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The Reductive Seduction of Other People’s Problems — The Development Set — Medium
"“If you’re young, privileged, and interested in creating a life of meaning, of course you’d be attracted to solving problems that seem urgent and readily solvable.”"

"Let’s pretend, for a moment, that you are a 22-year-old college student in Kampala, Uganda. You’re sitting in class and discreetly scrolling through Facebook on your phone. You see that there has been another mass shooting in America, this time in a place called San Bernardino. You’ve never heard of it. You’ve never been to America. But you’ve certainly heard a lot about gun violence in the U.S. It seems like a new mass shooting happens every week.

You wonder if you could go there and get stricter gun legislation passed. You’d be a hero to the American people, a problem-solver, a lifesaver. How hard could it be? Maybe there’s a fellowship for high-minded people like you to go to America after college and train as social entrepreneurs. You could start the nonprofit organization that ends mass shootings, maybe even win a humanitarian award by the time you are 30.

Sound hopelessly naïve? Maybe even a little deluded? It is. And yet, it’s not much different from how too many Americans think about social change in the “Global South.”

If you asked a 22-year-old American about gun control in this country, she would probably tell you that it’s a lot more complicated than taking some workshops on social entrepreneurship and starting a non-profit. She might tell her counterpart from Kampala about the intractable nature of our legislative branch, the long history of gun culture in this country and its passionate defenders, the complexity of mental illness and its treatment. She would perhaps mention the added complication of agitating for change as an outsider.

But if you ask that same 22-year-old American about some of the most pressing problems in a place like Uganda — rural hunger or girl’s secondary education or homophobia — she might see them as solvable. Maybe even easily solvable.

I’ve begun to think about this trend as the reductive seduction of other people’s problems. It’s not malicious. In many ways, it’s psychologically defensible; we don’t know what we don’t know.

If you’re young, privileged, and interested in creating a life of meaning, of course you’d be attracted to solving problems that seem urgent and readily solvable. Of course you’d want to apply for prestigious fellowships that mark you as an ambitious altruist among your peers. Of course you’d want to fly on planes to exotic locations with, importantly, exotic problems.

There is a whole “industry” set up to nurture these desires and delusions — most notably, the 1.5 million nonprofit organizations registered in the U.S., many of them focused on helping people abroad. In other words, the young American ego doesn’t appear in a vacuum. Its hubris is encouraged through job and internship opportunities, conferences galore, and cultural propaganda — encompassed so fully in the patronizing, dangerously simple phrase “save the world.”"



"We are easily seduced by aid projects that promise play. The SOCCKET, an energy-generating soccer ball, made a splash in 2011 when it raised $92,296 on Kickstarter. Three short years later, the company that created it wrote to its backers: “Most of you received an incredibly underwhelming product with a slew of manufacturing and quality control errors… In summary, we totally f*#ked up this Kickstarter campaign.”

Reading their surprisingly candid mea culpa, I couldn’t help but wonder where the equivalent message was to the kids in energy-starved areas whose high hopes were darkened by a defunct ball.

In some cases, the reductive seduction can actively cause harm. In its early years, TOMS Shoes — which has become infamous for its “buy one give one” business model, wherein they give a pair of shoes for every one sold — donated American-made shoes, which put local shoe factory workers out of jobs (they’ve since changed their supply chain).

Some development workers even have an acronym that they use to describe these initiatives: SWEDOW (stuff we don’t want). AIDWATCH, a watchdog development blog, created a handy flow chart that helps do gooders reality check their altruistic instincts. It begins with the simplest of questions — “Is the stuff needed?” — and flows down to more sophisticated questions like, “Will buying locally cause shortages or other disruptions?”

Second, the reductive seduction of other people’s problems is dangerous for the people whose problems you’ve avoided. While thousands of the country’s best and brightest flock to far-flung places to ease unfamiliar suffering and tackle foreign dysfunction, we’ve got plenty of domestic need."



"I understand the attraction of working outside of the U.S. There’s no question that the scale and severity of need in so many countries goes far beyond anything we experience or witness stateside. Why should those beautiful humans deserve any less of our best energy just because we don’t share a nationality?

(And I’m not arguing that staying close to home inoculates kids, especially of the white, privileged variety, like me, from making big mistakes.)

But don’t go because you’ve fallen in love with solvability. Go because you’ve fallen in love with complexity.

Don’t go because you want to do something virtuous. Go because you want to do something difficult.

Don’t go because you want to talk. Go because you want to listen.

Don’t go because you loved studying abroad. Go because, like Molly Melching, you plan on putting down roots. Melching, a native of Illinois, is widely credited with ending female genital cutting (FGC) in Senegal. But it didn’t happen overnight. She has been living in and around Dakar since 1974, developing her organization, Tostan, and its strategy of helping communities collectively address human rights abuses. Her leadership style is all about finely calibrated moments of risk — when she will challenge a local leader, for example — and restraint — when she will hold off on challenging a local leader because she intuits that she hasn’t yet developed enough trust with him. That kind of leadership doesn’t develop during a six-month home stay.

The rise of the social entrepreneurship field in the last few decades has sent countless young people packing across continents. In 2015, global nonprofit Echoing Green received 3,165 applications for about 40 fellowship spots, the majority of them from American applicants interested in social change abroad. For the last decade, recent college grads have been banging down the doors at places like Ashoka and Skoll World Forum, both centers of the social entrepreneurship universe, and SOCAP, focused on impact investing. And, to be sure, a lot of those grads are doing powerful work.

But a lot of them, let’s be real, are not. They’re making big mistakes — both operationally and culturally — in countries they aren’t familiar with. They’re solving problems for people, rather than with, replicating many of the mistakes that the world’s largest development agencies make on a much smaller scale. They drop technology without having a training or maintenance plan in place, or try to shift cultural norms without culturally appropriate educational materials or trusted messengers. Or they’re spending the majority of their days speaking about the work on the conference circuit, rather than actually doing it.

This work can take a toll on these young, idealistic Americans. They feel hollowed out by the cumulative effects of overstating their success while fundraising. They’re quietly haunted by the possibility that they aren’t the right people to be enacting these changes. They feel noble at times, but disconnected from their own homes, their own families, their own friends. They burn out.

There’s a better way. For all of us. Resist the reductive seduction of other people’s problems and, instead, fall in love with the longer-term prospect of staying home and facing systemic complexity head on. Or go if you must, but stay long enough, listen hard enough so that “other people” become real people. But, be warned, they may not seem so easy to “save.”"

[Two responses:
https://medium.com/the-development-set/the-global-development-long-game-a1a42b8c67ee#.36h0y6rtl
https://medium.com/the-development-set/the-hand-that-gives-9187a8ccfcd0#.3x4h3miel ]
courtneymartin  designimperialism  humanitariandesign  problemsolving  colonialism  solvability  2016  privilege  virtue  complexity  mollymelching  roots  culture  idealism  cznnaemeka  guns  homelessness  homeless  prisons  criminaljusticesystem  tomsshoes  aidwatch  globalsouth  disruption  charitableindustrialcomplex  socialentrepreneurship  philanthropicindustrialcomplex  capitalism  power  control 
january 2016 by robertogreco
Root force: unstoppable urban trees – in pictures | Cities | The Guardian
"Some urban trees won’t be hemmed in by walls, pavements or concrete, their roots slowly working their way into the very structure of the city"
trees  roots  2015  cities  urban  streets  pavement  concrete 
december 2015 by robertogreco
On Having Roots in More than One Place | The American Conservative
"I’m reading Rushdie’s memoir Joseph Anton right now, and in a particularly interesting passage he — writing in the third person, as he does, annoyingly, through the book — explains why he wrote The Satanic Verses:
The strange truth was that, after two novels that engaged directly with the public history of the Indian subcontinent, he saw this new book as a much more personal, interior exploration, a first attempt to create a work out of his own experience of migration and metamorphosis: To him, it was the least political book of the three.

(The other two books being Midnight’s Children, set in India, and Shame, set in Pakistan.) The Satanic Verses is, in its author’s view, “a personal, interior exploration” in this very important sense:
It was unsettling not to understand why the shape of life had changed. He often felt meaningless, even absurd. He was a Bombay boy who had made his life in London among the English, but often he felt cursed by a double unbelonging. The root of language, at least, remained, but he began to appreciate how deeply he felt the loss of the other roots, and how confused he felt about what he had become. In the age of migration the world’s millions of migrated selves faced colossal problems, problems of homelessness, hunger, unemployment, disease, persecution, alienation, fear. He was one of the luckier ones, but one great problem remained: that of authenticity. The migrated self became, inevitably, heterogeneous instead of homogeneous, belonging to more than one place, multiple rather than singular, responding to more than one way of being, more than averagely mixed up. Was it possible to be — to become good at being — not rootless, but multiply rooted? Not to suffer from a loss of roots but to benefit from an excess of them? The different roots would have to be of equal or near-equal strength, and he worried that his Indian connection had weakened. He needed to make an act of reclamation of the Indian identity he had lost, or felt he was in danger of losing. The self was both its origins and its journey.

There’s a lot to unpack here, and maybe I’ll get a chance to unpack it as I continue reading the book. But let me just note two things right now:

1) Nothing is more important to the modern self that to possess, or to feel that it possesses, authenticity. This manifests itself in a lot of ways, including, most obviously and perhaps superficially, choices about food. For many people there’s no higher commendation of a restaurant than to call it “authentic.” (This used to, and probably still does, drive the great food writer Calvin Trillin nuts. To the claim that a restaurant is “authentic” he would typically reply “No it isn’t.” But then he would ask, “Who cares? What matters is: Was it good? Did you clean your plate?”) A deeper problem is that nothing could be less authentic than thinking about authenticity, as Lionel Trilling noted forty years ago when he wrote a book on this topic that’s still deeply incisive, Sincerity and Authenticity.

2) The question of whether it’s possible to be “multiply rooted” — not rootless, but rooted in different places — is an increasingly insistent one not just for immigrants but for all kinds of people in a transient and mobile world. I have lived in Illinois for much longer than I lived in Alabama, but don’t feel rooted here: is that inevitable? Is that my fault? Have I somehow failed to put down the roots that I should have? Is just being an American, whether in Alabama or Illinois, a sufficiently rooted identity? (Few would say yes. Why not?) Can online identity provide roots? (Some people surely believe that it does.) And why does a felt lack of rootedness bother people, including me?

Things to think about…."
salmanrushdie  writing  identity  culture  authenticity  rootedness  roots  2012  lioneltrilling  food  thirdculturekids  belonging  unbelonging  modernity  alanjacobs  calvintrillin  sincerity  unrootedness  online  web 
october 2015 by robertogreco
Pico Iyer: Where is home? | TED Talk Subtitles and Transcript | TED.com
"And if "Where do you come from?" means "Which place goes deepest inside you and where do you try to spend most of your time?" then I'm Japanese, because I've been living as much as I can for the last 25 years in Japan. Except, all of those years I've been there on a tourist visa, and I'm fairly sure not many Japanese would want to consider me one of them.

And I say all this just to stress how very old-fashioned and straightforward my background is, because when I go to Hong Kong or Sydney or Vancouver, most of the kids I meet are much more international and multi-cultured than I am. And they have one home associated with their parents, but another associated with their partners, a third connected maybe with the place where they happen to be, a fourth connected with the place they dream of being, and many more besides. And their whole life will be spent taking pieces of many different places and putting them together into a stained glass whole. Home for them is really a work in progress. It's like a project on which they're constantly adding upgrades and improvements and corrections.

And for more and more of us, home has really less to do with a piece of soil than, you could say, with a piece of soul. If somebody suddenly asks me, "Where's your home?" I think about my sweetheart or my closest friends or the songs that travel with me wherever I happen to be.

And I'd always felt this way, but it really came home to me, as it were, some years ago when I was climbing up the stairs in my parents' house in California, and I looked through the living room windows and I saw that we were encircled by 70-foot flames, one of those wildfires that regularly tear through the hills of California and many other such places. And three hours later, that fire had reduced my home and every last thing in it except for me to ash. And when I woke up the next morning, I was sleeping on a friend's floor, the only thing I had in the world was a toothbrush I had just bought from an all-night supermarket. Of course, if anybody asked me then, "Where is your home?" I literally couldn't point to any physical construction. My home would have to be whatever I carried around inside me.

And in so many ways, I think this is a terrific liberation. Because when my grandparents were born, they pretty much had their sense of home, their sense of community, even their sense of enmity, assigned to them at birth, and didn't have much chance of stepping outside of that. And nowadays, at least some of us can choose our sense of home, create our sense of community, fashion our sense of self, and in so doing maybe step a little beyond some of the black and white divisions of our grandparents' age. No coincidence that the president of the strongest nation on Earth is half-Kenyan, partly raised in Indonesia, has a Chinese-Canadian brother-in-law.

The number of people living in countries not their own now comes to 220 million, and that's an almost unimaginable number, but it means that if you took the whole population of Canada and the whole population of Australia and then the whole population of Australia again and the whole population of Canada again and doubled that number, you would still have fewer people than belong to this great floating tribe. And the number of us who live outside the old nation-state categories is increasing so quickly, by 64 million just in the last 12 years, that soon there will be more of us than there are Americans. Already, we represent the fifth-largest nation on Earth. And in fact, in Canada's largest city, Toronto, the average resident today is what used to be called a foreigner, somebody born in a very different country.

And I've always felt that the beauty of being surrounded by the foreign is that it slaps you awake. You can't take anything for granted. Travel, for me, is a little bit like being in love, because suddenly all your senses are at the setting marked "on." Suddenly you're alert to the secret patterns of the world. The real voyage of discovery, as Marcel Proust famously said, consists not in seeing new sights, but in looking with new eyes. And of course, once you have new eyes, even the old sights, even your home become something different."
picoiyer  2013  place  belonging  culture  japan  california  migration  international  thirdculturekids  global  roots 
july 2015 by robertogreco
The roots of artistry | Harvard Gazette
"Artists eager to capture earth’s beauty know that Mother Nature often hides her wonders from easy view. But a clever new exhibit at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study is bringing some of that organic beauty out of the shadows.

Rosetta Elkin’s “Live Matter,” organized in collaboration with Radcliffe’s Academic Ventures arts program and on display in Byerly Hall through May 29, transforms the ordinary into the extraordinary through a simple shift of perspective.

Visitors to Byerly’s Johnson-Kulukundis Family Gallery will get a rare look at the complex and creative architecture of plant life typically hidden underground. Suspended by an intricate latticework attached to the gallery ceiling is part of the mature root system of a white poplar, Populus alba in Latin

“I wanted to extract a root system in order to highlight its beauty,” said Elkin, assistant professor of landscape architecture at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. “The exhibition is taking a view on live matter, plants, trees, that is never taken.

“I hope people take away an appreciation for the aliveness of the plant world,” she added, “and the mystery.”

The section of the root system was delicately extracted from a poplar at Harvard’s Arnold Arboretum. Elkin worked closely with the arboretum staff, using an air spade (a tool that blasts away the soil with pressurized air while keeping the roots intact).

An artist whose preferred medium was silkscreen, Elkin’s 2-D fascination became 3-D once she discovered landscape architecture after college. From then on, she “couldn’t work without space.”

Her professional projects have involved large-scale ventures: master plans, vegetation research in North Africa, and even a green reimagining of the headquarters of China’s Shenzhen Stock Exchange. But in such extreme urban or drought-affected environments, said Elkin, “It’s not about planting, but cultivating. It’s a very different set of operations, and it gave me a great appreciation for aliveness.”

Such big projects, which often involve large teams of architects and specialists, also gave her an appreciation for a smaller scale. For the past five years, she has turned to such projects for her installations. Her operating rule is: “Can I lift it? Can I move it? I need to be able to do the work myself.” For an installation at Boston’s Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum titled “Tiny Taxonomy,” Elkin offered up an inventory of some of the forest floor’s smallest plants for viewers to inspect at eye level.

Elkin hopes to shift the botanical narrative with her scaled-down approach to the seemingly ordinary. Scientific botany, with its measureable classifications, quantifiable data, simplification, and regularity, provides a “singular perspective that raises awareness of what we can do with plants, rather than what plants are actually doing,” notes her exhibit’s accompanying catalog.

Elkin is fascinated with the white poplar because of its capacity to clone itself endlessly. The tree sprouts its spindly root systems, consisting of long and fibrous fingers, in perpetuity. Its robust reproductive cycle makes it unpopular with homeowners, but it’s a botanical wonder to Elkin.

“This individual mother sends out roots not only to gain nutrients but also to reproduce,” Elkin said of the roughly 80-year-old poplar — still thriving in the arboretum — that yielded a part of its root system for the show. “Genetically, it’s exactly the same as the mother plant … it’s an everlasting, endless loop of the same kind of immortality of this plant that is just so successful that it tends to dominate.”

Elkin’s desire to shift people’s perspectives by highlighting the inherent beauty in living things is mirrored in her show catalog. Paired with images and text are comments and quotes from a range of scholars who “write with a deep appreciation for the aliveness of the plant.”

German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, naturalists Charles Darwin, Asa Gray, and others all wrote about plants, said Elkin, in a very different way than “capital-S science does.”

One of her favorite quotes appears at the beginning of the guide. It’s a line from the Austro-Hungarian botanist Raoul H. Francé, who wrote: “Form is but the track left by life.”

“It takes a particular kind of botanist,” said Elkin, “to write that line.”"
plants  trees  nature  poplars  2015  art  via:matthewbattles  rosettaelkin  roots 
may 2015 by robertogreco
Small Is Beautiful: Impressions of Fritz Schumacher by Donald Brittain, Barrie Howells, Douglas Kiefer - NFB
"This film is a short documentary portrait of economist, technologist and lecturer Fritz Schumacher. Up to age 45, Schumacher was dedicated to economic growth. Then he came to believe that the modern technological explosion had grown out of all proportion to human need. Author of Small Is Beautiful - A Study of Economics as if People Mattered and founder of the London-based Intermediate Technology Development Group, he championed the cause of "appropriate" technology. The film introduces us to this gentle revolutionary a few months before his death."

[via: http://hendersonhallway.wordpress.com/2014/02/12/small-is-beautiful/ ]
small  economics  video  film  documentary  scale  growth  sustainability  1978  donaldbrittain  barriehowells  douglaskiefer  philosophy  efschumacher  humanscale  dehumanization  passivity  conditioning  unschooling  deschooling  humans  society  behavior  economists  place  roots  community  mobility  rootedness 
february 2014 by robertogreco
Deconstructing the Experience of the Local: Toward a Radical Pedagogy of Place | Ruitenberg | Philosophy of Education Archive
"A radical pedagogy of place is a pedagogy of “place” under deconstruction, a pedagogy that understands experience as mediated, that understands the “local” as producing and being produced by the trans-local, and that understands “community” as community-to-come, as a call of hospitality to those outside the com-munis. In a radical pedagogy of place, students are taught to see the multiplicity of and conflicts between interpretations of a place, the traces of meanings carried by the place in the past, the openness to future interpretation and meaning-construction. A radical pedagogy of place does not pretend to offer answers to or “correct” interpretations of hotly contested places. A forest is a site of economic benefit to the logging and tourism industry, as well as an ecosystem, as well as land formerly inhabited by Indigenous people. An inner city neighborhood is a crime statistic, as well as an architectural site, as well as a social system held together by resilience and solidarity. A radical pedagogy of place acknowledges the local contextuality of discourse and experience, but it examines this locality for trans-local traces, for the liminal border- zones, for the exclusions on which its communal identity relies. It encourages not entrenchment in one’s locality and community but rather hospitality and openness.

It is ironic that one of the strengths of place-based education, touted by Orr and others, is that it forces educators and students alike to think and work in interdisciplinary ways: to leave the home of their discipline, to wander and engage in relationships with other disciplines. The hybridity of interdisciplinary approaches needed for place-based education is not possible without a certain nomadism. It might be objected that successful interdisciplinary work is possible only if the theorist is sufficiently rooted in the “home” discipline not to get lost in the wandering. This only underscores, however, that a home is not a home until one can leave it and open it to the other — otherwise, it is a prison.

If one wishes to educate students to have a commitment to their social and ecological environment, one needs to start with an emphasis on commitment rather than on locality or community. Despite the commonly used metaphor, human beings do not grow actual roots on which they depend for their physical, intellectual, or ethical nourishment. Instead, nomads who have learned the ethical gestures of hospitality and openness to a community-to-come will bring nourishment to any place in which they land."
claudiaruitenberg  community  communities  learning  commitment  place  location  local  2005  via:steelemaley  nomads  neo-nomads  roots  ecology  interdisciplinary  education  pedagogy  place-basededucation  environmentaleducation  davidorr  michaelpeters  jacquesderrida  thomasvanderdunk  gregorysmith  mckenziewark  robinusher  janicewoodhouse  cliffordknapp  paultheobald  shaungallagher  henrygiroux  anthropology  experience  radical  radicalpedagogy  johncaputo  drucillacornell  canon  place-basedlearning  place-based  place-basedpedagogy 
march 2013 by robertogreco
| When you’re in love with a beautiful house.
"We seem divided between an urge to override our senses and numb ourselves to our settings and a contradictory impulse to acknowledge the extent to which our identities are indelibly connected to, and will shift along with, our locations. An ugly room can coagulate any loose suspicions as to the incompleteness of life, while a sun-lit one set with honey-coloured limestone tiles can lend support to whatever is the most hopeful within us.

Belief in the significance of architecture is premised on the notion that we are, for better or worse, different people in different places – and on the conviction that it is architecture’s task to render vivid to us who we might ideally be."

– Alain de Botton in The Architecture of Happiness
alaindebotton  callieneylan  2012  houses  architecture  roots  emotions  meaning  place  location  homes  via:litherland 
august 2012 by robertogreco
Becoming Animal- Race, Terror and the American Roots Dick Hebdige [Saw a version of this performance at the Hammer. Awesome!]
"An early version of the text reproduced below was first given as a mixed-media presentation at an interdisciplinary conference on ‘‘Noise’’ held at the University of California, Santa Barbara in June 2002. The conference brought together a group of musicians, composers, visual artists, ethnomusiciologists and film, TV and media scholars drawn from a range of institutions sited in the States and abroad. What follows should be regarded more as the inchoate mapping or approximate documentation of a performance than as a conventional piece of written scholarship or criticism. Inevitably much is lost or at least significantly refigured in the translation from a ‘live’ real-time context complete with audio, slide and video inserts to the stereophonic silence of words upon a page but it is my hope that some of those readers who persevere beyond this preamble and who follow what follows will recognize or, failing that, will follow up/track down some at least of the audio citations."
dickhebdige  2007  history  mixedmedia  performance  performanceart  presentations  art  media  culture  music  race  terror  roots  audio 
july 2011 by robertogreco
Currents - The Struggle of the Global Placeless - NYTimes.com
"modern myth that globalization is new. But world has integrated before, disintegrated in war & integrated again. Goods & people have swirled for long time & in 17-19th century you might have found on any ship crew & passengers made up of slaves, traders, cooks, officers, colonizers & pilgrims more diverse...

What is arguably new is influence of placeless & elevation of placelessness, in some quarters at least, to virtue.

placeless are no longer just flotsam & jetsam of empires & colonies...president of US now...among our leading thinkers & bankers, philanthropists & public servants...

Sudhir Kakar...suggested this longing for place can be buried/denied/suppressed in placeless, but it will never truly go away.

postmodern notion of “multiple identities” has become fashionable...w/ its notion that “migration is opportunity to reinvent one’s identity.” But this vision, though liberating, denies role of place in forming consciousness, particularly in childhood"

[via: http://www.underpaidgenius.com/placeless ]
placelessnes  place  memory  identity  glvo  thirdculture  children  globalization  migration  immigration  class  borders  barackobama  2010  history  diversity  sudhirkakar  culture  roots 
april 2010 by robertogreco
Neo-nomad.net » Blog Archive » frequent repotting disrupts root systems
"“Compared with the citizens of most other countries, Americans have always lived a nomadic existence. Nearly one in five of us move each year and, having done so, are likely to pick up and move again. More than two in five of us expect to move in the next five years. As a result, compared with other peoples, Americans have become accustomed to pitching camp quickly and making friends easily. From our frontier and immigrant past we have learned to plunge into new community institutions when we move.
Nevertheless, for people as for plants, frequent repotting disrupts root systems. It takes time for a mobile individual to put down new roots.”

- Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community
nomads  roots  place  relationships  neo-nomads 
september 2008 by robertogreco
FT.com / Arts & weekend / Books - Dislocation, dislocation, dislocation
"I suspect that being a European third-culture kid is an excellent training for modern life. As the speed of change increases, it gets harder for people to have a sense of rootedness, even if they are living in the place where they grew up."
children  thirdculture  culture  life  connectedness  roots  place  identity  global  world  technology  bilingualism  language  travel  work  education  geography 
april 2007 by robertogreco

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