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robertogreco : situatedlearning   10

Why Situated Learning Matters — Medium
"Situated learning as an instruction model is based on observations made by anthropologists Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger. It argues that learning happens best where the knowledge is applied, whether in a specific social setting or a physical place. When learning is situated, it is an experience of a particular sort — one that is open for critical thought but guided by the practices of those who use the knowledge that is being learned in their everyday lives.

Even before Situated Learning was named and described by Lave and Wenger, John Dewey (not the Dewey Decimal System guy), recognized that experience is at the core of learning. He wrote a book called Experience and Education, which criticized the method that teaches something like mathematics independent of how it is used in the world around us. He argued that learning ideas from books and tests gives the appearance that knowledge is static and everything has already been discovered. It gives the impression that learning and discovery involves doing what one is told. While we want learners to understand and learn from the past, too often educational settings stop short of allowing learners to hypothesize and test ideas, and to learn from experiences that both succeed and fail.

Whether a learner is in a classroom, at home, or in the wild, his or her learning experiences are always in a context. The challenge educators face is how to design that context so that it supports the lessons being learned. They also need to be enjoyable and connected with the language and practices people actually use in the real world."
via:steelemaley  situatedlearning  learning  experience  experientiallearning  johndewey  jeanlave  étiennewenger  unschooling  deschooling  fielddaylab 
december 2015 by robertogreco
Learning how to learn
"Bateson himself uses the analogy of movement:

• Learning 0 is direct experience: I put my hand in the fire – it gets burned

Learning 0 is like the position of an object

• Learning I is what we routinely refer to as "learning": generalisation from basic experiences. I have experienced "hand in fire" and "being burned", and I won't do it again. This is straightforward and compatible even with behavioural views, as well as the cycle of experiential learning.

Learning I is its speed when it moves

• Learning II (which he sometimes called "Deutero-Learning") contextualises Learning I experiences. It is about developing strategies for maximising Learning I through the extraction of implicit rules, and also putting specific bits of Learning I in context: I don't generally risk getting burned, but I might do so to save someone else from a fire.

Learning II is acceleration (or deceleration)—a change in speed

• Learning III contextualises Learning II, and is not understood, but it may be the existential (or spiritual) level: What does it say about me that I would risk getting burned in order to ...?

Learning III is a change in the rate of acceleration — a change in the change of the change of position... The higher the level, the less we understand about the process, and although such higher level learning undoubtedly takes place, the more difficult it is deliberately to manage it.

Note that levels of learning are different from levels of understanding, as exemplified in Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, and also to be distinguished from the similar terminology of Gagné.

This account does not do justice to Bateson's very complex thinking, which starts from posing the question why people get better with practice at doing fairly meaningless tasks such as remembering nonsense syllables.
The interesting question for academic practice is the qualitative shift required to move from Learning 1 to Learning II, which some people find more difficult than others, perhaps in specific subject areas. How do we help them to achieve it? This may be the biggest remaining problem in in pedagogic/andragogic practice.

Some clues are contained in

• reflection, in
• problem-based learning and action learning,
• situated learning,
• and even in intelligence,

but we still don't have reliable answers.

Rant

This is more properly located on my personal site, but I can't contain myself. In the UK, we have this misbegotten, patronising, arrogant, (insert whatever other insulting adjectives you favour) idea of "teaching" "key skills" at college level.

"Key skills"—derived from the generic skills employers say that they want—include "Communication" and "Application of Number" [the comparative of "numb"—sorry, but I am ranting] (what are the schools supposed to have been teaching for eleven years before students reach further education?) and "teamworking" and "improving own learning" etc.

Note that I refer above to "the generic skills employers say that they want"; there is some evidence, which I can't presently be bothered to look up, which suggests that there is a mismatch between what employers actually go for when appointing their staff, and what they say they go for when asked by trade and official bodies.
What is more, it is routine for universities to require the specification of key skills outcomes on the templates even for post-graduate courses. How patronising and infantilising can you get? Fortunately, most academics treat such requirements with the contempt they deserve.

It has been my misfortune for several years to have to observe some very gifted student teachers wrestling with the thankless task of getting learners to provide evidence of "key skills" competence. They have stopped an animated discussion in class, for example, to get students to "discuss"—in a very desultory fashion—some topic in which they have no interest whatever, in order to be able to tick a box on a competence check-list. It is even more stupid than the idea of "Liberal Studies", which is where I started my teaching career: at least that was "high-minded" in its conception.

What the education control-freaks fail to realise is that some things are only learned by experience and practice. You can't short-circuit the process by teaching them.

Rant over! The relevance of this to the present topic is that the "soft" key skills project confuses Learning I and Learning II: you cannot address the key skills (which are Learning II) by simply adding on more Learning I competences: this is precisely the "category error" against which Bateson inveighs But the key skills advocates (and here I risk alienating my closest colleague and friend) seem to believe that all skills are at the same level. "Application of Number", and IT skills may be Learning I, but the "wider" key skills ("Working with Others", "Problem Solving", "Improving Own Learning and Performance") and even the central key skill of "Communication"—which includes the "discussion" requirement—are clearly Learning II, and although we know they can be learned, we do not know how to teach them in any meaningful way."
gregorybateson  learning  howwlearn  jamesatherton  2013  problemsolving  actionlearning  situatedlearning  reflection  intelligence  context  transcontextualism  bloomstaxonomy  education  experientiallearning  behavior  transcontextualization 
september 2015 by robertogreco
Learning in Landscapes: Research, Design, Praxis | T. Steele-Maley
"One of my summer research strands is to extend the work and design I am doing around participatory and practice based learning. I have found a few works exceptionally helpful and thought I would list them here in hopes others will too.

On my desk and causing an outpouring of thought and design is Learning in Landscapes of Practice: Boundaries, identity, and knowledgeability in practice-based learning.

What I like about this work is that it builds previous works of Wenger and Lave on situational learning, perspective and identity specifically: Wenger (1998) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity: Learning in Doing: Social, Cognitive and Computational Perspectives on CoP’s and the foundational work of Lave and Wenger on situational learning (1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation: Learning in Doing: Social, Cognitive and Computational Perspectives . I will also add the book all in education should read on critical ethnography by Lave (2011) Apprenticeship in Critical Ethnographic Practice .

I find each of these works intriguing and valuable towards the design of new professional development, organizational, and ultimately educational ecologies. Learning in Landscapes of Practice…. resonates because the concept of knowledgeability is so salient to schools and educational ecologies. In education, our silos for competency are legion and attempts to integrate professional development and participatory learning for the whole organization are very difficult. One of the main reasons for this, is our lack of robust frameworks to understand and critique the whole educational system that exists, quite often at this point, to perpetuate itself, as opposed to the needs of learners and communities.

This is tough work to tackle and the space of theory in schools often neglected. A common refrain in K-12 schools, “We do not have enough time for theory, we just need to….”, or, “we will leave that to the experts”. These views are at opposition with the reality that education is a social construct, that must be theorized, constructed/reconstructed through praxis, and care-taken by individuals in the community. No educator, parent or policymaker should leave the spaces of education, specifically praxis, unexamined. So where theory can open your eyes to a million valleys of thought and wonder, ultimately praxis allows for experience, knowledge building and networking towards both the boundaries and possibilities of education. These are critical conversations to have in education and society and I feel we need to tae a much closer look at what we are doing.

If you have considered these works in the K-12, Higher Ed or informal learning space please do reach out, via comment here or by way of Twitter, email…."
thomassteelemaley  lcproject  openstudioproject  experientialeducation  education  interdisciplinary  systemsthinking  raxis  2015  étiennewenger  ethnography  theory  practice  jeanlave  situationist  situatedlearning  community  communitiesofpractice  school  tcsnmy  professionaldevelopment  educationalecologies  knowledgeability  silos  transdisciplinary  organizations  organizationaldesign  socialconstructs  society  meta  experientiallearning 
june 2015 by robertogreco
Quote of the Day :: IDEA ["Compulsory Mis-Education by Paul Goodman…quote…remarkably summarizes IDEA's goals."]
"Thus at present, facing a a confusing state of automated technology, excessive urbanization, & entirely new patterns of work & leisure, the best educational brains ought to be devoting themselves to *various* means of educating & paths of growing up, appropriate to various talents, conditions, & careers. We should be experimenting / different kinds of school, no school at all, the real city as school, farm schools, practical apprenticeships, guided travel, work camps, little theatres & local newspapers, & community service. Many others…Probably more than anything, we need a community, & community spirit, in which many adults who know something, & not only professional teachers, pay attention to the young."

…I recognize…experimentation Goodman is referring to.

Big Picture Learning
Democratic/SudVal/Free schools
Unschooling groups and families
Unschooling Adventures Group
Place-based education
Online Education
Specialized schools"
paulgoodman  education  unschooling  deschooling  variety  alternative  alternativeeducation  zulekairvin  bigpictureschools  onlinelearning  democraticschools  sudburyschools  freeschools  place-basededucation  situatedlearning  cityasclassroom  community  servicelearning  apprenticeships  guidedtravel  farmschools  diversity  learning  lcproject  tcsnmy  experimentation  choice  place-basedlearning  place-based  place-basedpedagogy 
july 2011 by robertogreco
Between the By-Road and the Main Road: Being in the Middle: Learning Walks
"So imagine a commitment to learning that involved making regular learning walks with high school students as a normal part of the "school" day. Now, these learning walks should not be confused with walking tours, which are designed based on planned outcomes. One walks to point X in order to see object or artifact Y. The points are predetermined, hierarchical in design.

Instead, learning walks are rhizomatic. They are inherently about being in the middle of things and coming to learn what could not been predetermined. Learning walks are part of the "curriculum" for instructional seminar (which I described here)."

[My comments cross-posted here: http://robertogreco.tumblr.com/post/7182110515/walking-and-learning ]
maryannreilly  comments  walking  walkshops  adamgreenfield  flaneur  psychogeography  derive  dérive  education  learning  schools  teaching  unschooling  deschooling  noticing  observation  seeing  2011  rhizomaticlearning  johnseelybrown  douglasthomas  unguided  self-directedlearning  serendipity  johnberger  willself  rebeccasolnit  sistercorita  maps  mapping  photography  alanfletcher  lawrenceweschler  kerismith  exploration  exploring  johnstilgoe  noticings  rjdj  ios  situationist  situatedlearning  situated  hototoki  serendipitor  flow  mihalycsikszentmihalyi  experience  control  ego  cv  coritakent 
july 2011 by robertogreco
Situated learning - Wikipedia
"Situated learning was first proposed by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger as a model of learning in a Community of practice. At its simplest, situated learning is learning that takes place in the same context in which it is applied. Lave and Wenger (1991)[1] argue that learning should not be viewed as simply the transmission of abstract and decontextualised knowledge from one individual to another, but a social process whereby knowledge is co-constructed; they suggest that such learning is situated in a specific context and embedded within a particular social and physical environment."

[Also includes a section on "Situated Learning and Social Media"]
education  learning  teaching  unschooling  deschooling  lcproject  tcsnmy  situationist  situatedlearning  jeanlave  étiennewenger  pedagogy  socialmedia  lifelonglearning  cooperative  apprenticeships  fieldtrips  cooking  gardening  interaction  experientiallearning  cognition  edtech 
june 2011 by robertogreco
melaniemcbride.net » Melanie McBride
"Toronto-based early adopter, educator & digital culture specialist who writes, teaches & researches emergent literacies & learning. In 2010, Melanie joined Ryerson University’s Experiential Design & Gaming Environments (EDGE) lab team, where she is currently researching & writing about children’s learning in gaming environments and virtual social spaces. Melanie is also at work on a book about digital literacies and the hidden curriculum of emergent learning & education. Melanie has taught secondary, post-secondary, industry, alternative, at-risk & adult education. When she is not writing and researching she can be found raiding in World of Warcraft or tending her crops in Minecraft."

"Research Interests: Social justice, situated informal learning, gaming/game culture, MMOs and multiplayer games, virtual and persistent worlds, transmedia, remix and maker culture, Open technology, Open education, critical pedagogy, critical theory, hidden and null curriculum, privacy"
games  education  melaniemcbride  toronto  teaching  learning  gaming  play  situationist  situatedlearning  criticalpedagogy  criticaleducation  open  opentechnology  informallearning  transmedia  mmo  wow  unschooling  deschooling  lcproject  tcsnmy  situatedinformallearning  socialjustice  criticaltheory  privacy  simulations  digitalliteracy  emergentcurriculum  emergentlearning  hiddencurriculum  minecraft 
may 2011 by robertogreco
Leigh Blackall: Situated art, situated learning - En Route by One Step At A Time Like This
"I think the artistic intent of these concepts could be enhanced with study of Joseph Beuys' work, particularly the Free International University, as well as Situationist International and their desire to create environments for discovering and appreciating the true value of things rather than their staged value.

All of this makes for excellent examples to add to my essay in progress on Ubiquitous Learning - a critique, where I'm trying to argue that the words ubiquity and learning have nothing inherently to do with technology, and are instead words of ethical dimension, so the phrase ubiquitous learning should become one more to do with an ethical approach or framework to learning, and not one suggesting a technological determination of it."
context  situated  situationist  leighblackall  comments  josephbeuys  newpublicthinkers  technology  art  situatedlearning  ubiquitouslearning  2837university  agitpropproject  agitprop  williamhanks  randallszott  colinward  learning  unschooling  deschooling  education  messiness  ethics  georgesiemens  curation  curating  curatorialteaching  connectivism  space  place  explodingschool  adamgreenfield  guydebord  enroute  street  urban  urbanism  cities  cityasclassroom  thecityishereforyoutouse  cv  lcproject  psychogeography  urbanscale  salrandolph  situatedart 
may 2011 by robertogreco
Ubiquitous Learning - a critique - Wikiversity
"Ubiquitous learning as in situated learning, across platforms, devices, locations and jurisdictions, and including neglected historical references[1], ignored present initiatives[2], and acknowledging the risks of a darker future of corporate power over information, communication and medium[3].

So this is a critique of "Ubiquitous Learning", rejecting the notion as central content repository, or devices and software that favour such. Looking instead to that which supports and enhances peer to peer connection, contextualisation, localisation, device independence, and lowering barriers of cost, distraction, or central control."
leighblackall  ubiquitouslearning  conviviality  situatedlearning  contentrepositories  peertopeer  networks  networkedlearning  contextualization  distraction  centralization  localization  local  independence  unschooling  deschooling  critique  decentralization  software  communication  crossplatform  corporatism  information  control 
march 2011 by robertogreco
Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation ... - Google Books
"In this important theoretical treatise, Jean Lave, anthropologist, and Etienne Wenger, computer scientist, push forward the notion of situated learning--that learning is fundamentally a social process and not solely in the learner's head. The authors maintain that learning viewed as situated activity has as its central defining characteristic a process they call legitimate peripheral participation. Learners participate in communities of practitioners, moving toward full participation in the sociocultural practices of a community. Legitimate peripheral participation provides a way to speak about crucial relations between newcomers and oldtimers and about their activities, identities, artifacts, knowledge and practice. The communities discussed in the book are midwives, tailors, quartermasters, butchers, and recovering alcoholics, however, the process by which participants in those communities learn can be generalized to other social groups."
situatedlearning  learning  education  books  jeanlave  étiennewenger  society  social  community  tcsnmy  lcproject  apprenticeships  practice  relationships  situationist  participatory  participation  peripheralparticipation  process  via:leighblackall 
february 2011 by robertogreco

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