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The Dostoevskys | by V.S. Pritchett | The New York Review of Books
https://www.facebook.com/gceaves/posts/10156499640506712

The story of Dostoevsky’s extraordinary second marriage during which he wrote his greatest novels is a novel in itself. He was forty-five and a widower; his first marriage and his love affairs had been disastrous; he was bankrupt; he had assumed the heavy debts of his dead brother and responsibility for the family, also for the predatory and offensive son of his own first wife by a previous husband. Dostoevsky was ill and drowning in a sea of promissory notes, and had had to stop writing Crime and Punishment because he had been trapped by a publishing rascal into another novel. A penalty clause had been put into the contract which would bind his earnings to the man for nine years if he failed to deliver the book within four weeks. He was exhausted and ill, and he had no clear story in his head beyond his experiences as a ruined gambler tormented by a neurotic young mistress.

In his plight he was persuaded to call in a girl stenographer—a new career for women in the 1860s—and a plain, awed girl of twenty arrived. He stared at her with embarrassment and in silence for two days and then suddenly found he could dictate. The novel was The Gambler, it was finished within two days of the deadline, and, as the girl had sharply foreseen, the publisher had disappeared into the country in order to dodge delivery and close the trap. Dostoevsky was forced to go round from one police station to another in St. Petersburg before he found an officer willing to give him a receipt for the manuscript. In the meantime the novelist had fallen in love with the stenographer—to whom he had nothing but his calamities to offer—and was astounded to find she had fallen in love with him.

Such young daydreamers as this Anna seemed to be do not usually last the course, but Anna did. The fact is that her obscure family and especially her father and herself were old admirers of Dostoevsky’s work: he was a hero before she met him. She was no intellectual; her one pride was that she was the prize pupil of the stenography school. It is interesting that her mother came of stolid Swedish Lutheran stock and her father, who was a reading man, from the Ukraine: a uniting of efficiency and imagination.

Anna inherited her mother’s independence and her matter-of-fact temperament, and under the influence of the feminism of the Sixties (and in the manner of the Nihilists whom she defended, though she disapproved of their rude manners and their affectation of sloppy clothes) she believed a girl should earn her living. If she was literal-minded and frankly said she did not understand Dostoevsky’s ideas, even when he tried to put them simply to her, she revered his work and gave him total devotion and family happiness for the fourteen…
Dostoevsky  books  biographies 
6 days ago
Why Is Evolutionary Psychology Controversial? | Psychology Today
Here’s a small thought experiment: Which of the following two statements do you think would generate more controversy in our modern world:

A. Men focus more on markers of fertility, such as lustrous hair and full lips, than women do when it comes to selecting a mate.

B. Basic emotions, such as joy, are expressed similarly in cultural groups across the globe.

A study that my team conducted a few years back (Geher & Gambacorta, 2010) found that statements related to psychological sex differences (such as the first statement from above) are much more politicized and controversial than are statements about general human universals (such as the second statement from above).

Interestingly, both of these kinds of phenomena fit under the broad umbrella of evolutionary psychology. Both can be thought of as psychological features that were shaped by eons of Hominid evolution to help our ancestors have increased likelihoods of survival and/or reproductive success.

The bottom line of our research on this topic is essentially this: Many modern academics, intellectuals, and educated laypeople aren’t resistant to evolutionary psychology so much as they are resistant to the idea of evolved behavioral sex differences which, as will be addressed later in this post, is only a slice of the broader field of evolutionary psychology. This said, many people seem to conflate (unnecessarily confuse) the broader idea of evolutionary psychology with the narrower research area of evolved behavioral sex differences. And, as you'll see, this is a problem.

Many Modern Scholars Hate Evolutionary Psychology Because of the Idea of Evolved Behavioral Sex Differences

In 2006, I was fortunate to have a carbonated beverage with renowned evolutionary psychologist David Buss when he visited New Paltz to give a talk. During our conversation, I asked David if he thought his (1996) book, Sex, Power, and Conflict: Evolutionary and Feminist Perspectives (co-edited with Neil Malamuth) had a positive impact on changing attitudes about evolutionary psychology among feminists.

His answer was delivered quickly and powerfully: “The impact was like throwing a pebble into a black hole.”

In an intensive piece of research on the topic of feminism and evolutionary psychology, Winegard, Winegard, and Deaner (2014) carefully analyzed how evolution-based ideas are presented in textbooks on sex and gender (offered by both psychology and sociology departments). In their systematic analysis (which included very strong methods for maintaining the reliability of coding) they analyzed 15 of the most widely used textbooks in this area. Specifically, they looked for occurrences of eight specific kinds of errors–they looked for content that showed erroneous conceptions of evolutionary ideas.

The specific errors that they found included the following:

The “Lack of Evidence” error (which suggests that there is no evidence for any evolution-based hypotheses, in spite of the existence of thousands of empirical studies that have been published in this area)
The “Nature/Nurture Dichotomy” error (which suggests that evolutionary psychologists see behavior as being either due to biological factors (nature) or environmental factors (nurture); in fact, many evolutionary concepts, such as life history strategy, include an interaction of both kinds of factors (see Geher, 2006))
The “Naturalistic Fallacy” (which occurs when someone sees a finding presented as “natural” and erroneously infers that this finding is somehow being framed as how things “should be”)
The “Political Agenda” Fallacy (which suggests that evolutionary psychologists have a politically conservative bias and that research conducted in this area is tainted accordingly (which is simply not true; see Tybur et al., 2007)
The “Species Selection” Fallacy (which suggests that evolutionary psychology is premised on somehow trying to “improve the species” as a whole; simply not true: see Dawkins, 1976)
The “Strawman Argument” (which paints evolutionary psychology, in one way or another, as illogical and/or unscientific; again, simply not true: see Ketelaar & Ellis, 2000)
The “Intentionalistic Fallacy” (which erroneously assumes that evolutionary psychologists see humans as conscious fitness optimizers (intentionally trying to reproduce) as opposed to unconscious adaptation implementers, which is actually much more fitting of how evolutionary psychologists conceptualize human behavior)
The “Mechanical Demonstration” (which assumes that if a scholar doesn’t understand the specific mechanics of some phenomenon (such as an evolutionary scholar not knowing which particular gene variants relate to some adaptation) then the information is void)

A short version of the results of that research is this: Many of the textbooks committed many of these errors.

To the current point regarding a fierce attitude toward the idea of behavioral sex differences, it is noteworthy that many of the examples used by the authors of this article, as selected by the textbooks that were analyzed, specifically draw upon behavioral sex differences as being particularly problematic. Consider some of the below examples:

(Political Agenda): Another concern is the claim that gender differences have evolved over time, which implies that gender differences are inevitable and unchangeable. Biology then becomes an excuse for accepting differences and not advocating for social change (Rider, 2005, p. 117; as cited in Winegard et al., 2014).
(Intentionalistic Error): The sociobiological view of sex differences assumes that sexual intercourse will lead–or is intended to lead–to reproduction. Today, I doubt that the majority of men are thinking about establishing paternity and the majority of women are thinking about their partners‘ ability to support a child when deciding whether or not to engage in sex. (Helgeson, 2012, p. 114; as cited in Winegard et al., 2014)
(Mechanical Demonstration Error): Evolutionary psychology has failed to incorporate this work, and fails to specify which genes and biochemicals are responsible for the patterns of gender differences that they claim have evolved. (Hyde and Else-Quest, 2013, p. 35; as cited in Winegard et al., 2014)

Takeaway points: Many feminist scholars despise evolutionary psychology specifically as it relates to the idea of evolved behavioral sex differences. Further, many of these same scholars hold an erroneous view of evolutionary psychology. Sigh.

Evolutionary Psychology Extends Well Beyond Evolved Behavioral Sex Differences Anyway

As pointed out in detail in our new book Positive Evolutionary Psychology, Darwin’s Guide to Living a Richer Life (Geher & Wedberg, 2020), the field of evolutionary psychology is extremely broad in its scope. While research on evolved behavioral sex differences certainly has been a prolific slice of the broader field of evolutionary psychology (see Buss, 2017) it is hardly the only thing that is studied within this field. As we demonstrate in detail in our book, evolutionary psychologists study such broad-ranging topics as:

Parenting
Education
Politics
Emotions
Morality
Social Life
Religion
Aggression
Mental Health
Physical Health
Technology and Behavior

And more.

The field of evolutionary psychology addresses any and all facets of the behavioral and psychological experience (Carmen et al., 2013). The conflation of “evolutionary psychology” with “the study of evolved behavioral sex differences” is, simply, unfortunate at best.

Bottom Line

In 1859, Charles Darwin published a book that would permanently change how we understand the world and our place in it. This said, modern academia has famously put up barricades when it comes to the teaching of evolution—especially when it comes to ways that evolution bears on the human experience.

Many scholars conflate “evolutionary psychology” with the highly controversial and politicized research topic of “evolved behavioral sex differences.” This conflation is not only unnecessary, but it further has the capacity to impede our ability to best understand what it means to be human.

Darwin’s ideas, now well over a century old, have barely begun to scratch the surface when it comes to understanding what it means to be human. How about we take politics out of the picture so that we can use the behavioral sciences to best advance the human condition?

Note: Part of the content of this blog post is being used in preparation for a panel on the study of sexuality that I will give (along with Michael Bailey and Catherine Salmon) on Friday, January 10 at the second biannual Heterodox Psychology Conference in Orange, CA. Interested in multiple perspectives in psychology? Like the idea of southern California in January? Hope to see you there! (More Information on the conference is here)

References

Bailey, M., Geher, G., & Salmon, C. (2020). Walking on the Edge: Controversial Topics in the Study of Human Sexuality. Invited panel for the second biannual Heterodox Psychology Conference. Orange, CA.

Buss, D. M. (2017). The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating (Revised edition). New York: Basic Books.

Buss, D. M., & Malamuth, N. (1996). Sex, Power, and Conflict: Evolutionary and Femimist Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.

Carmen, R. A., Geher, G., Glass, D. J., Guitar, A. E., Grandis, T. L., Johnsen, L.,Philip, M. M., Newmark, R. L., Trouton, G. T., & Tauber, B. R. (2013). Evolution integrated across all islands of the human behavioral archipelago: All psychology as Evolutionary Psychology. EvoS Journal: The Journal of the Evolutionary Studies Consortium, 5(1), 108-126.

Darwin, C. (1859). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (1st ed.). London: John Murray.

Dawkins, R. (1976/1989… [more]
Evolutionary-Psychology 
10 days ago
Ignacio SánchezPrado on Twitter: "Since people are super worried about whether white Americans are even allowed to write about Mexico, here is a thread about white Americans and Brits who wrote amazing books about Mexico admired by Mexicans. So if you wa
Since people are super worried about whether white Americans are even allowed to write about Mexico, here is a thread about white Americans and Brits who wrote amazing books about Mexico admired by Mexicans. So if you want to begin with white writers to learn about Mexico, read:
SJWs 
12 days ago
Jane Austen's Whisper Networks - Electric Literature
Public discussion of Austen’s work tends to focus on heterosexual romantic relationships, but the female networks that surround her heroines deserve equal analysis and weight—because of what they tell us about Austen’s time, but also about our own. These networks have endured since the Regency era because they are still sadly necessary. A shitty man taking advantage of you can still ruin your reputation as thoroughly as in the Regency era, albeit in a different way than a Lydia Bennett or Maria Rushworth. But as Austen hints,the most important thing to learn, as a woman trapped within a patriarchal society, is how to befriend, trust, and above all talk, to other women.
Jane-Austen 
16 days ago
Friendship Is Crucial to the Adolescent Brain - The Atlantic
We know that when they’re with their friends, adolescents are more likely to behave recklessly. A teenage driver who has other teenagers in the car is four times more likely to crash than one who is alone. The same is not true of adults. Teenagers are more likely to commit crimes when they’re together. Adults tend to be alone when they break the law. A teenager’s first sip of alcohol, or toke of marijuana, or experimentation with other drugs is more often in the company of friends than not. Specifically, they are seven times more likely to drink with friends than family and almost never drink for the first time when alone. Most adults think the blame goes to peer pressure—the sometimes overt, sometimes subtle urging by a teenager’s friends to try it, to chug, to just have one hit. But Steinberg has shown that it isn’t as simple as that. He and his colleagues discovered what they call a “peer effect.” Pressure doesn’t have to come into it, merely presence.

...Who the peers are becomes very important. “Parents shouldn’t worry about peer pressure or peer influence,” Steinberg said. “They should worry about who the peers are that their kids are hanging around with.” When kids hang around with students who get better grades, their own grades go up over time. Teenagers can also pressure one another not to use drugs. Of course, the reverse is true as well. “Virtually all kids, because of the nature of adolescence, are going to be susceptible to peer influence and peer pressure,” Steinberg told me. “The question really is, whom are they influenced by and what is it they are being pressured to do?”
friendship  adolescents  childhood-friends 
18 days ago
Stay-at-home Moms Don’t Actually Have More Children | Be Korea-savvy
In major advanced countries, the more women engage in economic activities, the more children they have.

According to a report from the Korea Association of Public Finance, based on 1990-2016 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country panel data, the number of childbirths increased significantly as women’s participation in economic activities increased.

Women’s flexibility of economic participation in the total fertility rate stood at 0.09 to 0.13 with a consistent “plus” effect even when variables such as women’s working hours, parental leave and wage gaps were applied.

In particular, when comparing the factors that determine the total fertility rate before and after 2000, it has become clear that the total fertility rate tends to increase with the increase in women’s participation in economic activities since 2000.

This can be attributed to the increase in household income due to women’s participation in economic activities, and thus the effect of raising the birth rate is increased.

The fact that higher average wages led to a higher the birth rate also supports this hypothesis.

Previously, it was believed that increasing education levels for women would have an alternative effect of increasing market wages and increasing opportunity costs for raising children.

This is what late Gary Becker, a Nobel Prize-winning professor of economics and sociology at the University of Chicago, illustrated in his seminal paper “A Reformulation of the Economic Theory of Fertility.”

However, various forms of policy support have been provided for families, and the distinction between male and female breadwinners has been blurred.

This means that the Becker theory has no longer been valid in most OECD countries since 2000.

In addition, factors that determine the birth rate show that higher unemployment and longer working hours for women have a negative impact on the total fertility rate.
Korean-birth-rate  Korean-working-parents  Korean-working-mothers 
18 days ago
S. Korean parents under 24 face economic difficulties and social prejudice : National : News : The Hankyoreh
Despite their dire needs, young parents found the barriers to government assistance daunting. With no separate system in place to support young parents, those hoping to receive government subsidies must be recognized as eligible for either basic livelihood security or single-parent household assistance. To receive livelihood benefits, an applicant must be making less than 30% of the median income -- 520,000 won (US$449.76) a month for a single-person household, 890,000 won (US$769.72) a month for a two-person household. For a young parent who is still a minor to be ruled eligible for basic livelihood security benefits, they must prove that their parents do not have the ability to provide support as mandated by the law. Because young parents are frequently shunned by their parents, they have difficulty providing documentation to neighborhood centers and other office regarding their parents’ inability to offer support.
Korean-parents  Korean-single-parents 
18 days ago
Japan’s Paternity Leave Is Generous, But Few Dads Take It - The Atlantic
The hype around Koizumi’s minimal leave reflects the disconnect between his country’s official parental-leave allowances and how things work in practice: Japan offers one of the most generous paternity-leave packages in the world (a full year), yet the rate at which eligible fathers working in the private sector take leave is quite low (about 6 percent).

...What’s more, a 2017 Japanese government-commissioned study found that just over a third of new fathers wanted to take paternity leave, but didn’t. What’s stopping Japanese dads from taking time off?

Policy and cultural norms each play a role when it comes to who takes parental leave and how much, and in Japan, culture has been the more powerful force. According to Machiko Osawa, the director of the Research Institute for Women and Careers at Japan Women’s University, the country’s work culture strongly discourages dads from taking time away from the office. “Taking paternity leave is more likely to reduce promotion possibilities in the future, since this is a signal that a man values his private life,” she wrote to me in an email. “In Japan, those who put work as a priority and work long hours receive high evaluations and are more likely to be promoted.”

In the past several years, a small number of men who object to these customs have filed lawsuits against their employers for what they say is unfair treatment. One, a Japanese national in his late 30s who has preferred to stay anonymous, claims that his employer, the sportswear company Asics, punished him after his stints of parental leave following the births of his two children. He maintains he was moved from a sales-and-marketing position to a warehouse job, doing manual tasks; after he sustained a shoulder injury at work, he was assigned to a different desk job, one that he claims to have no expertise in. “I spend all day staring at my computer with not much to do,” the man told CNN. Asics denies his allegations, and said in a statement it “look[s] forward to clarifying the facts in court.”

A country’s work culture can limit the success of even generous policies. Japan’s exceptionally long parental leave and relatively high pay for participating fathers—the country gives dads making average earnings roughly 60 percent of their wages during a year-long leave—is of little use if dads fear negative repercussions at work for taking time off. In South Korea, which gives its fathers 53 weeks of leave, a demanding work culture also contributes to a low participation rate (as does the fact that dads taking time off there are only paid at most 30 percent of their earnings). “It’s not sufficient to have the leave if the culture doesn’t support it,” said Monika Queisser, the head of social policy at the OECD, a group representing 36 mostly wealthy countries.
Japanese-workplaces  Korean-workplaces  Korean-paternity-leave  Japanese-paternity-leave 
18 days ago
News View
It's long been suggested that in developed countries, women who work full time tend to have fewer babies.
But data from the OECD seem to show otherwise.
The Korean Association of Public Finance studied OECD data from the years 1990 to 2016.
It found a positive correlation between women working outside the home and the total fertility rate of zero.zero-9 to zero.1-3.
That includes variables such as the number of hours worked, maternity leave, and the pay gap.
The researchers said, for one thing, they found a positive impact on total fertility from the increase in household income brought in by women who work outside the home.
Korean-birthrate  Korean-working-mothers  Korean-demographics 
19 days ago
[Column] S. Korea’s glass ceiling becomes a bit lower : Editorial & Opinion : News : The Hankyoreh
As the first example of a mandatory gender quota in the private sector, the word “miracle” is no exaggeration. Although I’ve written several pieces about the female quota, I often found myself wondering privately whether this could actually happen in Korea. Not only the patriarchal nature of Korean culture but also the misogyny that has grown worse in recent years and the narrative about angry Korean males in their 20s seemed like insurmountable obstacles. What could have made such a miracle possible?
Korean-glass-ceiling 
20 days ago
South Korea's Suicide Problem - The Peninsula Report
According to the OECD, South Korea ranks #1 for suicide among OECD countries and #1 in the Western Pacific, according to the World Health Organization. It is also the only OECD country whose suicide rates have increased since the 1990s. Something is clearly very wrong and it deserves far more attention than it is currently receiving.
Korean-suicide  Korean-mental-health 
20 days ago
Can a Porn Website Liberate Women in Art?
An artwork doesn’t disrupt the male gaze simply because it’s created by a woman. For example, Marilyn Minter’s high-gloss inkjet prints of women’s pubic areas, framed by their manicured hands (Plush series, 2014), fetishize with all the subtlety of a porn-magazine spread. It’s hard to see how Delia Brown’s live drawing studio disrupts the gaze: a small window in a gallery wall invites all viewers to watch as Brown paints nude and semi-nude women. And Trulee Hall’s videos of attractive women in lingerie groping giant rocks (SexyTime Rock Variatons, 2019) and live and papier-mâché women simulating group sex (Eves’ Mime Menage, 2019) seem to hover between performing and parodying women’s desire.

None of these works seem to critically engage with or reclaim female sexuality, nor do they push boundaries. Duchamp’s “Étant donnés” (1946-66) may be misogynistic, but it bites back at the viewer with its voyeuristic charge. (And no feminist artist confronted Duchamp’s male-centric art more audaciously than Hannah Wilke, who is not in the exhibition, in her deliberately stilted 1976 striptease video Hannah Wilke Through the Large Glass.)

...While eroticism may be a conduit to liberation for some women, pornography is its own animal, and invites a host of thorny issues in relation to female self-determination. But without a sharper focus on society’s attacks on the agency and bodies of women, especially in relation to sex, the necessity of casting The Pleasure Principle as an explicitly all-female show is unclear. It’s delusional to think that free internet porn could play a meaningful part in women’s rights, when Pornhub’s viewers are 75-percent male and the exploitation and degradation of women are integral to pornography’s appeal; and Pornhub’s suggestion, through its sponsorship, that women can refuse or transcend their objectification in explicit portrayals feels disingenuous at best. The voices that rise to the occasion here do so because they are stronger than the platform they’ve been given.
pornography  sexual-objectification  male-gaze 
21 days ago
Majority of Abandoned Babies from Baby Boxes Sent to Government Facilities | Be Korea-savvy
Job requirements and standards for heads and employees at the protection facilities were also found to be poorly established.

Between 2014 and February 2019, 167 heads and employees who worked at the protection facilities had been diagnosed with severe mental illness, including schizophrenia and delusional disorder, and 36 individuals had been diagnosed with illnesses derived from alcohol and drug abuse.

The Ministry of Health and Welfare currently restricts sex criminals and child abusers from working at child protection facilities, but there are no regulations in place for hiring alcoholics and drug addicts.
Korean-orphans  Korean-adoption 
21 days ago
[News Focus] International marriages increasing after lull in 2010s
The ministry’s annual data showed that Americans had slid to No. 4 on the list of nationalities making up the greatest percentage of foreigners in Korea. Previously, as of 2015, US nationals held the No. 2 rank at 138,000 -- only Chinese were more numerous, at 955,000. But in 2016 and 2017, Thais and Vietnamese overtook those from the US in proportion to Korea’s overall foreign population.

As of 2018, Chinese maintained the No. 1 position with 1.07 million nationals living here, trailed by Thais with 197,000, Vietnamese with 196,000 and Americans with 151,000. Next were Uzbeks with 68,000 and Japanese with 60,800.
Korean-demographics  Korean-immigrants 
21 days ago
Nursing Clio Containing Explosives: The Cold War Link between Bombs and Breasts
As white Americans worked hard to build this utopia for the idyllic nuclear family, a particularly toxic emphasis on domesticating sexuality as a defense against the spread of communism took root in suburbia. Historian Elaine Tyler May argues that atomic-age anxieties resulted in couples marrying younger and younger. To protect the suburban home, young men and women had to keep their sexual urges under control. While the United States military fought containment battles abroad in an effort to confine communism to faraway places, the domestic struggle to protect Americans from disorder depended entirely on the sanctity of family life in whitewashed suburbia. In this way, anxious Americans began to link unstable family life, especially if it resulted from sexual promiscuity or homosexuality, with potential communist takeover. This logic, then, necessitated that American men be strong, protective, and masculine because their virile chivalry provided pillars for the American way of life in the postwar period. On the flip side, wives needed to be docile, attentive, and sensuous, but only enough to keep their husbands interested and satisfied and not so much that it caused disruption to the stability of their home. As a result, advertising, media, and even government propaganda began to promote clear linkages between female sexuality and dangerous weaponry. This subliminal messaging implied that female sexuality was specifically destructive. Just like communism, it needed to be contained.

This duality of female sexuality as something that was both submissive and explosive paralleled the rhetoric of the nuclear arms race. May explains this connection as one between “taming fears of the atomic age” and “taming women.”3 This ideological linkage made words like “bombshell” or “knockout” synonymous with sexual attractiveness. May argues that this Cold War emphasis on dominating female sexuality can be described as a cultural push for “sexual containment.” She goes on to suggest that the evolution of women’s fashion in the first half of the twentieth century displays the transition from flapper aesthetic that evoked “boyish freedom” to the “quasi-Victorian long, wide skits, crinolines, and frills…with exaggerated bust lines and curves that created the aura of untouchable eroticism” that characterized the atomic age.4 She argues that “the body itself was protected in a fortress of undergarments, warding off sexual contact but promising erotic excitement in the marital bed.”5 Enter the bullet bra.
lingerie  bras  bullet-bras 
22 days ago
Raphael Rashid on Twitter: "I met my former (Korean female) colleague yesterday. We had a little too much coffee. After leaving coffee shop, she was like "shit I need to pee" I pointed to the public toilet in front of us. "Raph... us ladies don't use thos
Raphael Rashid
@koryodynasty
I met my former (Korean female) colleague yesterday. We had a little too much coffee. After leaving coffee shop, she was like "shit I need to pee"

I pointed to the public toilet in front of us.

"Raph... us ladies don't use those anymore..."

Sent shivers down my spine. #molka
12:30 AM · Jan 25, 2020·Twitter Web App
molka  Korean-hidden-cameras  Korean-spycams 
22 days ago
Eye-tracking study finds sexually fluid women assess other females’ bodies in a manner similar to men
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-51320-001

Women who are flexible in their sexual attraction have gaze patterns that are similar to heterosexual men when viewing a nude female body, according to new research published in Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences.

“While the components of sexual psychology are typically seen as having discrete categories, recent research has begun to suggest that sexual attraction, gender identity, and sexual behavior should be considered on a continuum. This notion has been termed sexual fluidity,” noted the authors of the study, which was led by David R. Widman, a psychology professor at Juniata College.

In the study, 81 undergraduate students viewed images of nude male and female bodies on a computer screen, which was equipped with an eye tracking device. The participants also completed several surveys to assess their sexuality.

In line with previous research, Widman and his colleagues found that women tended to be more sexually fluid than men, meaning women were more likely to report that their sexual attractions, fantasies, and behaviors had fluctuated over time.

The researchers also found that women who reported more fluidity gazed at female’s chest region more than less fluid women.

“The most interesting part of the findings were that women who were fluid in their sexual interests scanned women’s bodies in a similar way to men; they spent more time looking at the breasts of the female stimuli,” Widman told PsyPost.

But why are women more fluid than men on average? Some theories suggest that this is a result of reproductive pressure from men and previous research has found that a considerable proportion of heterosexual men desire women who experience same-sex attractions.

“These attractions may serve to bring other women to a relationship, decrease cuckoldry by giving women an outlet for sexual gratification outside of the pair without risk of pregnancy and decrease possible conflict in households with multiple wives, especially given polygamy was considered much more common in the ancestral condition,” Widman said.

But as with all research, the study is not without some caveats.

“In pilot testing, we found that our men would not gaze long at the breasts, as had been reported by others. However, by pixelating the faces, we found the men did spend time on the breasts. This allowed us to compare the men to the women in the study,” Widman explained.

“As to why the men did not focus much time on the breasts in the non-pixelated condition, we think it was due to the experimenters; they are both attractive young women. We think that they were too polite to stare.”

“We also found that heterosexual women did gaze at men’s sexualized areas as well. This is slightly different from the literature that suggests women spend more time gazing a nude men’s faces. Although the face receives significant attention, the hips and groin received equal attention,” Widman added.

“I attribute this to the pixelation of the male stimuli’s faces for similar reasons as the men not gazing at the breasts of the nude women, political correctness and decorum. However, when we pixelate the faces this allows the attention to move.”

The study, “Gaze Patterns of Sexually Fluid Women and Men at Nude Females and Males“, was authored by David R. Widman, Madeline K. Bennetti, and Rebecca Anglemyer.
male-gaze  female-gaze  queer-female-gaze 
22 days ago
[Reportage] Elderly S. Koreans who fall through the cracks in the state welfare system : National : News : The Hankyoreh
“Quite a few people assume they’re ineligible for government assistance if they have family members who could support them and don’t even come in for a consultation. If someone lets us know about their situation, we’ll look up the welfare service that’s best suited for their household,” said Park, the public servant.
Korean-social-welfare  Korean-elderly 
23 days ago
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