quantification  computationalthinking  systems  modeling  bigdata  data  jamesbridle  2018  technology  software  systemsthinking  bias  ai  artificialintelligent  objectivity  inequality  equality  enlightenment  science  complexity  democracy  information  unschooling  deschooling  art  computation  computing  machinelearning  internet  email  web  online  colonialism  decolonization  infrastructure  power  imperialism  deportation  migration  chemtrails  folkliterature  storytelling  conspiracytheories  narrative  populism  politics  confusion  simplification  globalization  global  process  facts  problemsolving  violence  trust  authority  control  newdarkage  darkage  understanding  thinking  howwethink  collapse 
september 2018 by robertogreco
Thoughts on the sociology of Brexit - Political Economy Research Centre
"1. THE GEOGRAPHY REFLECTS THE ECONOMIC CRISIS OF THE 1970S, NOT THE 2010S



But consider the longer history of these regions as well. They are well-recognised as Labour’s historic heartlands, sitting on coalfields and/or around ship-building cities. Indeed, outside of London and Scotland, they were amongst the only blobs of Labour red on the 2015 electoral map. There is no reason to think that they would not stay red if an election were held in the autumn. But in the language of Marxist geographers, they have had no successful ‘spatial fix’ since the stagflation crisis of the 1970s. Thatcherism gutted them with pit-closures and monetarism, but generated no private sector jobs to fill the space. The entrepreneurial investment that neoliberals always believe is just around the corner never materialised.

Labour’s solution was to spread wealth in their direction using fiscal policy: public sector back-office jobs were strategically relocated to South Wales and the North East to alleviate deindustrialisation, while tax credits made low productivity service work more socially viable. This effectively created a shadow welfare state that was never publicly spoken of, and co-existed with a political culture which heaped scorn on dependency. Peter Mandelson’s infamous comment, that the Labour heartlands could be depended on to vote Labour no matter what, “because they’ve got nowhere else to go” spoke of a dominant attitude. In Nancy Fraser’s terms, New Labour offered ‘redistribution’ but no ‘recognition’.

This cultural contradiction wasn’t sustainable and nor was the geographic one. Not only was the ‘spatial fix’ a relatively short-term one, seeing as it depended on rising tax receipts from the South East and a centre left government willing to spread money quite lavishly (albeit, discretely), it also failed to deliver what many Brexit-voters perhaps crave the most: the dignity of being self-sufficient, not necessarily in a neoliberal sense, but certainly in a communal, familial and fraternal sense.

2. HANDOUTS DON’T PRODUCE GRATITUDE



While it may be one thing for an investment banker to understand that they ‘benefit from the EU’ in regulatory terms, it is quite another to encourage poor and culturally marginalised people to feel grateful towards the elites that sustain them through handouts, month by month. Resentment develops not in spite of this generosity, but arguably because of it. This isn’t to discredit what the EU does in terms of redistribution, but pointing to handouts is a psychologically and politically naïve basis on which to justify remaining in the EU.

In this context, the slogan ‘take back control’ was a piece of political genius. It worked on every level between the macroeconomic and the psychoanalytic. Think of what it means on an individual level to rediscover control. To be a person without control (for instance to suffer incontinence or a facial tick) is to be the butt of cruel jokes, to be potentially embarrassed in public. It potentially reduces one’s independence. What was so clever about the language of the Leave campaign was that it spoke directly to this feeling of inadequacy and embarrassment, then promised to eradicate it. The promise had nothing to do with economics or policy, but everything to do with the psychological allure of autonomy and self-respect. Farrage’s political strategy was to take seriously communities who’d otherwise been taken for granted for much of the past 50 years.

This doesn’t necessarily have to translate into nationalistic pride or racism (although might well do), but does at the very least mean no longer being laughed at. Those that have ever laughed at ‘chavs’ (such as the millionaire stars of Little Britain) have something to answer for right now, as Rhian E. Jones’ Clampdown argued. The willingness of Nigel Farrage to weather the scornful laughter of metropolitan liberals (for instance through his periodic appearances on Have I Got News For You) could equally have made him look brave in the eyes of many potential Leave voters. I can’t help feeling that every smug, liberal, snobbish barb that Ian Hislop threw his way on that increasingly hateful programme was ensuring that revenge would be all the greater, once it arrived. The giggling, from which Boris Johnson also benefited handsomely, needs to stop.

3. BREXIT WAS NOT FUELLED BY A VISION OF THE FUTURE



Thatcher and Reagan rode to power by promising a brighter future, which never quite materialised other than for a minority with access to elite education and capital assets. The contemporary populist promise to make Britain or American ‘great again’ is not made in the same way. It is not a pledge or a policy platform; it’s not to be measured in terms of results. When made by the likes of Boris Johnson, it’s not even clear if it’s meant seriously or not. It’s more an offer of a collective real-time halucination, that can be indulged in like a video game.
The Remain campaign continued to rely on forecasts, warnings and predictions, in the hope that eventually people would be dissuaded from ‘risking it’. But to those that have given up on the future already, this is all just more political rhetoric. In any case, the entire practice of modelling the future in terms of ‘risk’ has lost credibility, as evidenced by the now terminal decline of opinion polling as a tool for political control.

4. WE NOW LIVE IN THE AGE OF DATA, NOT FACTS

One of the complaints made most frequently by liberal commentators, economists and media pundits was that the referendum campaign was being conducted without regard to ‘truth’. This isn’t quite right. It was conducted without adequate regard to facts. To the great frustration of the Remain campaign, their ‘facts’ never cut through, whereas Leave’s ‘facts’ (most famously the £350m/week price tag of EU membership) were widely accepted.

What is a ‘fact’ exactly? In her book A History of the Modern Fact, Mary Poovey argues that a new way of organising and perceiving the world came into existence at the end of the 15th century with the invention of double-entry book-keeping. This new style of knowledge is that of facts, representations that seem both context-independent, but also magically slot seamlessly into multiple contexts as and when they are needed. The basis for this magic is that measures and methodologies (such as accounting techniques) become standardised, but then treated as apolitical, thereby allowing numbers to move around freely in public discourse without difficulty or challenge. In order for this to work, the infrastructure that produces ‘facts’ needs careful policing, ideally through centralisation in the hands of statistics agencies or elite universities (the rise of commercial polling in the 1930s was already a challenge to the authority of ‘facts’ in this respect).

This game has probably been up for some time. As soon as media outlets start making a big deal about the FACTS of a situation, for instance with ‘Fact check’ bulletins, it is clear that numbers have already become politicised. ‘Facts’ (such as statistics) survived as an authoritative basis for public and democratic deliberation for most of the 200 years following the French Revolution. But the politicisation of social sciences, metrics and policy administration mean that the ‘facts’ produced by official statistical agencies must now compete with other conflicting ‘facts’. The deconstruction of ‘facts’ has been partly pushed by varieties of postmodern theory since the 1960s, but it is also an inevitable effect of the attempt (beloved by New Labour) to turn policy into a purely scientific exercise.

The attempt to reduce politics to a utilitarian science (most often, to neo-classical economics) eventually backfires, once the science in question then starts to become politicised. ‘Evidence-based policy’ is now far too long in the tooth to be treated entirely credulously, and people tacitly understand that it often involves a lot of ‘policy-based evidence’. When the Remain camp appealed to their ‘facts’, forecasts, and models, they hoped that these would be judged as outside of the fray of politics. More absurdly, they seemed to imagine that the opinions of bodies such as the IMF might be viewed as ‘independent’. Unfortunately, economics has been such a crucial prop for political authority over the past 35 years that it is now anything but outside of the fray of politics.

In place of facts, we now live in a world of data. Instead of trusted measures and methodologies being used to produce numbers, a dizzying array of numbers is produced by default, to be mined, visualised, analysed and interpreted however we wish. If risk modelling (using notions of statistical normality) was the defining research technique of the 19th and 20th centuries, sentiment analysis is the defining one of the emerging digital era. We no longer have stable, ‘factual’ representations of the world, but unprecedented new capacities to sense and monitor what is bubbling up where, who’s feeling what, what’s the general vibe.

Financial markets are themselves far more like tools of sentiment analysis (representing the mood of investors) than producers of ‘facts’. This is why it was so absurd to look to currency markets and spread-betters for the truth of what would happen in the referendum: they could only give a sense of what certain people at felt would happen in the referendum at certain times. Given the absence of any trustworthy facts (in the form of polls), they could then only provide a sense of how investors felt about Britain’s national mood: a sentiment regarding a sentiment. As the 23rd June turned into 24th June, it became manifestly clear that prediction markets are little more than an aggregative representation of the same feelings and moods that one might otherwise detect via twitter. They’re not in the business of truth-telling, but of mood-… [more]
uk  politics  brexit  future  willdavies  2016  policy  eu  data  facts  markets  neolibersalism  history  economics  class  classism  nationalism  racism  self-sufficiency  dignity  nancyfraser  jamesmeeksubsidies  rhianjonesopen  democracy  adamramsey  anthonybarnett  donaldtrump  marypoovey  stability  growth  destruction 
june 2016 by robertogreco
Corn Maze, by Pam Houston
"A mind that moves associatively (as my mind does and probably your mind too) like a firefly in a grassy yard on a late June evening, has more fun (and other things too, of course, like static, like trouble) than a mind that moves logically or even chronologically. Just the other day for instance, someone said the word tennis, and I saw in my mind’s eye a lady in a pig suit with wings."

[Related: http://www.eastofborneo.org/articles/the-journey-west

"As a writer I have become accustomed to working in a way that allows skipping back and forth as a text builds, checking references, finding new evidence as a result of lateral moves across the Internet."]
via:nicolefenton  linearity  cv  association  messiness  networks  associative  2012  pamhouston  howwethink  stories  storytelling  truth  fact  fiction  facts  nonfiction  howwelearn  writing  linear 
july 2014 by robertogreco
Twitter / LailaLalami: Ray Bradbury predicted the ...
"Ray Bradbury predicted the rise of explainer sites in 'Fahrenheit 451.' pic.twitter.com/Mdz8d71zNF "
raybradbury  explainers  fahrenheit451  philosophy  sociology  facts  literature 
may 2014 by robertogreco
The Truth of Fact, the Truth of Feeling by Ted Chiang — Subterranean Press
"We don’t normally think of it as such, but writing is a technology, which means that a literate person is someone whose thought processes are technologically mediated. We became cognitive cyborgs as soon as we became fluent readers, and the consequences of that were profound.

Before a culture adopts the use of writing, when its knowledge is transmitted exclusively through oral means, it can very easily revise its history. It’s not intentional, but it is inevitable; throughout the world, bards and griots have adapted their material to their audiences, and thus gradually adjusted the past to suit the needs of the present. The idea that accounts of the past shouldn’t change is a product of literate cultures’ reverence for the written word. Anthropologists will tell you that oral cultures understand the past differently; for them, their histories don’t need to be accurate so much as they need to validate the community’s understanding of itself. So it wouldn’t be correct to say that their histories are unreliable; their histories do what they need to do.

Right now each of us is a private oral culture. We rewrite our pasts to suit our needs and support the story we tell about ourselves. With our memories we are all guilty of a Whig interpretation of our personal histories, seeing our former selves as steps toward our glorious present selves.

But that era is coming to an end. Remem is merely the first of a new generation of memory prostheses, and as these products gain widespread adoption, we will be replacing our malleable organic memories with perfect digital archives. We will have a record of what we actually did instead of stories that evolve over repeated tellings. Within our minds, each of us will be transformed from an oral culture into a literate one.

It would be easy for me to assert that literate cultures are better off than oral ones, but my bias should be obvious, since I’m writing these words rather than speaking them to you. Instead I will say that it’s easier for me to appreciate the benefits of literacy and harder to recognize everything it has cost us. Literacy encourages a culture to place more value on documentation and less on subjective experience, and overall I think the positives outweigh the negatives. Written records are subject to every kind of error and their interpretation is subject to change, but at least the words on the page remain fixed, and there is real merit in that.

When it comes to our individual memories, I live on the opposite side of the divide. As someone whose identity was built on organic memory, I’m threatened by the prospect of removing subjectivity from our recall of events. I used to think it could be valuable for individuals to tell stories about themselves, valuable in a way that it couldn’t be for cultures, but I’m a product of my time, and times change. We can’t prevent the adoption of digital memory any more than oral cultures could stop the arrival of literacy, so the best I can do is look for something positive in it.

And I think I’ve found the real benefit of digital memory. The point is not to prove you were right; the point is to admit you were wrong."
fiction  future  lifestream  tedchiang  2013  scifi  sciencefiction  memory  lifelogging  storytelling  language  writing  truth  facts  emotions 
november 2013 by robertogreco
FW: FW: Fw: FW: Fwd: fwd: fw: LazyTruth tackles false claims in email chain letters » Nieman Journalism Lab
"Matt Stempeck’s Gmail extension aims to automatically detect bogus claims and help guide you (or your hysterical relative) back to sanity."
zombierumors  facts  chrome  phishing  davidkim  evanmoore  justinnowell  factcheck.org  rumors  journalism  2012  forwards  extenstions  gamil  email  lazytruth  lazyemail  politifact  factchecking 
november 2012 by robertogreco
The Lifespan of a Fact | W. W. Norton & Company
"An innovative essayist and his fact-checker do battle about the use of truth and the definition of nonfiction.

How negotiable is a fact in nonfiction? In 2003, an essay by John D’Agata was rejected by the magazine that commissioned it due to factual inaccuracies. That essay—which eventually became the foundation of D’Agata’s critically acclaimed About a Mountain—was accepted by another magazine, The Believer, but not before they handed it to their own fact-checker, Jim Fingal. What resulted from that assignment was seven years of arguments, negotiations, and revisions as D’Agata and Fingal struggled to navigate the boundaries of literary nonfiction.

This book reproduces D’Agata’s essay, along with D’Agata and Fingal’s extensive correspondence. What emerges is a brilliant and eye-opening meditation on the relationship between “truth” and “accuracy” and a penetrating conversation about whether it is appropriate for a writer to substitute one for the other."

[via: http://www.theamericancrawl.com/?p=1008 ]
accuracy  facts  truth  journalism  publishing  literarynonfiction  nonfiction  writing  jimfingal  johnd'agata  factchecking  toread  books 
july 2012 by robertogreco
Well, Duh! -- Ten Obvious Truths That We Shouldn’t Be Ignoring
1. Much of the material students are required to memorize is soon forgotten; 2. Just knowing a lot of facts doesn’t mean you’re smart; 3. Students are more likely to learn what they find interesting; 4. Students are less interested in whatever they’re forced to do and more enthusiastic when they have some say; 5. Just because doing x raises standardized test scores doesn’t mean x should be done; 6. Students are more likely to succeed in a place where they feel known and cared about; 7. We want children to develop in many ways, not just academically; 8. Just because a lesson (or book, or class, or test) is harder doesn't mean it's better; 9. Kids aren’t just short adults; 10. Substance matters more than labels"
education  alfiekohn  testing  discipline  interestdriven  teaching  standardizedtesting  learning  schools  lcproject  unschooling  deschooling  memorization  toshare  facts  understanding  meaning  interests  coercion  childhood  parenting  policy  assessment  measurement  cv  progressive  classroommanagement 
april 2011 by robertogreco
The myth of objectivity « Re-educate Seattle
"This attitude is part of the myth of objectivity that pervades traditional schooling. The curriculum is presented as objective, comprehensive, and factual. Sit in the chair, follow directions, and you will receive an objective, comprehensive, and factual education…

Education is a highly personal process. Every decision that teachers make, whether we’re conscious that we’re making it or not, is loaded with bias. History, for example, contains a seemingly infinite set of people, events, and stories; the bias comes not necessarily in how the teacher presents selected events, but in the process of selecting which stories to tell.

I don’t believe there’s anything wrong with being biased as a teacher. In fact, I don’t think there’s any way to teach authentically without bias. It’s when we surrender to the myth of objectivity that we do students a disservice."
stevemiranda  education  objectivity  teaching  schools  schooling  compliance  facts  traditionalschools  curating  curation  cv  bias  authenticity  2011  philosophy  pedagogy  truth 
april 2011 by robertogreco
March 21, 2011 : The Daily Papert
“Every deep thinker who has looked at our education system, and I think of everyone, from Voltaire, Rousseau, Piaget, Vygostgy, John Dewey, they’ve all focused on one point, that our school is much too focused on information, on getting facts, far to little on doing things, on learning by doing, by action.”
seymourpapert  rousseau  voltaire  piaget  vygostgy  johndewey  rote  rotelearning  facts  factoryschools  learningbydoing  unschooling  constructivism  projectbasedlearning  tcsnmy  lcproject  pbl  jeanpiaget 
march 2011 by robertogreco
A Website on the U.S. Trade Policy Disaster || UNSUSTAINABLE.org [via:http://twitter.com/agpublic/status/27794932144}
"The New York Times yesterday carried a major article headlined "Japan Goes from Dynamic to Disheartened." Rarely has the truth of the Japanese economy been so completely misrepresented. This article is a highly selective pastiche of isolated hard-luck stories plus spin from propagandistic sources (as close observers have long understood, the Japanese establishment pursues a policy of exaggerating Japan's weaknesses and understating its strengths, the better to stay out of Washington's sights on trade). Worse, key "facts" are indisputably wrong."

[See also: http://twitter.com/agpublic/status/27795082477 http://twitter.com/agpublic/status/27795248121 AND http://twitter.com/agpublic/status/27800194594 ]
japan  economics  deflation  facts  nytimes  statistics  population  2010 
october 2010 by robertogreco
How facts backfire - The Boston Globe
"In the end, truth will out. Won’t it?

Maybe not. Recently, a few political scientists have begun to discover a human tendency deeply discouraging to anyone with faith in the power of information. It’s this: Facts don’t necessarily have the power to change our minds. In fact, quite the opposite. In a series of studies in 2005 and 2006, researchers at the University of Michigan found that when misinformed people, particularly political partisans, were exposed to corrected facts in news stories, they rarely changed their minds. In fact, they often became even more strongly set in their beliefs. Facts, they found, were not curing misinformation. Like an underpowered antibiotic, facts could actually make misinformation even stronger."
truth  facts  psychology  politics  democracy  culture  philosophy  politicalscience  neuroscience  biology  brain  cognition  bias  belief  behavior  faith  information  media  mind  science  research 
july 2010 by robertogreco
Warning: Your reality is out of date - The Boston Globe
"These slow-changing facts are what I term “mesofacts.” Mesofacts are the facts that change neither too quickly nor too slowly, that lie in this difficult-to-comprehend middle, or meso-, scale. Often, we learn these in school when young and hold onto them, even after they change. For example, if, as a baby boomer, you learned high school chemistry in 1970, and then, as we all are apt to do, did not take care to brush up on your chemistry periodically, you would not realize that there are 12 new elements in the Periodic Table. Over a tenth of the elements have been discovered since you graduated high school! While this might not affect your daily life, it is astonishing and a bit humbling."
education  change  mesofacts  facts  information  history  science  learning  knowledge  epistemology  2012  philosophy  language  culture  data 
march 2010 by robertogreco
When data atrophies thought « Snarkmarket
"The pro­lif­er­a­tion of small facts can short-circuit a more pro­found under­stand­ing. (Of course this is the pat­tern I’d find here, right?) But what do we do with this, exactly? Espe­cially in domains like social net­work­ing. How do we build sys­tems that enable higher-order intel­li­gence to thrive?"
snarkmarket  internet  search  facts  understanding  problemsolving  web  online  socialnetworking  criticalthinking  intelligence 
october 2009 by robertogreco
Dave’s Whiteboard » Blog Archive » 21st-century skills: Downes’s OS for the mind
"The bottom line: while factual knowledge is helpful, certain key skills are essential; they are a kind of operating system for the mind, which can then work with data from the outside world."
stephendownes  education  learning  21stcenturyskills  informationliteracy  facts 
october 2009 by robertogreco
10 years later, the real story behind Columbine - USATODAY.com
"A decade after Harris and Klebold made Columbine a synonym for rage, new information — including several books that analyze the tragedy through diaries, e-mails, appointment books, videotape, police affidavits and interviews with witnesses, friends and survivors — indicate that much of what the public has been told about the shootings is wrong."
colombine  shootings  violence  1999  journalism  crime  facts 
april 2009 by robertogreco
10 years later, the real story behind Columbine - USATODAY.com
"A decade after Harris and Klebold made Columbine a synonym for rage, new information — including several books that analyze the tragedy through diaries, e-mails, appointment books, videotape, police affidavits and interviews with witnesses, friends and survivors — indicate that much of what the public has been told about the shootings is wrong."
colombine  shootings  violence  1999  journalism  crime  facts 
april 2009 by robertogreco
Clive Thompson on How More Info Leads to Less Knowledge
"What's going on? Normally, we expect society to progress, amassing deeper scientific understanding and basic facts every year. Knowledge only increases, right?

Robert Proctor doesn't think so. A historian of science at Stanford, Proctor points out that when it comes to many contentious subjects, our usual relationship to information is reversed: Ignorance increases.

He has developed a word inspired by this trend: agnotology. Derived from the Greek root agnosis, it is "the study of culturally constructed ignorance.""
clivethompson  criticalthinking  creationism  agnotology  corruption  society  culture  information  knowledge  technology  ignorance  facts  fraud  control 
february 2009 by robertogreco
Pasta&Vinegar » Blog Archive » long+slow+blurry innovation
I like how Jan Chipchase frames the results form his work: not facts but “informed opinions”...knowledge construction about the evolution of technology is rarely absolute. There are contingencies and idiosyncrasies that plays an important role."
technology  knowledge  research  facts  learning  design  janchipchase  nicolasnova  mobile  phones  innovation  books  nokia  flexibility  fuzziness  future  teaching 
may 2008 by robertogreco
Find The Why - mind-expanding programmes for gifted and all-ability pupils aged 7 to 14
"CHILDREN ALWAYS WANT TO KNOW WHY, especially at that philosophical age from 7 to 14. Our programmes work with the grain of their curiosity to help them explore the deeper significance of the subjects they study every day. Every day they use words and mea
education  language  learning  literacy  science  homeschool  citizenship  creativity  questions  teaching  schools  curriculum  lcproject  facts  stories  storytelling  government  music  curiosity 
april 2008 by robertogreco
Ipseity :: E-Learning Myth #1: The “Net Gen” Myth :: August :: 2006
"Recent sociological and governmental studies paint quite a different picture of this same generation. Often focusing specifically on the Internet, they report –similar to the sources above– that “children and young people [are generally] claiming g
digitalnatives  marcprensky  debunked  education  future  technology  myth  facts  web2.0  digital  children  videogames  gaming  games  media  television  teaching  learning  schools  pedagogy  policy  critique  critical  culture  e-learning  instruction  millennials  publishing  trends  youth  net 
october 2007 by robertogreco
Connectivism Blog - Digital natives and immigrants: A concept beyond its best before date
"Aside from insulting an entire generation and coddling to the needs of younger learners, Prensky doesn't provide us with a compelling model forward (other than "use digital games"). Lately, I've noticed an increasingly strong resistance among educators t
digitalnatives  marcprensky  debunked  education  future  technology  myth  facts  web2.0  digital  children  videogames  gaming  games  media  trends  television  teaching  learning  schools  pedagogy  policy  critique  critical  culture  change 
october 2007 by robertogreco
Digital Nativism [a rebuttal to Marc Prensky's "digital immigrants" and "digital natives" theory]
"In a rather shallow piece lacking in evidence or data, Prensky offers the terms "digital natives" and "digital immigrants" to set up a generational divide. His proposition is simple-minded. He paints digital experience as wonderful and old ways as worthl
digitalnatives  marcprensky  debunked  education  future  technology  myth  facts  web2.0  digital  children  videogames  gaming  games  media  television  teaching  learning  schools  pedagogy  policy  critique  critical  wasteland  tseliot 
october 2007 by robertogreco
Facts Prove No Match for Gossip, It Seems - New York Times
"Gossip also told people whom to trust, and the prospect of a bad reputation discouraged them from acting selfishly, so large groups could peacefully cooperate. At least, that was the theory: gossip promoted the “indirect reciprocity” that made human
gossip  human  behavior  society  reputation  trust  relationships  evolution  communication  facts 
october 2007 by robertogreco
Color + Design Blog / 32+ Common Color Names for Easy Reference by COLOURlovers
"we took the color names that are used most often and best guessed the appropriate colors based on web standards and common usage."
color  css  design  words  names  lists  graphics  html  facts  dictionary  webdesign  web  tools  resources  data  naming  dictionaries  webdev 
july 2007 by robertogreco
Dunning-Kruger effect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"the phenomenon whereby people who have little knowledge systematically think that they know more than others who have much more knowledge"
awareness  behavior  belief  brain  business  cognitive  culture  debate  education  elitism  evaluation  facts  human  humannature  ideas  intelligence  knowledge  leadership  learning  management  metacognition  mind  perception  personality  philosophy  psychology  self  teaching  thinking 
july 2007 by robertogreco
Index Mundi - Country Facts
"This site contains detailed country information compiled from multiple sources."
demographics  data  geography  global  maps  statistics  world  reference  research  international  countries  economics  economy  charts  business  database  facts 
february 2007 by robertogreco

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