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tsuomela : cognitive-science   36

Experiencing the Impossible | The MIT Press
"How the scientific study of magic reveals intriguing—and often unsettling—insights into the mysteries of the human mind. What do we see when we watch a magician pull a rabbit out of a hat or read a person's mind? We are captivated by an illusion; we applaud the fact that we have been fooled. Why do we enjoy experiencing what seems clearly impossible, or at least beyond our powers of explanation? In Experiencing the Impossible, Gustav Kuhn examines the psychological processes that underpin our experience of magic. Kuhn, a psychologist and a magician, reveals the intriguing—and often unsettling—insights into the human mind that the scientific study of magic provides. Magic, Kuhn explains, creates a cognitive conflict between what we believe to be true (for example, a rabbit could not be in that hat) and what we experience (a rabbit has just come out of that hat!). Drawing on the latest psychological, neurological, and philosophical research, he suggests that misdirection is at the heart of all magic tricks, and he offers a scientific theory of misdirection. He explores, among other topics, our propensity for magical thinking, the malleability of our perceptual experiences, forgetting and misremembering, free will and mind control, and how magic is applied outside entertaiment—the use of illusion in human-computer interaction, politics, warfare, and elsewhere. We may be surprised to learn how little of the world we actually perceive, how little we can trust what we see and remember, and how little we are in charge of our thoughts and actions. Exploring magic, Kuhn illuminates the complex—and almost magical—mechanisms underlying our daily activities."
book  publisher  magic  cognitive-science 
march 2019 by tsuomela
Dear Reader, Are You Reading? - The Scholarly Kitchen
"MaryAnne Wolf’s Reader, Come Home: The Reading Brain in a Digital World (2018) "
book  review  reading  psychology  cognitive-science 
october 2018 by tsuomela
Inside Jokes | The MIT Press
"Some things are funny—jokes, puns, sitcoms, Charlie Chaplin, The Far Side, Malvolio with his yellow garters crossed—but why? Why does humor exist in the first place? Why do we spend so much of our time passing on amusing anecdotes, making wisecracks, watching The Simpsons? In Inside Jokes, Matthew Hurley, Daniel Dennett, and Reginald Adams offer an evolutionary and cognitive perspective. Humor, they propose, evolved out of a computational problem that arose when our long-ago ancestors were furnished with open-ended thinking. Mother Nature—aka natural selection—cannot just order the brain to find and fix all our time-pressured misleaps and near-misses. She has to bribe the brain with pleasure. So we find them funny. This wired-in source of pleasure has been tickled relentlessly by humorists over the centuries, and we have become addicted to the endogenous mind candy that is humor."
book  publisher  humor  psychology  cognitive-science  philosophy 
may 2017 by tsuomela
Ionian Enchantment: Are most experimental subjects in behavioral science WEIRD?
"The weirdest people in the world?" (pdf) - in the most recent edition of Behavioral & Brain Sciences. The authors of the paper, Canadian psychologists Joseph Henrich, Steven Heine and Ara Norenzayan, argue that most experimental subjects in the behavioral sciences are WEIRD - Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic - and thus weird - not representative of most human beings. And this, if true, is a very serious problem indeed.
cognitive-science  culture  bias  research  psychology  experiments  subjects  behavior 
july 2010 by tsuomela
Illusory superiority - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Illusory superiority is a cognitive bias that causes people to overestimate their positive qualities and abilities and to underestimate their negative qualities, relative to others. This is evident in a variety of areas including intelligence, performance on tasks or tests and the possession of desirable characteristics or personality traits. It is one of many positive illusions relating to the self, and is a phenomenon studied in social psychology.
Illusory superiority is often referred to as the above average effect. Other terms include superiority bias, leniency error, sense of relative superiority, the primus inter pares (first among equals) effect, and the Lake Wobegon effect (named after Garrison Keillor's fictional town where "all the children are above average"). The phrase "illusory superiority" was first used by Van Yperen and Buunk in 1991.
social-psychology  bias  cognition  perception  self-perception  cognitive-science 
july 2010 by tsuomela
Informatics@Edinburgh: Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Science, Computer Science, Software Engineering
The University of Edinburgh views Informatics as a discipline central to a new enlightenment in scholarship and learning, and critical to the future development of science, technology and society. In the age of information, computing technology is changing the ways we work and play. Informatics is changing the way we think.

The School brings together research in Computer Science, Cognitive Science, Computational Linguistics and Artificial Intelligence. It provides a fertile environment for a wide range of interdisciplinary studies, leading to this new science of Informatics.
academia  artificial-intelligence  cognitive-science  computer-science  software  informatics  school(UEdinburgh)  britain  foreign  europe 
april 2010 by tsuomela
The Culture of Diagram - John Bender and Michael Marrinan
The Culture of Diagram is about visual thinking. Exploring a terrain where words meet pictures and formulas meet figures, the book foregrounds diagrams as tools for blurring those boundaries to focus on the production of knowledge as process. It outlines a history of convergence among diverse streams of data in real-time: from eighteenth-century print media and the diagrammatic procedures in the pages of Diderot's Encyclopedia to the paintings of Jacques-Louis David and mathematical devices that reveal the unseen worlds of quantum physics. Central to the story is the process of correlation, which invites observers to participate by eliciting leaps of imagination to fill gaps in data, equations, or sensations
book  publisher  books:noted  via:cshalizi  diagram  cognitive-science  visual-thinking 
april 2010 by tsuomela
Diagrammatic Reasoning - The MIT Press
Diagrammatic reasoning—the understanding of concepts and ideas by the use of diagrams and imagery, as opposed to linguistic or algebraic representations—not only allows us to gain insight into the way we think, but is a potential base for constructing representations of diagrammatic information that can be stored and processed by computers.
book  publisher  books:noted  via:cshalizi  diagram  cognitive-science  visual-thinking 
april 2010 by tsuomela
LRB · Jerry Fodor · A Science of Tuesdays
Jerry Fodor reviews the Threefold Cord by Hilary Putnam -- "It’s as close as Putnam’s book gets to having a saving grace that it almost sees the clash between meaning realists and Wittgensteinians as its real topic....Well, who’s right about meaning realism is a wide open question; among the deepest, I think, that philosophers have thus far learned how to ask."
book  review  philosophy  meaning  mental-process  mind  representation  cognitive-science  perception  psychology  theory 
february 2010 by tsuomela
Heartbreak and Home Runs: The Power of First Experiences | Psychology Today
From winning the science fair to losing a first boyfriend, certain youthful experiences cast a long shadow, revealing character and at times actually shaping it.
psychology  emotion  expectation  experience  flashbulb-memory  memory  first-time  cognition  cognitive-science  phenomenology 
january 2010 by tsuomela
Theories of Explanation [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Possible theories: realist (explained entities exist); epistemic (explanations are useful for organizing human experience); ordinary language (explanations are useful for communication); cognitive science (explanations are a kind of mental representation that result from cognition).
philosophy  science  explanation  nature  naturalism  epistemology  methodology  cognitive-science  ordinary-language 
september 2009 by tsuomela
SSRN-The Mind is an Autocatalytic Vortex by Mark Turner
Blending is indispensable for advanced narrative cognition. In The Literary Mind (1996), I argued that the modern mind derives from our remarkable capacity to deploy a cohort of basic mental operations-story, projection, blending, and parable. These operations are a pack, a troupe, a self-feeding cyclone, an autocatalytic vortex, a breeder reactor, a dynamic heterarchy-choose your metaphor: they labor together. Some of the evidence I presented in The Literary Mind can be misinterpreted, it seems, as suggesting that advanced narrative cognition comes first in the sequence, and that upon this rock the other operations build their conceptual church. My purpose here is to correct that misinterpretation. Mature narrative cognition does not exist without blending. Blending is not a second step.
cognitive-science  mind  story-telling  narrative  psychology  evolution 
august 2009 by tsuomela
Mark Turner
I study the nature and emergence of higher-order cognitive operations that distinguish human beings from other species and appear in the record of our descent during the Upper Paleolithic.
people  cognition  language  literature  metaphor  psychology  science  cognitive-science  philosophy  anthology  education  mind  evolution 
august 2009 by tsuomela
Overcoming Bias : How Wrong Can We Be?
This all seems to add up to a consistent expert consensus that humans quite often, perhaps even usually, just don’t know why they do what they do. And this is extremely disturbing, as it calls into question our own opinions about why we do what we do.
reason  reasoning  bias  model  economics  failure  cognitive-science  mistakes  cognition 
august 2009 by tsuomela
Oxford University Press: Cognition, Evolution, and Behavior: Sara J. Shettleworth
Cognition, Evolution and the Study of Behavior integrates research from psychology, behavioral ecology, and ethology in a wide-ranging synthesis of theory and research about animal cognition in the broadest sense, from species-specific adaptations in fish to cognitive mapping in rats and honeybees to theories of mind for chimpanzees. As a major contribution to the emerging discipline of comparative cognition, the book is an invaluable resource for all students and researchers in psychology, zoology, behavioral neuroscience.
book  publisher  animals  cognition  cognitive-science 
july 2009 by tsuomela
Quest for Expertise « Disparate
The claim is what a type of “rule of thumb” in cognitive science. A generic version could be stated in the following way: "It takes ten years or 10,000 hours to become an expert in any field."
expertise  practice  time  experience  cognitive-science 
december 2008 by tsuomela
Andy Clark - Philosophy at The University of Edinburgh
Research Interests
Philosophy of Mind, Artificial Intelligence, including robotics, artificial life, embodied cognition, and mind, technology and culture.
people  philosophy  university  edinburgh  distributed  cognition  cognitive-science 
march 2007 by tsuomela
Pick two (kottke.org)
Very interesting discussion and elaboration of the pick two: good, fast, cheap trilemma.
management  business  cognitive-science  design  mental  structure 
august 2005 by tsuomela

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