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robertogreco : via:unthinkingly   16

Gig Posters for Scientists | Flickr
"Hand screen printed posters for distinguished scientists visiting UNC Chapel Hill Biology."
posters  science  via:unthinkingly  biology  scientists 
october 2017 by robertogreco
LibraryBox
"LibraryBox is an open source, portable digital file distribution tool based on inexpensive hardware that enables delivery of educational, healthcare, and other vital information to individuals off the grid."
libraris  hardware  opensource  occupy.here  librarybox  piratebox  classideas  projectideas  via:unthinkingly 
june 2016 by robertogreco
Introducing InformaCam – The Guardian Project
[See also:
http://eyeofestival.com/2015/speaker/harlo-holmes/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rqR5K_6xwH0
https://blog.witness.org/2013/02/informacam-knight-news-challenge/ ]

"These are interesting times, if you go by Times Magazine as an indicator. The magazine’s person of the year for 2011 was The Protester, preceded in 2010 by Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg. Both entities partners with equal stake in freely sharing the digital content that shows the world what’s going on in it, at any time, from behind any pair of eyes.The Protester: Person of the Year Also casting in their lot with the others is Time Magazine’s 2006 person of the year, You: the You that puts the “you” in “user-generated content;” the You whose miasma of bits, bytes, and the powerful images they express are becoming increasingly problematic. Problematic and exciting. As governments, police forces, and other power players here and abroad crack down on voices of dissent, it is only You, The Protester, armed not with a press pass, but with a smartphone and a Twitter account, who brings the rest of the world its news. You do it mainly without either the support or permission of those in power, and this makes you a very important person in the world.

The smartphone’s role in the defense of human rights has thus become ever-more clear. How can we make it clearer? Our latest project, InformaCam, tackles this issue head-on. In collaboration with Witness.ORG and the International Bar Association, we’re building a powerful tool to create iron-clad digital images and video that could, should the occasion arise, be used in courts of law to bring justice. This is no small feat– with this project we are helping create the first evidentiary standards for digital media in the social networking age. So, there’s been a lot of excitement these past few weeks about InformaCam, as well as a lot of mystery. It’s time to give the project a proper unveiling.

InformaCam is a plugin for ObscuraCam that allows the user, without much intervention on their own part, to inflate image and video with extra points of data, or metadata. The metadata includes information like the user’s current GPS coordinates, altitude, compass bearing, light meter readings, the signatures of neighboring devices, cell towers, and wifi networks; and serves to shed light on the exact circumstances and contexts under which the digital image was taken. Some users will already be familiar with ObscuraCam, which allows for capturing and digitally manipulating media. With InformaCam included, the app starts to behave almost like Adobe Photoshop or GIMP, supporting non-destructive, layer-based edits to media. This means that a version of an image can be created with any sensitive image data and metadata preserved and encrypted to trusted entities, along with a redacted version that has its metadata stripped which can be easily shared to Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, or any public service the user wishes to use."
informacam  via:unthinkingly  2012  harloholmes  obscuracam  witness  protest  activism  technology 
january 2016 by robertogreco
Checkdesk | Meedan
"SHOW YOUR WORK
Verify digital media consistently and openly for your team and your readers. You can collate and organize your findings on Checkdesk’s verification log so others can replicate the steps. Share your results confidently as you draw research from multiple sources.

INVESTIGATE TOGETHER
Work quickly as a distributed team on Checkdesk with simple user accounts and group management. Open the door to contributions from your newsroom and your broader network of researchers, experts and citizen journalists.

PUBLISH ANYWHERE
Easily share and embed your findings on your primary news site. The Checkdesk embed automatically updates with new reports and a verification status, allowing you to safely share contested media."
meedan  checkdesk  journalism  bookmarking  research  publishing  via:unthinkingly  verification  media  socialmedia  factchecking 
january 2016 by robertogreco
The Internet Isn't Available in Most Languages - The Atlantic
"Tweet, tuít, or giolc? These were the three iterations of a Gaelic version of the word “tweet” that Twitter’s Irish translators debated in 2012. The agonizing choice between an Anglicized spelling, a Gaelic spelling, or the use of the Gaelic word for “tweeting like a bird” stalled the project for an entire year. Finally, a small group of translators made an executive decision to use the Anglicized spelling of “tweet” with Irish grammar. As of April 2015, Gaelic Twitter is online.

Indigenous and under-resourced cultures face a number of obstacles when establishing their languages on the Internet. English, along with a few other languages like Spanish and French, dominates the web. People who speak these languages often take for granted access to social-media sites with agreed-upon vocabularies, built-in translation services, and basic grammar and spell-checkers.

For Gaelic, a minority language spoken by only two to three percent of the Irish population, it can be difficult to access these digital services. And even languages with millions of speakers can lack the resources needed to make the Internet relevant to daily life.

In September of this year, the Broadband Commission for Digital Development, an organization established five years ago to monitor the growth and use of the Internet around the world, released its 2015 report on the state of broadband. The report argues that representation of the world's languages online remains one of the major challenges in expanding the Internet to reach the four billion people who don’t yet have access.

At the moment, the Internet only has webpages in about five percent of the world's languages. Even national languages like Hindi and Swahili are used on only .01 percent of the 10 million most popular websites. The majority of the world’s languages lack an online presence that is actually useful.

Ethnologue, a directory of the world’s living languages, has determined that 1,519 out of the 7,100 languages spoken today are in danger of extinction. For these threatened languages, social-networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, which rely primarily on user-generated content, as well as other digital platforms like Google and Wikipedia, have a chance to contribute to their preservation. While the best way to keep a language alive is to speak it, using one’s native language online could help.

The computational linguistics professor Kevin Scannell devotes his time to developing the technical infrastructure—often using open-source software—that can work for multiple languages. He’s worked with more than 40 languages around the world, his efforts part of a larger struggle to promote under-resourced languages. “[The languages] are not part of the world of the Internet or computing,” he says. “We’re trying to change that mindset by providing the tools for people to use.”

One such under-resourced language is Chichewa, a Bantu language spoken by 12 million people, many of whom are in the country of Malawi. According to Edmond Kachale, a programmer who began developing a basic word processor for the language in 2005 and has been working on translating Google search into Chichewa for the last five years, his language doesn’t have sufficient content online. This makes it difficult for its speakers to compete in a digital, globalized world. “Unless a language improves its visibility in the digital world,” he says, “it is heading for extinction.”

In Malawi, over 60 percent of the population lacks Internet access; but Kachale says that “even if there would be free Internet nation-wide, chances are that [Chichewa speakers] may not use it at all because of the language barrier.” The 2015 Broadband Report bears Kachale’s point out. Using the benchmark of 100,000 Wikipedia pages in any given language, it found that only 53 percent of the world’s population has access to sufficient content in their native language to make use of the Internet relevant.

People who can’t use the Internet risk falling behind economically because they can’t take advantage of e-commerce. In Malawi, Facebook has become a key platform for Internet businesses, even though the site has not yet been translated into Chichewa. Instead, users tack-on a work-around browser plug-in, a quick-fix for languages that don’t have official translations for big social-media sites.

“Unless a language improves its visibility in the digital world, it is heading for extinction.”
In 2014, Facebook added 20 new languages to its site and launched several more this year, bringing it to more than 80 languages. The site also opens up languages for community-based translation. This option is currently available for about 50 languages, including Aymara, an indigenous language spoken mainly in Bolivia, Peru, and Chile. Though it has approximately 2 million speakers, UNESCO has designated Aymara as “vulnerable.” Beginning in May of 2014, a group of 20 volunteer translators have been chipping away at the 25,000 words used on the site—and the project is on course to be finished by Christmas.

The project is important because it will encourage young people to use their native language. “We are sure when Aymara is available on Facebook as an official language, it will be a source of motivation for Aymara people,” says Elias Quisepe Chura, who manages the translation effort (it happens primarily online, unsurprisingly via a Facebook page).

Ruben Hilari, another member of the translation team, told the Spanish newspaper El Pais, “Aymara is alive. It does not need to be revitalized. It needs to be strengthened and that is exactly what we are doing. If we do not work for our language and culture today, it will be too late tomorrow to remember who we are, and we will always feel insecure about our identity.”

Despite its reputation as the so-called information superhighway, the Internet is only legible to speakers of a few languages; this limit to the web’s accessibility proves that it can be as just as insular and discriminative as the modern world at large."
internet  languages  language  linguistics  2015  translation  insularity  web  online  gaelic  hindi  swahili  kevinscannell  via:unthinkingly  katherineschwab  edmondkachele  accessibility  enlgish  aymara  rubenhilari  eliasquisepechura  bolivia  perú  chile  indigenous  indigeneity  chichewa  bantu  google  kevinsannell  twitter  facebook  instagram  software  computation  computing  inclusivity 
january 2016 by robertogreco
The Untapped Creativity of the Chinese Internet | VICE | United States
"[image]

Somewhere in mainland China, a kid in the grips of puppy love posts one of those raw, unmediated posts so saccharine it's both unbearably endearing and ridiculously funny. It's so completely melodramatic that other users stumble across the post and begin adding their own feelings and thoughts, remixing it to be even funnier. The words are skewed, images and music added, and finally uploaded to Bilibili.com, where users overlay their own comments onto the video in real-time.

The resulting GIFs, poems, videos, and comments spread through the Chinese internet on Sina Weibo and WeChat in a flurry of color and flashing animations. This is So in love, w​ill never feel tired again, an online exhibition of work by Chinese new media and net artist Yin​​g Miao, and it serves as a counterpoint to the West's view of the Chinese internet as bland and heavily censored. Despite all that I've been told in the West, the internet here looks incredibly fun and vibrant to me.

[image]

"The Chinese internet is really raw," Miao tells me. "It's so unlimited but also limited. It's really rich material." We are sitting in a café with our laptops open in downtown Beijing, a brief bike ride from Tiananmen Square. Miao is walking me through her artwork in preparation for the launch of the online exhibition series Ne​tizenet. Miao impresses upon me the depth of creativity on the Chinese internet, showing how memes emerge and morph across platforms and ideologies and around censorship.

While I'm becoming accustomed to relying on my VPN or Tor to use boringly functional sites like Gmail, Miao is taking me on an unblocked tour of her inspirations, the wildest and weirdest of the Chinese internet from behind the so-called Great Firewall. Here, everything can be remixed and .GIFs are always welcomed. Conversations on WeChat (the most popular messaging platform here) are an endless stream of reaction .GIFs that put Tumblr to shame.

[image]

In the series, LAN Love Poem, Miao explores her complicated feelings around the Chinese web. LAN stands for local area network and is suggestive of the localized nature of the internet, in both law and culture, that we in the West are rarely confronted with. Miao uses type inspired by Taobao.com (a site akin to eBay) and intentionally poor English translations of odes to her censored net.

The extreme creativity and vibrancy on the Chinese internet is hard to grasp as a Westerner who is a devout defender of free speech. My ignorance of Miao's raw material, and the many other aspects of Chinese net culture that are difficult to grasp is what Netizienet (or 网友网 in Mandarin and Wǎngyǒuwǎng in Pinyin) is all about.

[image]

Using NewHive, a multimedia publishing platform, Netizenet will examine the internet as a medium from within China, an internet very different from what I grew up with in the States. Through an ongoing series of online exhibitions by Chinese and international artists--of which Miao is the first--Netizenet asks important questions about creativity, differing online aesthetics, and location-based web access. Is the Chinese internet uniquely different from the rest of the world's, or does every country's web have its own unique aesthetics and traits?

The curator behind Netizenet is Michelle Proksell, an independent curator, researcher, and artist currently based in Beijing. Proksell was born in Saudi Arabia to expatriate American parents, and moved to the United States when the Gulf War was starting. Proksell loved traveling through Asia as a kid and this is why she eventually returned and has lived in China for over two years.

Proksell sees a ton of potential in Beijing and Shanghai for the arts, especially net art, and wants to help cultivate the scene. She was fascinated by how the Chinese internet influenced Miao's "artistic aesthetic, process and production," writing that Miao "has a bit of a love affair with the kitschy, low-tech aesthetic, and unreliable nature of this part of the [world wide web.]" ​

[image]

Miao is one of the few net artists in mainland China. She and Proksell have adopted the monumental task of helping to encourage a net art discourse in a country of over 620 million internet users as well as introducing that culture to the West. Proksell tells me, "I really wanted to set a tone for the project by working with an artist who had been intimate with this side of the web early in her art practice."

Miao has certainly been exploring the aesthetics and issues of access in the internet in her work for some time. In 2007, for her undergrad thesis exhibition at the China Academy of Fine Arts near Shanghai, Miao made The Blind Spot, which meticulously documented every word blocked from Google.cn. The piece took Miao three months to make and is a brilliant DIY version of Jason Q. Ng's work documenting blocked words on the popular Chinese social network Sina Weibo. But Miao has no interest in only focusing on the limitations of the Chinese internet, believing there are much more fascinating things underway.

For instance, iPhone Garbage is an incredible convergence of Chinese manufacturing, social media, and ​Shanzhai (slang for pirated and fake goods) culture. A heavily remixed video shows a young entrepreneur aggressively promoting his custom smartphone while continually calling the iPhone "garbage." In Miao's work we see a pushback on Western aesthetics and corporations in favor of a more local flavor.

[image]

Miao suggests that the emerging narrative of Shanzhai might be replicated in net art in China. At first Shanzhai referred only to cheap knockoffs that rarely worked and were an annoying thorn in "legitimate" companies' sides. Now, as Joi Ito has found, Shanzhai merchants are beginning to build entirely unique hardware, offering entirely different capabilities than their Western smartphone counterparts. Miao believes too that Chinese net culture should embrace their differences and push them as far as possible.

In an int​erv​iew between Miao and Proksell, Miao said, "I think there is a bright future for Chinese internet art." Proksell and Miao have an uphill battle proving that to the West, but just as I had never seen many of Miao's influences, this culture is emerging with or without the West's acknowledgement or support. Whether that appreciation comes or not, Netizenet is off to an amazing start and I for one will definitely keep my eyes open for the next show and on Miao."
via:unthinkingly  aesthetic  newaesthetic  internet  web  china  online  accretion  beijing  netart  netizenet  byob  michelleproksell  lanlovepoem  yingmao  newmedia  benvalentine  tumblr  newvibe  gifs  memes  poetry  poems  sinaweibo  weibo  wechat  animation  screenshots  low-techaesthetic  changzhai  socialmedia  joiito  2014  webrococo  newhive 
december 2015 by robertogreco
OpenStreetMap | pratikyadav's diary | Mapbox Mapping Project Guide
"Over the last few months, we've begun and completed several mapping projects. As our team has grown, we've needed clear guidance for the team to run a lead a mapping task from inception to completion in line with the best practices of mapping and ensuring the highest quality of contributions to the map.

We have put together a simple guide to how the data team approaches a mapping project on OSM.

Broadly the guide provides a checklist for a project lead to work through during the different phases of a mapping project:

• Inception : Background research on the project and identify the Why? question.

• Getting Started : Capture scope, tools and mapping workflow on a ticket.

• Trial Workflow : Involve the community in a clear and effective mapping workflow. Do a trial run with a small team to find do's and don't.

• Scale Up : Train the whole team for scaling up the project.

• Mapping : Publicise the project on relevent channels and involving active members of local OSM community. Constantly monitor progress, and identify tools and process to improve the workflow.

• Wrap Up : Improve mapping documentation, capture statistics and publish a final report on the OSM diary.

We invite everyone to have a look at our Mapping Project Guide [https://gist.github.com/pratikyadav/21e86a309733423bb844 ], and give us feedback, or track any of our recent and ongoing projects in the Mapbox mapping repository."
mapbox  osm  via:unthinkingly  2015  openstreetmap  mapping  maps 
december 2015 by robertogreco
NaTakallam | A Different Kind of Arabic Learning
"The best way to learn a language is to immerse oneself in its environment. While Arabic’s popularity continues to increase worldwide, traveling to the Middle East, for reasons ranging from cost to time and safety, is not always an option. Furthermore, academic and language institutes tend to teach ‘Fusha,’ formal literary Arabic ( Classical or Modern Standard Arabic [MSA]) , yet students are increasingly interested in `Ammiyyah,’ the local dialect and primary spoken form of Arabic in a given region.

Lebanon, a country of 4 million currently hosts some 1.2 million Syrian refugees, fleeing the now four-year-old civil war. According to the International Labor Organization, almost all Syrian workers in Lebanon (approximately 60% of the total Syrian refugee population) are employed in unprotected and potentially exploitative conditions in the informal economy.

NaTakallam operates on the above two fronts, aiming to alleviate the struggle of jobless Syrians in Lebanon by pairing them with students learning Arabic for conversation-focused classes over the internet. In providing Syrians with work opportunities, the platform also caters to a specific need within the Arabic learning community interested in the spoken Levantine (especially Syrian) dialect.

NaTakallam believes that maximizing one’s language skills relies on complementing traditional academic courses with conversation sessions, ideally in a one-on-one setting. Through this online platform, students gain full flexibility with respect to the timing, length, and format of the sessions. They also engage in a unique cultural experience."
arabic  education  languagelearning  via:unthinkingly  lebanon  syria  refugees 
september 2015 by robertogreco
Art as a weapon: Franz Seiwert and the Cologne progressives - Martyn Everett
"Although they displayed artistic links with the Dutch De Stijl, and with Russian Constructivism and Suprematism, the work of the Progressives differed from these movements in two ways; it was overtly political in its content, and it was almost exclusively representational and so retained an easy intelligibility - important because their art was not produced for the gallery, the art critic or other artists, but for ordinary people. The subject matter of their art, and the form in which it was executed was largely determined by their political beliefs. They also sought to break down the cultural exclusivity of art, by using an artistic language that could be easily understood, and which was widely disseminated in a form suited to the mass society created by capitalism. So they frequently utilised the woodcut or the linocut, which could be readily reproduced in the papers like Die Aktion and Der Ziegelbrenner.

The political constructivists were anxious to de-individualise art, and tended to concentrate in their work on groups and classes, and not on individual characters. Individuals are represented only to emphasise their powerlessness, or their subject position, concepts such as solidarity by grouping people together. (see figs 1 and 2) Figures were schematised to the point where they became completely anonymous - as anonymous and de-individualised as capitalism made them. This transformation of form was just as important as the transformation of content. Seiwert, who was the main theoretician of the Progressives, wanted to create a new art of the working class which would not just come from putting a proletarian prefix to bourgeois styles. Consequently the Progressives were determined to develop a new style which involved a rejection of gallery art:
If one correctly conceives labour as the maintenance of life of the individual and of the whole, then art is nothing other than the visualisation of the organisation of labour and of life. Panel painting, which was created not accidentally, but from an inner necessity coinciding with the rise of modern Capitalism, becomes inconceivable. Anyway, an individual work of art as confirmation of an egocentric type of person on the one hand, and, on the other, in the hands of its owner, as confirmation of his title as possessor, will no longer be possible. (Seiwert A bis Z 1932)



His surviving linocuts depict the dehumanised nature of the industrial system, with a physical environment that dominates the individual, rendering the worker an extension of the machine (see fig. 7)

Like the other Progessives Schmitz undertook solidarity work with the Communist International Workers Aid Committee, but as a rule the Progressives kept apart from the Communist Party, and the ASSO, the communist dominated Association of Revolutionary Artists. Seiwert explained the differences between them:
Just because its contents have a tendency to be 'proletarian', making statements about the struggle, solidarity, and class consciousness of the proletariat, bourgeois art has not by any means as yet become proletarian art. Form must be made subservient to content: content must recast form to become content. The work where this happens is created out of the collective consciousness where the self which creates a work is no longer bourgeois individualistic isolation, but a tool of the collective consciousness ... To maintain that when the content of a bourgeois art form makes a statement about proletarian problems this was proletarian art, seems to me a wholly Social-Democratic attitude, and in this context 'Social Democrats' includes those who are members of the Communist Party.

Seiwert then extends this critique into a more general attack on Communist methods:
It is exactly the same attitude which believes that the means of production, in the Capitalist sense, can be redirected from the control of those above to those below in a more far-reaching way than by the regulation of the means of production in a Communist society; the same attitude which believes in taking bourgeois technology from bourgeois industry and using it, in the hope that science developed in the service of the bourgeoisie can contain pure, independent, objective truth and, taken out of the hands of the bourgeoisie, can become science for the proletariat. Yes - science for the proletariat, so that it can remain the proletariat, but no means by which the proletariat can rise up and free itself.

A Communist society, and with it Communist culture, cannot be created by taking over the positions of Capitalist society and of bourgeois culture. Proletarian art exists when its form is the expression of the organisation of the feeling of solidarity, and of the class consciousness of the masses . . .

This statement, in spite of the terminology, encapsulates the anarchist rejection of authoritarian communist attempts to seize and use the state to direct a revolution, and reformulates it in terms of science, technology and culture.

In order to attack capitalist industrialism more effectively Seiwert resorted to a highly stylised representation, and the development of a simple pictorial language, which dialectically conceived, symbolised the opposing forces of capitalism and communism. A chimney, transmission belts, furnace, factory chimney and so on, stood for the inhuman aspects of industrialisation, whilst the sun, stars and trees have a positive value, pointing towards a better, socialist future. They can also have a negative significance, a crossed-out sun would strengthen the evil impression of the industrial scene. People are frequently depicted as being shaped or controlled by the system, and in many of Seiwert's linocuts a person's head is linked to the factory transmission belts to indicate that under capitalism the worker is only a part of the production process. (fig. 8)"
art  war  franzseiwert  via:unthinkingly  labor  capitalism  communism  history  germany  industrialism  dehumanization  work  culture  society 
may 2014 by robertogreco
What I Learned At Hiroshima (In Photos)
"The biggest and most pleasant surprise from my visit was how the Japanese have converted a horrible episode from human history into something positive, without skipping past the difficult parts. The peace museum tells a balanced story of WWII and the bombing itself, leading visitors through rooms about the current nuclear weapons treaties and the effects of nuclear radiation on citizens.
But the park is called the Peace Park and Memorial for a clear reason: they want to use their example to prevent similar horrors from ever happening again and they did an excellent job of making that the clear theme in the experience of visiting the place. They did a far better job at this ambition than any other historic war site I’ve seen, and I’ve seen many.
It seems mandatory that young students visit the center, as they were there in busloads. The primary frustration I had with the Peace Memorial Museum was having to navigate around gangs of Japanese kids. Even outside the museum we met many groups of children in the park and they were curious about foreigners, which was great to see. I’d say hello as they passed by in groups, and they always laughed and waved back at me.

Many of the younger students had assignments to talk to foreigners and practice their English. They asked me where I was from, what my name was, and what thoughts I had about the museum and world peace. It was a highlight of the entire trip to meet these children and talk with them for awhile."
ww2  wwii  japan  hiroshima  war  scottberkun  via:unthinkingly  2013 
february 2014 by robertogreco
Isotype Revisited | From hieroglyphics to Isotype
"From 1943 until his death in December 1945, Otto Neurath worked tirelessly on numerous versions of an innovative 'visual autobiography' titled From hieroglyphics to Isotype. After his death, only extracts from the original text appeared in print: as 'From hieroglyphics to Isotypes' [sic] in Future books: the crowded scene (volume III, 1947), heavily edited by Neurath's widow, Marie Neurath, and the film-maker Paul Rotha; and later in Empiricism and sociology, edited by Marie Neurath and Robert S. Cohen (1973).

Otto Neurath initially conceived From hieroglyphics to Isotype as a 'PICTURE BOOK, with a few explanatory notes only', adding that its purpose would be to 'show the different sources from which Isotype has evolved'. He wanted to reveal Isotype's genealogy by penetrating to its roots, looking at heraldic, allegorical, tattoo and playing card symbols; military drawings and battle plans; maps; still and moving photographic images; and projection and perspective presentations - in total, looking at instances of how 'the visual elements of a comprehensive visual language combine'.

Having formulated his intentions, there followed a flurry of writing and research. Neurath collated his ideas by making notes piecemeal on small scraps of paper (above; I.C. 3.2/76), which were stuck together and appended to his first rough draft. He added extensive notes for the book's contents, and long, detailed lists of chapters and of illustrations to be included from his own extensive and rich collection of 18th- and 19th-century ephemera.

Early drafts of Neurath's text received less than favorable criticism from Wolfgang Foges, managing director of the book packager Adprint (handling the book's production), who regarded the text (only half-jokingly) as self-absorbed Isotype propaganda. Neurath was advised to focus on and expand the biographical notes featured in the book's epilogue 'Glimpses at a visual autobiography', and this he did with enthusiasm and aplomb. In subsequent drafts, Neurath thus shifted his emphasis from the evolution of Isotype to a personal exploration of the visual stimuli that had engaged, challenged and influenced his life and work.

To show his conception of the book, Neurath created two mock-ups of it, including a rough cover design (shown at top), exacting page layouts and numerous examples of illustrative material. He composed further extensive and exacting lists of illustrations from books, prints, periodicals and journals for inclusion. Simply put, Neurath wanted it to be a big book 'with lots of pictures'.

Some sixty-five years on, work is now underway to collate the several variant texts of the visual autobiography held in the Otto and Marie Neurath Isotype Collection. The aim is to produce a judiciously edited and well-illustrated edition under the title From hieroglyphics to Isotype: a visual autobiography. Publication by Hyphen Press is planned for 2010. (ME)"

[See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Neurath
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurath%27s_boat ]
ottoneurath  books  toread  design  hieroglyphics  symbols  visual  via:unthinkingly  maps  mapping  autobiographies  paulrotha  marieneurath  robertcohen  isoptype  shipoftheseus 
december 2013 by robertogreco
Dither - Wikipedia
"
…[O]ne of the earliest [applications] of dither came in World War II. Airplane bombers used mechanical computers to perform navigation and bomb trajectory calculations. Curiously, these computers (boxes filled with hundreds of gears and cogs) performed more accurately when flying on board the aircraft, and less well on ground. Engineers realized that the vibration from the aircraft reduced the error from sticky moving parts. Instead of moving in short jerks, they moved more continuously. Small vibrating motors were built into the computers, and their vibration was called dither from the Middle English verb "didderen," meaning "to tremble." Today, when you tap a mechanical meter to increase its accuracy, you are applying dither, and modern dictionaries define dither as a highly nervous, confused, or agitated state. In minute quantities, dither successfully makes a digitization system a little more analog in the good sense of the word.
—Ken Pohlmann, Principles of Digital Audio[1]


The term "dither" was published in books on analog computation and hydraulically controlled guns shortly after the war.[2][3] The concept of dithering to reduce quantization patterns was first applied by Lawrence G. Roberts[4] in his 1961 MIT master's thesis[5] and 1962 article[6] though he did not use the term dither. By 1964 dither was being used in the modern sense described in this article."
dithering  etymology  computing  history  movement  dither  via:unthinkingly  digital  analog  vibration  agitation  accuracy 
november 2013 by robertogreco
Constructivism: From Philosophy to Practice. [.pdf]
"This exploration of constructivism begins with a discussion of constructivist epistemology and learning theory, explaining that constructivist epistemology is difficult to label, though many writers, educators, and researchers have come to an agreement about how this constructivist epistemology should affect educational practice and learning. The paper goes on to consider what constructivism means for learning, offering a summary of characteristics of constructivist learning and teaching and using the summary to compile a constructivist checklist. This checklist can be applied by educators to educational projects and environments in order to observe the way in which constructivist epistemology and theories of learning can be accommodated in educational practice. The paper concludes by suggesting that an important challenge for educational reform is to begin to question and come to greater understanding of the philosophy, theory, and epistemology that presently informs educational practice. (Contains 32 references.)"

[Quote from within highlighted by Chris Blow, who pointed me here.]

"In Moliere's Bourgeois Gentilhomme, the 'nouveau riche' Jourdain, who wants nothing more than to be accepted into the company of the French Aristocracy, makes an important discovery: "I am speaking prose! I have always spoken prose! I have spoken prose throughout my whole life!". Jourdain's sudden realization highlights the notion that not all our actions are necessarily directly guided by an overt knowledge of the reasoning behind them. In the same way, educators often adopt a particular approach or method without necessarily having purposely considered the theory or philosophy that underpins the approach. Intuition, successful experiences, observations: these factors play an important role in influencing the behaviour of teachers and, no doubt, often dictate their practice."
elizabethmurphy  constructivism  moliere  learning  unschooling  deschooling  practice  behavior  epistemology  education  teaching  via:unthinkingly 
november 2013 by robertogreco

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