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tsuomela : altruism   24

A normative explanation of antisocial punishment
"While much research shows that people punish free-riders, recent studies find evidence that people also engage in antisocial punishment. That is, they sometimes punish those who contribute generously to collective actions. Such sanctioning is puzzling because generous individuals increase the welfare of all group members. When and why are such individuals punished? In this paper, we propose that descriptive norms are part of the explanation. People may sanction those whose behavior is atypical – even when that behavior benefits the group. We test our theory with a laboratory experiment. We examine the effect of descriptive norms on sanctioning of generous and stingy deviants and find that descriptive norms encourage antisocial punishment, but not punishment of free-riders."
social-psychology  norms  behavior  conformity  altruism  sharing  community  pro-social  anti-social 
july 2013 by tsuomela
Why good deeds don’t go unpunished | Ars Technica
"So it appears that nonconformity is a bit of a double-standard, at least under these specific circumstances. We always dislike free-riders, but we will also punish cooperators when their behavior is particularly atypical."
social-psychology  norms  behavior  conformity  altruism  sharing  community 
july 2013 by tsuomela
How Natural Selection Can Create Both Self- and Other-Regarding Preferences, and Networked Minds : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group
"Biological competition is widely believed to result in the evolution of selfish preferences. The related concept of the ‘homo economicus’ is at the core of mainstream economics. However, there is also experimental and empirical evidence for other-regarding preferences. Here we present a theory that explains both, self-regarding and other-regarding preferences. Assuming conditions promoting non-cooperative behaviour, we demonstrate that intergenerational migration determines whether evolutionary competition results in a ‘homo economicus’ (showing self-regarding preferences) or a ‘homo socialis’ (having other-regarding preferences). Our model assumes spatially interacting agents playing prisoner's dilemmas, who inherit a trait determining ‘friendliness’, but mutations tend to undermine it. Reproduction is ruled by fitness-based selection without a cultural modification of reproduction rates. Our model calls for a complementary economic theory for ‘networked minds’ (the ‘homo socialis’) and lays the foundations for an evolutionarily grounded theory of other-regarding agents, explaining individually different utility functions as well as conditional cooperation."
evolution  cooperation  agent-based-model  selfishness  social  pro-social  altruism 
march 2013 by tsuomela
Stumbling and Mumbling: Ego depletion, pro-sociality
"In other words, pro-social behaviour requires self-control, but this can be depleted by other things. And one of those other things is the amount of drudge work we have to do. If it takes all our self-discipline to turn up to work and do a routine job, we’ll have less self-discipline with which to act generously."
psychology  politics  altruism  cooperation  pro-social  behavior  ego  ego-depletion  work  labor  monotony 
july 2011 by tsuomela
The Early Days of a Better Nation - Lysenko's Tomb
"the topic of 'Darwin, Dawkins, and the Left' because, a couple of years earlier, I'd put together a stash of notes and links for a blog post that I'd never quite got around to writing."
evolution  genetics  politics  sociobiology  altruism  leftism 
march 2011 by tsuomela
Is Economics the Problem? « The Baseline Scenario
"The conclusion is that simply thinking about money — even unconsciously — makes people more self-sufficient, more socially insensitive, and less cooperative."
economics  psychology  cooperation  altruism  money  thinking  bias 
february 2011 by tsuomela
The evolution of eusociality : Nature : Nature Publishing Group
Eusociality, in which some individuals reduce their own lifetime reproductive potential to raise the offspring of others, underlies the most advanced forms of social organization and the ecologically dominant role of social insects and humans. For the past four decades kin selection theory, based on the concept of inclusive fitness, has been the major theoretical attempt to explain the evolution of eusociality. Here we show the limitations of this approach. We argue that standard natural selection theory in the context of precise models of population structure represents a simpler and superior approach, allows the evaluation of multiple competing hypotheses, and provides an exact framework for interpreting empirical observations.
evolution  cooperation  altruism  eusocial  natural-selection  model 
august 2010 by tsuomela
Altruism can be explained by natural selection : Nature News
A two-part mathematical analysis1, published in Nature this week, overturns this tenet by showing that it is possible for eusocial behaviour to evolve through standard natural-selection processes.
altruism  evolution  cooperation  biology  modeling 
august 2010 by tsuomela
The desire to expel unselfish members from the gro... [J Pers Soc Psychol. 2010] - PubMed result
Abstract
An initial study investigating tolerance of group members who abuse a public good surprisingly showed that unselfish members (those who gave much toward the provision of the good but then used little of the good) were also targets for expulsion from the group. Two follow-up studies replicated this and ruled out explanations grounded in the target being seen as confused or unpredictable. A fourth study suggested that the target is seen by some as establishing an undesirable behavior standard and by others as a rule breaker. Individuals who formed either perception expressed a desire for the unselfish person to be removed from the group. Implications are discussed.
altruism  behavior  psychology  public-goods  commons 
august 2010 by tsuomela
Evolution and Economics as Different Paradigms XI: Market Fundamentalism : Evolution for Everyone
The term "market fundamentalism" was popularized by George Soros in his 1998 book The Crisis of Global Capitalism and has led a lively existence ever since. It's a great epithet, but what does it really mean to call a set of beliefs fundamentalist? Can the claim be proven? And what's wrong with subscribing to fundamentalist beliefs?
markets  evolution  fundamentalism  philosophy  linguistics  language  altruism  language-analysis 
april 2010 by tsuomela
Op-Ed Columnist - What Could You Live Without? - NYTimes.com
by Nicholas Kristof - "Hannah seized upon the idea of selling the luxurious family home and donating half the proceeds to charity, while using the other half to buy a more modest replacement home...Eventually, that’s what the family did. The project — crazy, impetuous and utterly inspiring — is chronicled in a book by father and daughter scheduled to be published next month: “The Power of Half.” "
happiness  altruism  charity  psychology  philanthropy  commentary  ethics  philosophy  emotion 
february 2010 by tsuomela
Op-Ed Columnist - Our Basic Human Pleasures - Food, Sex and Giving - NYTimes.com
by Nicholas Kristof "But in any case, nobility can lead to happiness. Professor Haidt notes that one thing that can make a lasting difference to your contentment is to work with others on a cause larger than yourself...Brain scans by neuroscientists confirm that altruism carries its own rewards...The implication is that we are hard-wired to be altruistic. To put it another way, it’s difficult for humans to be truly selfless, for generosity feels so good."
happiness  altruism  charity  psychology  philanthropy  commentary  ethics  philosophy  emotion 
february 2010 by tsuomela
Overcoming Bias : The Dark Side of Cooperation
But such stories mostly ignore the dark side of cooperation: pro-cooperation instincts rely on dangerous conformity. Yes groups can be better off if individuals can see who do things that hurt the group overall, and punish those folks, and punish those who don’t punish them, etc. But our evolved instincts about which are the individual actions that actually hurt others might be quite out of whack.
cooperation  altruism  cost  benefits  social-psychology  social  psychology  evolution 
september 2009 by tsuomela
Is your subconscious communist? « Meteuphoric
Links and summaries of a few studies that show how emotions, pain, and perceptions can be altered or confused by having other people present.
psychology  altruism  other  awareness  perception 
august 2009 by tsuomela
Greater Good Science Center
The Greater Good Science Center is an interdisciplinary research center devoted to the scientific understanding of happy and compassionate individuals, strong social bonds, and altruistic behavior.
psychology  research  academic  happiness  individual  group  altruism 
june 2008 by tsuomela

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