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Beyond Measure: The Revolution Starts Now | Edutopia
[See also: https://pinboard.in/u:robertogreco/b:909f3451110a
http://beyondmeasurefilm.com/beyond-measure-book/ ]

"When we meet Matt Whalen, we hear how he was put on Ritalin in fifth grade and secretly spit the pills out. By ninth grade, he seriously considered dropping out of school. Later, he joined his high school's new Independent Project in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, and we watch him describe how this changed his life. As Vicki Abeles' outstanding film, Beyond Measure, draws to a close, Matt notes, "My involvement with the Independent Project taught me how to focus on what was important to me and the ways in which I can be important in the world."

Matt is one of the heroes in the most powerful film that I've seen in many years about what's needed -- and possible -- in American education. Beyond Measure stands as an insightful and provocative response to the monumental failure of top-down and testing-driven initiatives. This is reinforced throughout the film but isn't the central theme.

Powerful, Instructive, Engaging
Beyond Measure rises above the other recent films about American education for two reasons. First, while it captures the problems, it focuses on five schools that solve them. These schools are both instructive and inspiring in how they implement alternative educational approaches. Secondly, it's emotionally impactful and cinematically superb, with great directing, editing, and photography. Like the best fictional films, it focuses on heroes with whom we resonate emotionally, and features engaging dramatic action in the changes that these heroes help initiate. And unlike so many films on American education, it leaves us hopeful and inspired.

You couldn't write a fictional script with more affecting characters or lead actors whose dedication, courage, wisdom, and openness stay with you hours after you've left the theater. And the camerawork establishes an intimacy that leads us to love these people for what they are doing and for restoring our hope.

As director/producer Abeles notes, "We set out to challenge the assumptions of our current education story." Her film does just that by taking us into schools where personal growth is valued over test scores, where passion matters more than rankings, and where change comes, not from the top down, but from parents, teachers, administrators, and students working together. And all of this is done without sacrificing high academic quality.

We watch what could be the beginning of a revolution brewing in schools from rural Kentucky and Seattle to El Paso, the Berkshires of Massachusetts, and New York City -- schools that are shaping a new vision for our classrooms. These schools see critical thinking, exploration, project-based learning, experimentation, collaboration, flexible scheduling, personalized learning, and creativity as the keys to good education. They are schools that are dramatically improving outcomes for children of all backgrounds. Each school is characterized by individuals with vision, commitment to change, and courage. In this post, I'll focus on just two.

Student Initiative
Sam Levin is a precocious student who started the Independent Project in Great Barrington's Monument Mountain Regional High School. Sam exemplifies the value of including student voice in the process of educational change.

"I liked school," he says. "I did well. I got good grades. I liked most of my teachers. I never struggled. What happened was I began to struggle with what I saw around me, and that was mostly that I felt my friends weren't engaged, that they weren't learning, that they weren't happy, and that started to wear on me." With the encouragement of his mom, he decides to start his own school-within-a-school and begins by speaking with his guidance counselor, Mike Powell.

Powell, who already has great respect for Sam as a young man combining vision with action, agrees to help. With the support and leadership assistance of Principal Marianne Young, they help make Sam's vision a reality.

The program blossoms and, as Sam notes, "You see kids who were doing OK before or even really well . . . but then they come into the Independent Project, and they realize that they had never really challenged themselves, never really pushed themselves to their limits."

Principal Young concludes, "Colleges and universities . . . want to see . . . really strong people, people of conviction, people with minds, people with interests. So if our part is to create this idea that they can find their individuality, they can be role models and inspirations to others . . . they'll be the group of students who walked out of here with this sense of self that carries them a long way."

Yearning for Transformation
Travis Hamby is another hero that we meet. He's Superintendent of Schools in Trigg County, an economically depressed region of Kentucky. The film lets us truly get to know this wonderful man, see him with his family, experience the depth of his feeling for children, and share his intuitive sense that something is wrong with his schools. He begins a journey to look for schools that are "doing some really great things for kids."

This leads him to High Tech High In San Diego, a wonderland of alternative education, a national leader in project-based learning and in demonstrating the best new approaches to education. Hamby's intensive experience at High Tech transforms his vision of education. He asks, "Why can't we do this? Why can't a public school in Western Kentucky do this for our kids? I want my kids to come home with that enthusiasm every single day because they've been engaged, because someone's cared about them."

Back home, Hamby introduces fifth-, eighth-, and ninth-grade problem-based learning and begins dramatically transforming his county's schools. He also describes the obstacles to change in an existing school and expresses a long-term view of the process they have begun.

A Call to Action and a Guide to Revolution
The talking heads in this film are some of the most effective and articulate proponents of effective educational change, Sir Ken Robinson, Linda Darling-Hammond, and Tony Wagner among them. Their comments are on point and brief. For example, Robinson tells us: "If you're a teacher and you change what you do in your classroom, you are, for those students, the education system; and if you change your practice, you have changed the education system for your students; and if enough people change, that becomes a movement. When enough people do it, that's a revolution -- and that's what we want." And that's what Vicki Abeles wants.

The book that accompanies the film, Beyond Measure: Rescuing An Overscheduled, Overtested, Underestimated Generation, provides stories of additional schools and is a helpful guide for initiating change. It complements the film in providing greater breadth and depth on the subject.

The film closes with a call to action for communities to transform their schools. Abeles wants parents, educators, and students to see the film and initiate change on a grassroots level. The film, book, and educational community screenings all around the country are part of a larger and exciting movement. There's still a long way to go, but I'm happy knowing that people are initiating important positive changes in education across this country, and that with the help of this film there will be more. I've put aside my depression about our policy makers and become part of what could be the beginning of a low-key, nationwide revolution.

Watching Beyond Measure, I felt hope and excitement at the possibilities of renewing our educational system. Administrators, teachers, and students are enacting changes that are an inspiration and guide for educators everywhere."
education  film  documentary  2015  towatch  markphillips  howweteach  howwelearn  lcproject  openstudioproject  schools  teaching  pedagogy  learning  children  projectbasedlearning  inquiry  initiative  motivation 
november 2015 by robertogreco
Kurt Hahn - Wikipedia
"Six Declines of Modern Youth

1. Decline of Fitness due to modern methods of locomotion [moving about];
2. Decline of Initiative and Enterprise due to the widespread disease of spectatoritis;
3. Decline of Memory and Imagination due to the confused restlessness of modern life;
4. Decline of Skill and Care due to the weakened tradition of craftsmanship;
5. Decline of Self-discipline due to the ever-present availability of stimulants and tranquilizers;
6. Decline of Compassion due to the unseemly haste with which modern life is conducted or as William Temple called "spiritual death".

Hahn not only pointed out the decline of modern youth, he also came up with four antidotes to fix the problem.

1. Fitness Training (e.g., to compete with one's self in physical fitness; in so doing, train the discipline and determination of the mind through the body)
2. Expeditions (e.g., via sea or land, to engage in long, challenging endurance tasks)
3. Projects (e.g., involving crafts and manual skills)
4. Rescue Service (e.g., surf lifesaving, fire fighting, first aid)

*****

Ten Expeditionary Learning Principles
These 10 principles, which seek to describe a caring, adventurous school culture and approach to learning, were drawn[by whom?] from the ideas of Kurt Hahn and other education leaders[which?] for use in Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound (ELOB) schools.[citation needed]

1. The primacy of self-discovery
Learning happens best with emotion, challenge and the requisite support. People discover their abilities, values, passions, and responsibilities in situations that offer adventure and the unexpected. In Expeditionary Learning schools, students undertake tasks that require perseverance, fitness, craftsmanship, imagination, self-discipline, and significant achievement. A teacher’s primary task is to help students overcome their fears and discover they can do more than they think they can.

2. The having of wonderful ideas
Teaching in Expeditionary Learning schools fosters curiosity about the world by creating learning situations that provide something important to think about, time to experiment, and time to make sense of what is observed.

3. The responsibility for learning
Learning is both a personal process of discovery and a social activity. Everyone learns both individually and as part of a group. Every aspect of an Expeditionary Learning school encourages both children and adults to become increasingly responsible for directing their own personal and collective learning.

4. Empathy and caring
Learning is fostered best in communities where students’ and teachers’ ideas are respected and where there is mutual trust. Learning groups are small in Expeditionary Learning schools, with a caring adult looking after the progress and acting as an advocate for each child. Older students mentor younger ones, and students feel physically and emotionally safe.

5. Success and failure
All students need to be successful if they are to build the confidence and capacity to take risks and meet increasingly difficult challenges. But it is also important for students to learn from their failures, to persevere when things are hard, and to learn to turn disabilities into opportunities.

6. Collaboration and competition
Individual development and group development are integrated so that the value of friendship, trust, and group action is clear. Students are encouraged to compete not against each other but with their own personal best and with rigorous standards of excellence.

7. Diversity and inclusion
Both diversity and inclusion increase the richness of ideas, creative power, problem-solving ability, respect for others. In Expeditionary Learning schools, students investigate value their different histories talents as well as those of other communities cultures. Schools learning groups heterogeneous.

8. The natural world
Direct respectful relationship with the natural world refreshes the human spirit teaches[clarification needed] the important ideas of recurring cycles and cause and effect. Students learn to become stewards of the earth and of future generations.

9. Solitude and reflection
Students and teachers need time alone to explore their own thoughts, make their own connections, and create their own ideas. They also need time to exchange their reflections with others.

10. Service and compassion
We are crew, not passengers. Students and teachers are strengthened by acts of consequential service to others, and one of an Expeditionary Learning school's primary functions is to prepare students with the attitudes and skills to learn from and be of service to others."
kurthahn  outwardbound  education  experience  experientialeducation  youth  self-discovery  service  compassion  solitude  reflection  nature  diversity  inclusion  collaboration  competition  success  failure  empathy  caring  responsibility  learning  howwelearn  thinking  criticalthinking  fitness  initiative  motivation  skills  care  projectbasedlearning  inlcusivity  inclusivity  experientiallearning 
september 2015 by robertogreco
6, 6: Asymmetrical information
"I have so little interest in grand pictures of the world with nothing to say about children. This assumption in cultural discussions that people step out of a wall sometime between 18 and 21, well, it’s not good enough; it’s not serious enough. If you want to talk to me about surveillance and censorship, tell me about baby monitors and when you would let kids in your care read 4chan. Your approach to that matters more than your approach to the finer connotations of the word “Orwellian”, e.g., whether the figure of thzzzZZZZZZZZ whistling exhalation ZZZZZZZZ whistling exhalation ZZZZZ[snort]ZZZ whistling exhalation ZZZZZZZZ whistling exhalation ZZZZZZZZ."

(Removed from this point a good deal of grumping about people who use arguments in the form “we should be treated like adults” without saying what that means to them other than “down with bad stuff, up with good stuff”, nor how non-adults should be treated; and then kind of halfheartedly trying to shame people for treating Foucault’s geneological method as if it were The Path And The Way Of Criticism rather than a useful tonic; and getting sad that sometimes children’s experience is treated as if it counts only insofar as it will be remembered by the adult they will become.)

"Something I tell myself: Assume you’re teaching. More often than thinking “Oh, I figured something out, time to share”, ask “What am I teaching right now, and am I doing it well?” Sometimes what I’m teaching is not pretty: “Don’t expect too much from strangers” or “Everyone has their quirks” or worse. All the more reason to think about it.

Like a lot of intrapersonal advice, this is tricky to explain: too obvious, too precious, too odd. The principle comes partly from reflecting that many of the most important things I’ve learned were from incidental actions of people working on something else. (I remember flipping through my mother’s MTW and learning about graphic design, poetry, pedagogy – everything but gravity.) It also comes from an idea put well in XKCD 1053.

(And this gives us one of the distinctive flavors of work made for the internet: layerednes. A blog post about some small issue will carry coded gestures to connections with highfalutin’ academic work; deniable hints of limits and risks might appear when a conscientious engineer is made to work hard-sell PR; and who among us has not seen something on a controversial topic flying a big red herring to distract zealots? And we have art like this [http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/04/for-shame-the-giant-poster-that-shows-drone-pilots-the-people-theyre-bombing/360257/ ], which works entirely by lying about its audience: that isn’t for drone operators at all, but by saying it is, it works on its actual audience: people like me.)"



"One of the things that’s been bringing OODA to mind is what you might call legibility capture. Let’s take it as read that we’re surrounded by giant translucent surfaces, and we’re trying to see inside them, and to understand their shapes and connections, in order that we might discern what their deal is. They meanwhile are examining us, covertly, with consent, obliquely, loudly, by proxy, for unknown future use, and in many other ways, which is worrying.

There are many ways to think about this; for me it’s phrased most naturally as “legibility” in the way that John C. Scott has developed it. His brilliance is perhaps fogged by his prose style, which with time becomes its own painfully funny effect, a kind of Marx Brothers–esque absurdism, as he over and over again, in the same book, with placid deadpan, re-introduces legibility as if for the first time.

(Thinking of this becase a couple friends spent the weekend at some kind of Data Tragicomedy conference – my ignorance of the details is a small pleasure but a sincere one – which it pleased me to believe consisted entirely of artbros in their off-blacks standing up, clearing their throats, smiling, and saying “I’ve discovered – or perhaps invented – something that I like to call ‘legibility’…”.)

One of the things that OODA is concerned with, in its productively unsatisfying way, is initiative. In go, this is sente. Alice has sente in a game with Bob when she’s made a move that Bob must respond to, instead of building his own position. To hold sente is to keep Bob on the defensive, so that he can’t plan or build; he’s always a turn behind. (Every time I think about this stuff I’m startled again by the illumination of psychological violence, from domestic abuse to torture-as-interrogation.) Boyd wants you, the student of OODA, to have initiative, because to have initiative is to have options. (Cough cough Nussbaum’s capability approach cough cough sneeze.) You have initiative because you can read the opponent better than they can read you, and so you can at least partly decide how they read you.

Skip this paragraph if you like me are easily disturbed by violence. This gruesome Amnesty briefing on the violence this year in northern Nigeria and this SSP report on the famous body bags in Kadugli both explain (partly) how they did their satellite imagery analysis to identify or confirm mass graves. This is in an obvious way highly responsible: conclusions should be presented with the evidence that led to them; theories should be falsifiable. It also bears risks, because by showing methods to identify mass graves they necessarily show how to hide from those methods, and even how to play into them by creating fake graves to distract and discredit.

That risk is the thing. It’s what I think about when people are like “Ah ha, I figured out I can look at tail numbers, or shell casing markings, or IP addresses owned by spyware companies; now we know what’s up!” Once they know you know but before you know they know you know, you’re at their mercy; they’re feeding you. Legibility capture.

I don’t know. I keep thinking of XKCD 1053, and the kind of empathy it calls for, and of the epigrams Joe Armstrong throws around about Erlang (e.g., p. 9):

The world is parallel
The world is distributed
Things fail

I said at the beignning of the year that my theme would be scale: communicating the sizes of stuff. I’ve done very little about that. I keep remembering things, little parcels of spacetime. Sleeping on a boat under a Saltillo blanket, listening to a flag’s rope ring against the pole in the wind. With a flu, in a parked Volkswagen Golf, reading Elfwood. When you GPS-track yourself you start to find that a lot of what it tells you is about where you weren’t."
charlieloyd  2014  teaching  learning  xkcd  legibility  scale  allsorts  learningallthetime  howwelearn  howweteach  perspective  understanding  layerdness  datadrama  jamescscott  violence  ooda  johnboyd  competition  initiative  offense  empathy  children  legacy  surveillance  censorship  babymonitors  4chan  adulthood  childhood  parenting 
april 2014 by robertogreco
Rigor Redefined
"Today’s students need to master seven survival skills to thrive in the new world of work. And these skills are the same ones that will enable students to become productive citizens who contribute to solving some of the most pressing issues we face in the 21st century.

1. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving…

2. Collaboration and Leadership…

3. Agility and Adaptability…

4. Initiative and Entrepreneurialism…

5. Effective Oral and Written Communication…

6. Accessing and Analyzing Information…

7. Curiosity and Imagination…



Across the United States, I see schools that are succeeding at making adequate yearly progress but failing our students. Increasingly, there is only one curriculum: test prep. Of the hundreds of classes that I’ve observed in recent years, fewer than 1 in 20 were engaged in instruction designed to teach students to think instead of merely drilling for the test.

To teach and test the skills that our students need, we must first redefine excellent instruction. It is not a checklist of teacher behaviors and a model lesson that covers content standards. It is working with colleagues to ensure that all students master the skills they need to succeed as lifelong learners, workers, and citizens. I have yet to talk to a recent graduate, college teacher, community leader, or business leader who said that not knowing enough academic content was a problem. In my interviews, everyone stressed the importance of critical thinking, communication skills, and collaboration.

We need to use academic content to teach the seven survival skills every day, at every grade level, and in every class. And we need to insist on a combination of locally developed assessments and new nationally normed, online tests—such as the College and Work Readiness Assessment (www.cae.org)—that measure students’ analytic-reasoning, critical-thinking, problem-solving, and writing skills.

It’s time to hold ourselves and all of our students to a new and higher standard of rigor, defined according to 21st-century criteria. It’s time for our profession to advocate for accountability systems that will enable us to teach and test the skills that matter most. Our students’ futures are at stake."
tonywagner  rigor  education  testprep  testing  standardizedtesting  schools  teaching  learning  criticalthinking  problemsolving  collaboration  leadership  agility  adaptability  initiative  entrepreneurialism  communication  writing  speaking  information  curiosity  imagination 
december 2013 by robertogreco
Margaret J. Wheatley: The Irresistible Future of Organizing
"Why do so many people in organizations feel discouraged and fearful about the future? Why does despair only increase as the fads fly by, shorter in duration, more costly in each attempt to improve? Why have the best efforts to create significant and enduring organizational change resulted in so many failures? We, and our organizations, exist in a world of constant evolutionary activity. Why is change so unnatural in human organizations?

The accumulating failures at organizational change can be traced to a fundamental but mistaken assumption that organizations are machines. Organizations-as-machines is a 17th century notion, from a time when philosophers began to describe the universe as a great clock. Our modern belief in prediction and control originated in these clockwork images. Cause and effect were simple relationships.   Everything could be known.  Organizations and people could be engineered into efficient solutions. Three hundred years later, we still search for "tools and techniques" and "change levers"; we attempt to "drive" change through our organizations; we want to "build" solutions and "reengineer" for peak efficiencies.

But why would we want an organization to behave like a machine? Machines have no intelligence; they follow the instructions given to them. They only work in the specific conditions predicted by their engineers. Changes in their environment wreak havoc because they have no capacity to adapt.

These days, a different ideal for organizations is surfacing. We want organizations to be adaptive, flexible, self-renewing, resilient, learning, intelligent-attributes found only in living systems. The tension of our times is that we want our organizations to behave as living systems, but we only know how to treat them as machines.



This faith in the organization's ability and intelligence will be sorely tested. When there are failures, pressures from the outside, or employee problems, it is easy to retreat to more traditional structures and solutions. As one manager describes it: "When things aren't going well, we've had to resist the temptation to fall back to the perceived safety of our old, rigid structures. But we know that the growth, the creativity, the opening up, the energy improves only if we hold ourselves at the edge of chaos."

The path of self-organization offers ample tests for leaders to discover how much they really trust their employees. Can employees make wise decisions? Can they deal with sensitive information? Can they talk to the community or government regulators? Employees earn trust, but leaders create the circumstances in which such trust can be earned.

Because dependency runs so deep in most organizations these days, employees often have to be encouraged to exercise initiative and explore new areas of competence. Not only do leaders have to let go and watch as employees figure out their own solutions, they also have to shore up their self-confidence and encourage them to do more. And leaders need to refrain from taking credit for their employees' good work-not always an easy task.

While self-organization calls us to very different ideas and forms of organizing, how else can we create the resilient, intelligent, fast, and flexible organizations that we require? How else can we succeed in organizing in the accelerating pace of our times except by realizing that organizations are living systems? This is not an easy shift, changing one's model of the way the world organizes. It is work that will occupy most of us for the rest of our careers. But the future pulls us toward these new understandings with an insistent and compelling call."

[via: https://twitter.com/JosieHolford/status/394627503668461568 ]
systems  systemsthinking  margaretwheatley  myronkellner-rogers  1996  organzations  management  humans  humanism  machines  modernism  organizing  resistance  self-organization  administration  leadership  structure  dependency  initiative  competency  rigidity  livingsystems  life  rules 
october 2013 by robertogreco
Matt Hern » On enterprise
"I often wonder how we reached situation when honorable words like ‘enterprise’, ‘initiative’ & ‘self-help’ are automatically associated w/ political right & defense of capitalism, while it is assumed that political left stands for big brother state w/ responsibility to provide pauper’s income for all & inflation-proof income for its own functionaries.

90 years ago people’s mental image of a socialist was a radical self-employed cobbler, sitting in his shop w/ a copy of William Morris’ Useful Work vs Useless Toil on the workbench, his hammer in his hand & his lips full of brass tacks. His mind was full of notions of liberating his fellow workers from industrial serfdom in a dark satanic mill. No doubt the current mental picture is of a university lecturer w/ a copy of The Inevitable Crisis of Capitalism in one hand & a banner labelled ‘Fight the Cuts’ in the other, while his mind is full of strategies for unseating the sitting Labour candidate in the local pocket borough."
matthern  colinward  capitalism  socialism  history  left  right  work  labor  change  bigbrother  1985  self-help  initiative  enterprise 
april 2011 by robertogreco
davistudio: Sol Lewitt to Eva Hesse
"Just stop thinking, worrying, looking over your shoulder, wondering, doubting, fearing, hurting...struggling, gasping, confusing, itching, scratching, mumbling, bumbling...stumbling, rumbling, rambling, gambling, tumbling, scumbling, scrambling, hitching, hatchiiing, bitching...searching, perching, besmirching...grinding away at yourself. stop it & just DO...trust & tickle something inside you, your "weird humor." you belong in the most secret part of you. don't worry about cool, make your own uncool...if you fear, make it work for you -- draw & paint your fear & anxiety. & stop worrying about big, deep things such as "to decide on a purpose and way of life..." you must practice being stupid, dumb, unthinking, empty. then you will be able to DO! i have much confidence in you & even though you are tormenting yourself, the work you do is very good. try & do some BAD work. the worst you can think of & see what happens but mainly relax & let everything go to hell."

[via: http://laurenzettler.tumblr.com/post/554920621/learn-to-say-fuck-you-to-the-world-once-in-a ]

[Update 31 January 2013: Links are dead. Try this: http://www.gwarlingo.com/2011/sol-lewitts-advice-to-eva-hesse/ via Caren Litherland]

[Update 12 August 2013: Another location via @datatelling http://magazine.seymourprojects.com/2013/02/s-stimulant-sol-lewitts-advice-to-eva-hesse/ ]
sollewitt  evahesse  do  glvo  motivation  initiative  overthinking  action  actionminded  uncool  cool  fear  risk  risktaking  worry  anxiety  purpose  yearoff  freedom 
june 2010 by robertogreco
Seth's Blog: It's easier to teach compliance than initiative
"Compliance is simple to measure, simple to test for and simple to teach. Punish non-compliance, reward obedience and repeat. Initiative is very difficult to teach to 28 students in a quiet classroom. It's difficult to brag about in a school board meeting. And it's a huge pain in the neck to do reliably. Schools like teaching compliance. They're pretty good at it. To top it off, until recently the customers of a school or training program (the companies that hire workers) were buying compliance by the bushel. Initiative was a red flag, not an asset. Of course, now that's all changed. The economy has rewritten the rules, and smart organizations seek out intelligent problem solvers. Everything is different now. Except the part about how much easier it is to teach compliance."
humanresources  compliance  education  teaching  initiative  business  marketing  leadership  security  hr  management  sethgodin  innovation  risk  creativity  change  gamechanging  unschooling  deschooling  tcsnmy  criticalthinking  problemsolving  shrequest1 
february 2010 by robertogreco
Is it OK to run an illegal library from my locker at school? - Yahoo! Answers
"I go to a private school that is rather strict. Recently, the principal and school teacher council released a (very long) list of books we're not allowed to read. I was absolutely appalled, because a large number of the books were classics and others that are my favorites. One of my personal favorites, The Catcher in the Rye, was on the list, so I decided to bring it to school to see if I would really get in trouble. Well... I did but not too much. Then (surprise!) a boy in my English class asked if he could borrow the book, because he heard it was very good AND it was banned! This happened a lot and my locker got to overflowing with the banned books, so I decided to put the unoccupied locker next to me to a good use. I now have 62 books in that locker, about half of what was on the list. I took care only to bring the books with literary quality. Some of these books are:"

[via: http://www.boingboing.net/2009/05/24/kid-keeping-a-lendin.html ]
censorship  students  schools  books  libraries  activism  initiative  resistance  schooling  autoritarianism  rules  youth  teens  teenheroes  literature 
may 2009 by robertogreco

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