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tsuomela : cooperation   48

[1703.06207v1] Cooperating with Machines
"Since Alan Turing envisioned Artificial Intelligence (AI) [1], a major driving force behind technical progress has been competition with human cognition. Historical milestones have been frequently associated with computers matching or outperforming humans in difficult cognitive tasks (e.g. face recognition [2], personality classification [3], driving cars [4], or playing video games [5]), or defeating humans in strategic zero-sum encounters (e.g. Chess [6], Checkers [7], Jeopardy! [8], Poker [9], or Go [10]). In contrast, less attention has been given to developing autonomous machines that establish mutually cooperative relationships with people who may not share the machine's preferences. A main challenge has been that human cooperation does not require sheer computational power, but rather relies on intuition [11], cultural norms [12], emotions and signals [13, 14, 15, 16], and pre-evolved dispositions toward cooperation [17], common-sense mechanisms that are difficult to encode in machines for arbitrary contexts. Here, we combine a state-of-the-art machine-learning algorithm with novel mechanisms for generating and acting on signals to produce a new learning algorithm that cooperates with people and other machines at levels that rival human cooperation in a variety of two-player repeated stochastic games. This is the first general-purpose algorithm that is capable, given a description of a previously unseen game environment, of learning to cooperate with people within short timescales in scenarios previously unanticipated by algorithm designers. This is achieved without complex opponent modeling or higher-order theories of mind, thus showing that flexible, fast, and general human-machine cooperation is computationally achievable using a non-trivial, but ultimately simple, set of algorithmic mechanisms. "
paper  cooperation  machine  artificial-intelligence  machine-learning 
april 2017 by tsuomela
The International Data Rescue (I-DARE) Portal | I-DARE
"This International Data Rescue (I-DARE) Portal provides a single point of entry for information on the status of past and present worldwide to be rescued data and data rescue projects, on best methods and technologies involved in data rescue, and on metadata for data that need to be rescued."
data-sources  data-curation  preservation  international  cooperation 
november 2016 by tsuomela
DLAx | The Digital Liberal Arts Exchange
"Many schools have recently embarked upon initiatives in digital scholarship – those forms of scholarship largely in the humanities and humanistic social sciences that emphasize digital tools and infrastructure, as well as accompanying expertise and support. These initiatives bring new challenges, such as meeting the growing demand for technical support from faculty and students with trained staff and necessary hardware and software. Even institutions with well-established programs struggle to keep pace."
digital  digital-humanities  digital-library  libraries  scholarship  future  cooperation  consortium 
january 2016 by tsuomela
How Natural Selection Can Create Both Self- and Other-Regarding Preferences, and Networked Minds : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group
"Biological competition is widely believed to result in the evolution of selfish preferences. The related concept of the ‘homo economicus’ is at the core of mainstream economics. However, there is also experimental and empirical evidence for other-regarding preferences. Here we present a theory that explains both, self-regarding and other-regarding preferences. Assuming conditions promoting non-cooperative behaviour, we demonstrate that intergenerational migration determines whether evolutionary competition results in a ‘homo economicus’ (showing self-regarding preferences) or a ‘homo socialis’ (having other-regarding preferences). Our model assumes spatially interacting agents playing prisoner's dilemmas, who inherit a trait determining ‘friendliness’, but mutations tend to undermine it. Reproduction is ruled by fitness-based selection without a cultural modification of reproduction rates. Our model calls for a complementary economic theory for ‘networked minds’ (the ‘homo socialis’) and lays the foundations for an evolutionarily grounded theory of other-regarding agents, explaining individually different utility functions as well as conditional cooperation."
evolution  cooperation  agent-based-model  selfishness  social  pro-social  altruism 
march 2013 by tsuomela
The Architecture Of MotivationEdge master Class 2011 | Conversation | Edge
"Recent research concerning the welfare of others, etc. affects not only how to think about certain emotions, but also overturns how most models of reciprocity and exchange, with implications about how people think about modern markets, political systems, and societies. What are these new approaches to human motivation? LEDA COSMIDES is a Professor of Psychology and Co-director (with John Tooby) of Center for Evolutionary Psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara"
evolution  cooperation  behavior  psychology  motivation 
october 2012 by tsuomela
In networks, cooperation trumps collaboration | Harold Jarche
"In networks, cooperation trumps collaboration. Collaboration happens around some kind of plan or structure, while cooperation presumes the freedom of individuals to join and participate."
networks  organizations  knowledge-management  cooperation  collaboration 
june 2012 by tsuomela
Cooperation and the evolution of intelligence
"The high levels of intelligence seen in humans, other primates, certain cetaceans and birds remain a major puzzle for evolutionary biologists, anthropologists and psychologists. It has long been held that social interactions provide the selection pressures necessary for the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities (the ‘social intelligence hypothesis’), and in recent years decision-making in the context of cooperative social interactions has been conjectured to be of particular importance. Here we use an artificial neural network model to show that selection for efficient decision-making in cooperative dilemmas can give rise to selection pressures for greater cognitive abilities, and that intelligent strategies can themselves select for greater intelligence, leading to a Machiavellian arms race. Our results provide mechanistic support for the social intelligence hypothesis, highlight the potential importance of cooperative behaviour in the evolution of intelligence and may help us to explain the distribution of cooperation with intelligence across taxa."
intelligence  evolution  simulation  cooperation  neuralnetworks 
april 2012 by tsuomela
Stumbling and Mumbling: Ego depletion, pro-sociality
"In other words, pro-social behaviour requires self-control, but this can be depleted by other things. And one of those other things is the amount of drudge work we have to do. If it takes all our self-discipline to turn up to work and do a routine job, we’ll have less self-discipline with which to act generously."
psychology  politics  altruism  cooperation  pro-social  behavior  ego  ego-depletion  work  labor  monotony 
july 2011 by tsuomela
Stumbling and Mumbling: Effectiveness vs rationality
"1. The costs of protesting for a week - to take Brian Haw’s example cited by David - are high
politics  collective-action  cooperation  externalities  free-rider  motivation  activism 
july 2011 by tsuomela
Is Economics the Problem? « The Baseline Scenario
"The conclusion is that simply thinking about money — even unconsciously — makes people more self-sufficient, more socially insensitive, and less cooperative."
economics  psychology  cooperation  altruism  money  thinking  bias 
february 2011 by tsuomela
interfluidity » The Karmic Truth
I’d answer Karl by echoing him, with just a bit of a twist. The universe is cold and empty. We will suffer and die. But today we live. And not alone. We live in the warmth of one another’s company. Ideas like “kindness” or “justice” are alien in this universe. The laws of physics, are enforced cruelly, relentlessly. A falling object is indifferent to who is crushed beneath. But if I see you, I will smile, and hold the door open while you pass. And perhaps you will smile back and say hello. That, my friend, is Karma, and it is all that keeps this terrible universe in its place and at bay. For a while.
karma  economics  morality  community  cooperation 
october 2010 by tsuomela
Ming the Mechanic: Be afraid, be very afraid
We, the people, are the real power. If a million people agree on what is in our common interest, what's one anti-social asshole gonna do? Go hide? Unfortunately, today, that one guy is the CEO, and you could be laid off any day if you don't do what you're supposed to. But if we actually were talking with each other, he'd be the guy who'd be running for cover. Assuming he's one of those guys who got there by deceit and coercion.

There is one problem to solve. It is THE problem. How can we work together, towards our common interests, in a way that is constructive. In particular, how can we together solve complex problems together that we wouldn't be able to solve individually.

It is called collective intelligence.
collective-intelligence  manifesto  future  collaboration  cooperation 
september 2010 by tsuomela
Panton Principles
By open data in science we mean that it is freely available on the public internet permitting any user to download, copy, analyse, re-process, pass them to software or use them for any other purpose without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. To this end data related to published science should be explicitly placed in the public domain.

Formally, we recommend adopting and acting on the following principles:
open-science  open-access  publishing  scientific  science  open-data  standards  principles  cooperation  sharing 
september 2010 by tsuomela
The evolution of eusociality : Nature : Nature Publishing Group
Eusociality, in which some individuals reduce their own lifetime reproductive potential to raise the offspring of others, underlies the most advanced forms of social organization and the ecologically dominant role of social insects and humans. For the past four decades kin selection theory, based on the concept of inclusive fitness, has been the major theoretical attempt to explain the evolution of eusociality. Here we show the limitations of this approach. We argue that standard natural selection theory in the context of precise models of population structure represents a simpler and superior approach, allows the evaluation of multiple competing hypotheses, and provides an exact framework for interpreting empirical observations.
evolution  cooperation  altruism  eusocial  natural-selection  model 
august 2010 by tsuomela
Altruism can be explained by natural selection : Nature News
A two-part mathematical analysis1, published in Nature this week, overturns this tenet by showing that it is possible for eusocial behaviour to evolve through standard natural-selection processes.
altruism  evolution  cooperation  biology  modeling 
august 2010 by tsuomela
Lab Experiments for the Study of Social-Ecological Systems -- Janssen et al. 328 (5978): 613 -- Science
Governance of social-ecological systems is a major policy problem of the contemporary era. Field studies of fisheries, forests, and pastoral and water resources have identified many variables that influence the outcomes of governance efforts. We introduce an experimental environment that involves spatial and temporal resource dynamics in order to capture these two critical variables identified in field research. Previous behavioral experiments of commons dilemmas have found that people are willing to engage in costly punishment, frequently generating increases in gross benefits, contrary to game-theoretical predictions based on a static pay-off function. Results in our experimental environment find that costly punishment is again used but lacks a gross positive effect on resource harvesting unless combined with communication. These findings illustrate the importance of careful generalization from the laboratory to the world of policy.
commons  cooperation  ecology  institutions  ostrom  elinor  economics  science  modeling  evolution  experimental  via:cshalizi 
june 2010 by tsuomela
PLoS Computational Biology: Evolutionary Establishment of Moral and Double Moral Standards through Spatial Interactions
Situations where individuals have to contribute to joint efforts or share scarce resources are ubiquitous. Yet, without proper mechanisms to ensure cooperation, the evolutionary pressure to maximize individual success tends to create a tragedy of the commons (such as over-fishing or the destruction of our environment). This contribution addresses a number of related puzzles of human behavior with an evolutionary game theoretical approach as it has been successfully used to explain the behavior of other biological species many times, from bacteria to vertebrates. Our agent-based model distinguishes individuals applying four different behavioral strategies: non-cooperative individuals (“defectors”), cooperative individuals abstaining from punishment efforts (called “cooperators” or “second-order free-riders”), cooperators who punish non-cooperative behavior (“moralists”), and defectors, who punish other defectors despite being non-cooperative themselves (“immoralists”).
cooperation  modeling  agent-based-model  evolution  game-theory  computational-science  simulation  biology  open-access 
may 2010 by tsuomela
Gintis, H.: Game Theory Evolving: A Problem-Centered Introduction to Modeling Strategic Interaction (Second Edition).
Since its original publication in 2000, Game Theory Evolving has been considered the best textbook on evolutionary game theory. This completely revised and updated second edition of Game Theory Evolving contains new material and shows students how to apply game theory to model human behavior in ways that reflect the special nature of sociality and individuality. The textbook continues its in-depth look at cooperation in teams, agent-based simulations, experimental economics, the evolution and diffusion of preferences, and the connection between biology and economics.
book  publisher  game-theory  agent-based-model  simulation  social  cooperation  evolution  textbook 
april 2010 by tsuomela
Findings - Researchers in the Market for Fair-Minded People - NYTimes.com
In explaining attitudes toward fairness, Dr. Henrich and his colleagues found that the strongest predictor was the community’s level of “market integration,” which was measured by the percentage of the diet that was purchased. The people who got all or most of their food by hunting, fishing, foraging or growing it themselves were less inclined to share a prize equally.

Grocery shopping may seem an unlikely form of moral education, but the researchers argue in Science that the development of “market norms” promotes general levels of “trust, fairness and cooperation” with strangers.
fairness  morality  culture  ethics  psychology  evolution  cooperation  science  markets  anthropology  cross-culture 
april 2010 by tsuomela
‘To Resist is to Survive’ -- In These Times
The formation of many of these worker-run cooperatives resulted from the lesson in economic collapse that Argentina received between 1999-2002. “The economy contracted by almost 30 percent, and unemployment exploded,” says Professor Sebastian Saiegh.....
Despite Menem’s best effort and his privatization schemes, in the wake of the 1997 East Asian and 1998 Brazilian financial crises, investors began fearing that debt-laden Argentina might default on its loans.....
The severity of the economic meltdown caused workers to innovate new modes of job creation. Many Argentinean workers dealt with their sudden unemployment proactively. In some workplaces, employees broke into their workplaces and locked bosses out so they could continue working.
economics  alternative  cooperation  cooperative  work  labor  country(Argentina) 
february 2010 by tsuomela
Overcoming Bias : The Dark Side of Cooperation
But such stories mostly ignore the dark side of cooperation: pro-cooperation instincts rely on dangerous conformity. Yes groups can be better off if individuals can see who do things that hurt the group overall, and punish those folks, and punish those who don’t punish them, etc. But our evolved instincts about which are the individual actions that actually hurt others might be quite out of whack.
cooperation  altruism  cost  benefits  social-psychology  social  psychology  evolution 
september 2009 by tsuomela
James Fowler
James Fowler is an Associate Professor in the Center for Wireless and Population Health Systems at CALIT2 and the Political Science Department at the University of California, San Diego.
James's work lies at the intersection of the natural and social sciences. His current interests include social networks, behavioral economics, evolutionary game theory, political participation, cooperation, and genopolitics (the study of the genetic basis of political behavior).
people  school(UCSanDiego)  research  networks  science  politics  academic  cooperation  social-networks  political-science 
september 2009 by tsuomela
IPY 2007-2008
IPY = International Polar Year, concluding statement
science  international  cooperation  large  scale  polar  geology  meteorology  sts 
february 2009 by tsuomela
Project Syndicate
Trivial reminders of money made a surprisingly large difference. For example, where the control group would offer to spend an average of 42 minutes helping someone with a task, those primed to think about money offered only 25 minutes. Similarly, when someone pretending to be another participant in the experiment asked for help, the money group spent only half as much time helping her. When asked to make a donation from their earnings, the money group gave just a little over half as much as the control group.

Why does money makes us less willing to seek or give help, or even to sit close to others? Vohs and her colleagues suggest that as societies began to use money, the necessity of relying on family and friends diminished, and people were able to become more self-sufficient. “In this way,” they conclude, “money enhanced individualism but diminished communal motivations, an effect that is still apparent in people’s responses today.”
economics  psychology  behavior  money  morality  cooperation 
august 2008 by tsuomela
The Evolutionary Origin of Cooperators and Defectors -- Doebeli et al. 306 (5697): 859 -- Science
Coexistence of cooperators and defectors is common in nature, yet the evolutionary origin of such social diversification is unclear. Many models have been studied on the basis of the assumption that benefits of cooperative acts only accrue to others. Here, we analyze the continuous snowdrift game, in which cooperative investments are costly but yield benefits to others as well as to the cooperator. Adaptive dynamics of investment levels often result in evolutionary diversification from initially uniform populations to a stable state in which cooperators making large investments coexist with defectors who invest very little. Thus, when individuals benefit from their own actions, large asymmetries in cooperative investments can evolve.
evolution  cooperation  collaboration  competition  psychology  social  behavior  experiments 
july 2008 by tsuomela
NextStep Homepage - Minnesota Sustainable Communities Network
This site has been designed to provide Minnesota Sustainable Communities Network (MnSCN) members and others with information, access to resources, opportunities for networking, and inspiration on the topic of sustainable communities. NextStep site users h
sustainability  resources  tip  cooperation  government  minnesota 
june 2008 by tsuomela

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