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tsuomela : distributed   69

Genius Is More Common Than You Think — 7 Days of Genius — Medium
"That’s why the people who most benefit from multiples — and from thinking out loud online — will probably remain in the nonprofit world: Artists, activists, and everyday people pursuing their side passions. They know the secret: Fun, crazy ideas are surprising common; fun, crazy people are surprisingly common. We just have to connect the dots."
creativity  genius  distribution  distributed  cognition  simultaneity 
march 2015 by tsuomela
[1406.7563] When is a crowd wise?
"Numerous studies and anecdotes demonstrate the "wisdom of the crowd," the surprising accuracy of a group's aggregated judgments. Less is known, however, about the generality of crowd wisdom. For example, are crowds wise even if their members have systematic judgmental biases, or can influence each other before members render their judgments? If so, are there situations in which we can expect a crowd to be less accurate than skilled individuals? We provide a precise but general definition of crowd wisdom: A crowd is wise if a linear aggregate, for example a mean, of its members' judgments is closer to the target value than a randomly, but not necessarily uniformly, sampled member of the crowd. Building on this definition, we develop a theoretical framework for examining, a priori, when and to what degree a crowd will be wise. We systematically investigate the boundary conditions for crowd wisdom within this framework and determine conditions under which the accuracy advantage for crowds is maximized. Our results demonstrate that crowd wisdom is highly robust: Even if judgments are biased and correlated, one would need to nearly deterministically select only a highly skilled judge before an individual's judgment could be expected to be more accurate than a simple averaging of the crowd. Our results also provide an accuracy rationale behind the need for diversity of judgments among group members. Contrary to folk explanations of crowd wisdom which hold that judgments should ideally be independent so that errors cancel out, we find that crowd wisdom is maximized when judgments systematically differ as much as possible. We re-analyze data from two published studies that confirm our theoretical results."
crowds  wisdom  aggregation  knowledge  distributed  cognition 
july 2014 by tsuomela
DP: Welcome
"Distributed Proofreaders provides a web-based method to ease the conversion of Public Domain books into e-books. By dividing the workload into individual pages, many volunteers can work on a book at the same time, which significantly speeds up the creation process."
proofreading  distributed  crowdsourcing  publishing  editing  collaboration  e-books 
july 2014 by tsuomela
Mark Bernstein: Wikipedia: We Should Have Known
Part of a series of posts critical of Wikipedia and its ability to remain successful given sockpuppets, the crazies, and byzantine rules.
wikipedia  wiki  crowdsourcing  distributed  intelligence  failure 
june 2013 by tsuomela
Home - Climate CoLab
"The goal of the Climate CoLab is to harness the collective intelligence of thousands of people from all around the world to address global climate change. Inspired by systems like Wikipedia and Linux, the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence has developed this on-line forum where citizens create, analyze, and select detailed proposals for what to do about climate change."
climate  environment  climate-change  problem-solving  distributed  cognition  crowdsourcing  groups  competition 
may 2013 by tsuomela
Follow the Crowd | Crowd Research Blog
"The CrowdResearch.org blog, Follow the Crowd, intends to become the premier web resource for ideas related to crowd computing research. Our focus is rapid dissemination of these ideas and vigorous discussion of them."
crowds  crowdsourcing  distributed  cognition  online  research  news  weblog-group 
march 2013 by tsuomela
Redistributing Leadership in Online Creative Collaboration | Follow the Crowd
"Online creative collaboration is complex, and leaders frequently become overwhelmed, causing their projects to fail. We introduce Pipeline, a collaboration tool designed to ease the burden on leaders, and describe how Pipeline helped redistribute leadership in a successful 28-person artistic collaboration."
leadership  online  collaboration  crowds  crowdsourcing  trust  distributed  cognition  toolkit  software 
march 2013 by tsuomela
Do We Need a Global Brain? | Sliwa | tripleC - Cognition, Communication, Co-operation
"The new trend of Pervasive Computing, based on massively deployed wireless sensor and actor networks, will enable gathering data about the world with an unprecedented accuracy and influencing it. Among many application fields, health support system will permit to measure and transmit the vital health parameters and to exert externally controlled actions on the human body. Such systems provide evident benefits, but also pose great new risks of misuse by totalitarian governments or criminals. Also “good” governments, in their effort to improve the lives of the citizens, may be tempted to rectify their conduct beyond their will and to enforce it with new means of total surveillance. This Global Brain, controlled by authorities advised by experts, too complex to be overseen by the general public, may lead to a revival of the Plato’s Rule of the Philosophers, a Brave New World where democracy is just an empty shell."
pervasive-computing  big-data  big-brother  global  sensors  democracy  post-democracy  distributed  cognition  communication 
february 2013 by tsuomela
Cosm - Internet of Things Platform Connecting Devices and Apps for Real-Time Control and Data Storage
"Connect devices and apps on the Cosm platform, exchange data and ideas with developers, and bring smart products to the world."
internet-of-things  internet  data  collecting  distributed  computers  sensors 
january 2013 by tsuomela
Cosm - Internet of Things Platform Connecting Devices and Apps for Real-Time Control and Data Storage
"Connect devices and apps on the Cosm platform, exchange data and ideas with developers, and bring smart products to the world."
internet-of-things  internet  data  collecting  distributed  computers  sensors 
january 2013 by tsuomela
Game on! UCLA researchers use online crowd-sourcing to diagnose malaria / UCLA Newsroom
"Working on the assumption that large groups of public non-experts can be trained to recognize infectious diseases with the accuracy of trained pathologists, researchers from the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science and the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA have created a crowd-sourced online gaming system in which players distinguish malaria-infected red blood cells from healthy ones by viewing digital images obtained from microscopes."
crowdsourcing  medicine  health  diseases  diagnosis  citizen-science  distributed 
may 2012 by tsuomela
How to Perfect Real-Time Crowdsourcing  - Technology Review
"So how quickly can a crowd be put into action.?That's the question tackled today by Michael Bernstein at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and a few pals.

In the past, these guys have found ways to bring a crowd to bear in about two seconds. That's quick. But the reaction time is limited to how quickly a worker responds to an alert.

Now these guys say they've find a way to reduce the reaction time to 500 milliseconds--that's effectively realtime. A system with a half second latency could turn crowdsourcing into a very different kind of resource.

The idea that Bernstein and co have come up with is straightforward. These guys simply "precruit" a crowd and keep them on standby until a task becomes available. Effectively, they're paying workers a retainer so that they are available immediately when needed"
real-time  crowdsourcing  computer-science  distributed  cognition 
april 2012 by tsuomela
U.S. intelligence and the wisdom of crowds | Bernd Debusmann | Analysis
"t’s officially known as the Forecasting World Events Project and is sponsored by the Intelligence Advanced Research Activity (IARPA), a little-known agency run by a woman, Lisa Porter, who is occasionally described as America’s answer to the fictional Agent Q who designs cutting edge gadgets for James Bond. Much of IARPA’s work is classified, as is its budget. But the forecasting project is not classified. Invitations to participate are now on the Internet.

The idea is to raise five large competing teams of people of diverse backgrounds who will be asked to make predictions on fields that range from politics and global security to business and economics, public health, social and cultural change and science and technology. The project is expected to run for four years and stems from the recognition that expert forecasts are very often wrong."
futurism  predictions  expertise  crowdsourcing  wisdom  distributed  cognition  intelligence  spying 
april 2011 by tsuomela
earthsensors.txt
" We are now interconnected enough for amateur scientists and hobbyists to help professional scientists with sensors scattered over the earth collecting data. "
citizen-science  distributed  data-collection  data  earth-science 
march 2011 by tsuomela
Can This Journalist Be Replaced by Software and Mechanical Turk? - Technology Review
"Startup CloudCrowd is even working on a commercial version of the My Boss is a Robot experiment. Offered through Serv.io, the service will allow businesses to purchase blog posts (or "content") that are "Fresh, Hand-Crafted, Topic-specific [and] Custom-Written to Your Specifications.""
crowdsourcing  information  writing  work  labor  distributed  computer-science  value  content 
february 2011 by tsuomela
Crowd Workers Are Not Online Shakespeares, But HCII Researchers Show They Can Write | Human-Computer Interaction Institute
"The framework developed by the CMU researchers, called CrowdForge, likewise divides up complex tasks so that many individuals can complete parts of the overall task and then provides a means for coordinating, combining and evaluating their work.

To prepare a brief encyclopedia article, for instance, CrowdForge would assign several people the task of writing an outline
crowdsourcing  information  writing  work  labor  distributed  computer-science 
february 2011 by tsuomela
Julian Assange and the journalists | WikiLeaked
"But for all its radicalism, WikiLeaks ultimately rests on the same economic assumption as the media: that information is valuable. Assange's bottom line may not be so directly tied to that value as the Guardian's, but it is tied to his exclusivity, or at least notoriety, as a spiller of secrets."
wikileaks  media  journalism  organization  secrecy  whistleblowing  distributed 
january 2011 by tsuomela
Wikileaks again — Crooked Timber
"Taken together, these suggest that Wikileaks-type phenomena are nowhere near as invulnerable to concerted state action as some of the more glib commentators have suggested. It needs money and proper organizational structures to work. The piece hints that the current version of Wikileaks – which seems an awkward amalgam of open source style volunteerism and personality cult – is on the brink of collapse. It also needs to be able to build and maintain connections with external organizations, both to get resources in, and to get information out. These present obvious vulnerabilities. They also suggest that it will be far more difficult to create a multitude of mini-Wikileaks than it appears at first sight. You need more than a secure connection and a website to make this model work. At a minimum, you need enough of an organization to be able to build and retain links with bigger media."
wikileaks  media  journalism  organization  secrecy  whistleblowing  distributed  anarchism 
january 2011 by tsuomela
Hyperdemocracy | the human network
"Some will argue that these represent the perfect toolkit for terrorism, for lawlessness and anarchy. Some are willing to sacrifice liberty for security, ending with neither. Although nostalgic and tempting, this argument will not hold against the tenor of these times. These systems will be invented and hyperdistributed even if the state attempts to enforce a tighter grip over its networks. Julian Assange, the most famous man in the world, has become the poster boy, the Che for a networked generation. Script kiddies everywhere now have a role model. Like it or not, they will create these systems, they will share what they’ve learned, they will build the apparatus that makes the state as we have known it increasingly ineffectual and irrelevant. Nothing can be done about that. This has already happened."
wikileaks  democracy  distributed  network  journalism  media  technology 
december 2010 by tsuomela
Julian Assange and the Computer Conspiracy; “To destroy this invisible government” « zunguzungu
This is however, not where Assange’s reasoning leads him. He decides, instead, that the most effective way to attack this kind of organization would be to make “leaks” a fundamental part of the conspiracy’s information environment. Which is why the point is not that particular leaks are specifically effective. Wikileaks does not leak something like the “Collateral Murder” video as a way of putting an end to that particular military tactic; that would be to target a specific leg of the hydra even as it grows two more. Instead, the idea is that increasing the porousness of the conspiracy’s information system will impede its functioning, that the conspiracy will turn against itself in self-defense, clamping down on its own information flows in ways that will then impede its own cognitive function. You destroy the conspiracy, in other words, by making it so paranoid of itself that it can no longer conspire:
wikileaks  secrecy  conspiracy  power  government  communication  distributed  cognition  information  journalism 
december 2010 by tsuomela
Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research
Scholars who study groups and teams are scattered across many social scientific disciplines. INGRoup (a) promotes communication about group research across fields and nations, (b) advances understanding about group dynamics through research, (c) advances theory and methods for understanding groups, and (d) promotes interdisciplinary research.
professional-association  groups  organization  cognition  distributed  interdisciplinary 
november 2010 by tsuomela
Evidence for a Collective Intelligence Factor in the Performance of Human Groups -- Woolley et al., 10.1126/science.1193147 -- Science
Psychologists have repeatedly shown that a single statistical factor—often called "general intelligence"—emerges from the correlations among people's performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks. But no one has systematically examined whether a similar kind of "collective intelligence" exists for groups of people. In two studies with 699 individuals, working in groups of two to five, we find converging evidence of a general collective intelligence factor that explains a group's performance on a wide variety of tasks. This "c factor" is not strongly correlated with the average or maximum individual intelligence of group members but is correlated with the average social sensitivity of group members, the equality in distribution of conversational turn-taking, and the proportion of females in the group.
group  intelligence  distributed  cognition  collaboration  research  psychology  science  social  collective-intelligence 
october 2010 by tsuomela
Oct. 1: CMU, MIT and Union Study Shows Collective Intelligence of Groups Exceeds Cognitive Abilities of Individual Group Members - Carnegie Mellon University
When it comes to intelligence, the whole can indeed be greater than the sum of its parts. A new study co-authored by Carnegie Mellon University, MIT and Union College researchers documents the existence of collective intelligence among groups of people who cooperate well, showing that such intelligence extends beyond the cognitive abilities of the groups' individual members, and that the tendency to cooperate effectively is linked to the number of women in a group.
group  intelligence  distributed  cognition  collaboration  research 
october 2010 by tsuomela
Relevant History: Word spacing, silent reading, and cyborgs
Word spacing is something that we never think about, much less think about having been invented or having a history.The Romans almost never used it: Latin texts and inscriptions on buildings often ran words together But [Paul] Saenger makes a compelling case that its adoption and diffusion in late medival Europe had tremendous ramifications in monastic culture, book history, and eventually intellectual and political history.
history  sts  communication  typesetting  typography  reading  books  cybernetics  cyborgs  distributed  intelligence 
september 2010 by tsuomela
Creating a distributed curatorial expertise for acquisitioning the contemporary medical heritage
In this scenario — what would the role of the curator be? Instead of doing all the curatorial work themselves, professional museum curators would rather develop guidelines for how the network of distributed curators shall curate and preserve; the professionals would also distribute protocols for registration in a wiki-based central database; and, most importantly, they would spend much time and energy raising discussions among the practitioners of why the scientific, technological, and medical heritage is worth keeping and its role in the creation of cultural identity. In short, the main role of professional museum curators would be to build a distributed curatorial experience.
curation  archive  history  sts  science  distributed  citizen-science  crowdsourcing 
july 2010 by tsuomela
George Lakoff: Why "Rational Reason" Doesn't Work in Contemporary Politics | BuzzFlash.org
Lakoff adds to his theory the distinction between real and false reason. "Real reason is embodied in two ways. It is physical, in our brain circuitry. And it is based on our bodies as the function in the everyday world, using thought that arises from embodied metaphors. And it is mostly unconscious. False reason sees reason as fully conscious, as literal, disembodied, yet somehow fitting the world directly, and working not via frame-based, metaphorical, narrative and emotional logic, but via the logic of logicians alone."
metaphor  politics  distributed  cognition  embodiment  physical  neuroscience  conservatism  enlightenment  reasoning  rationality  reason 
march 2010 by tsuomela
Contemplating Singularity | Forum
Summarizes and discusses N. Katherine Hayles, Andy Clark (on extended mind) and Terence Deacon and Merlin Donald on evolution of symbolic communication.
singularity  extended  mind  distributed  cognition  philosophy  humanities  symbols  communication  evolution 
august 2009 by tsuomela
[cond-mat/0403299] Discrete Hierarchical Organization of Social Group Sizes
The "social brain hypothesis" for the evolution of large brains in primates has led to evidence for the coevolution of neocortical size and social group sizes. Extrapolation of these findings to modern humans indicated that the equivalent group size for our species should be approximately 150 (essentially the number of people known personally as individuals). Here, we combine data on human grouping in a comprehensive and systematic study. Using fractal analysis, we identify with high statistical confidence a discrete hierarchy of group sizes with a preferred scaling ratio close to 3: rather than a single or a continuous spectrum of group sizes, humans spontaneously form groups of preferred sizes organized in a geometrical series approximating 3, 9, 27,... Such discrete scale invariance (DSI) could be related to that identified in signatures of herding behavior in financial markets and might reflect a hierarchical processing of social nearness by human brains.
social-psychology  networks  scale  fractal  complexity  dunbar-number  distributed  cognition 
july 2009 by tsuomela
Normal Science » Reductio my ass.
I’ve recently come to hold the view that artifacts have morally relevant interests (i.e. artifacts are morally considerable).
philosophy  artifact  morality  ethics  environment  sts  distributed 
march 2009 by tsuomela
The Extended Mind
Where does the mind stop and the rest of the world begin? The question invites two standard replies. Some accept the demarcations of skin and skull, and say that what is outside the body is outside the mind. Others are impressed by arguments suggesting that the meaning of our words "just ain't in the head", and hold that this externalism about meaning carries over into an externalism about mind. We propose to pursue a third position. We advocate a very different sort of externalism: an active externalism, based on the active role of the environment in driving cognitive processes.
philosophy  mind  paper  cognition  by(DavidChalmers)  distributed 
february 2009 by tsuomela
Oxford University Press: Supersizing the Mind: Andy Clark
In Supersizing the Mind , Andy Clark argues that our thinking doesn't happen only in our heads but that "certain forms of human cognizing include inextricable tangles of feedback, feed-forward and feed-around loops: loops that promiscuously criss-cross the boundaries of brain, body and world."
book  philosophy  publisher  distributed  intelligence  cognition 
february 2009 by tsuomela
CoCoRaHS - Community Collaborative Rain, Hail
CoCoRaHS is an acronym for the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network. CoCoRaHS is a unique, non-profit, community-based network of volunteers of all ages and backgrounds working together to measure and map precipitation (rain, hail and snow). By using low-cost measurement tools, stressing training and education, and utilizing an interactive Web-site, our aim is to provide the highest quality data for natural resource, education and research applications.
science  meteorology  weather  community  co-science  collaboration  crowdsourcing  distributed  climate  volunteer  precipitation  collection  data  water  snow  citizen-science 
february 2009 by tsuomela
How Can Digital Nomads Stay Connected With Coworkers? - Insight Community Case.
We're looking to get insights into how individuals and the workplace are changing due to an increasingly "mobile" workforce -- thanks to things like widespread laptop and mobile device usage, as well as wireless connectivity.
digital  culture  nomad  mobile  work  business  distributed 
october 2008 by tsuomela
Andy Clark - Philosophy at The University of Edinburgh
Research Interests
Philosophy of Mind, Artificial Intelligence, including robotics, artificial life, embodied cognition, and mind, technology and culture.
people  philosophy  university  edinburgh  distributed  cognition  cognitive-science 
march 2007 by tsuomela
Welcome to ERights.Org
Programming language to write distributed applications that have security and contract aspects built-in. Java and Lisp modules already built.

Welcome toERights.org,home ofE,the secure distributed pure-object platformand p2p scripting languagefor writi
security  programming  language  p2p  distributed  economics  contracts 
november 2006 by tsuomela
Welcome to ERights.Org
Programming language to write distributed applications that have security and contract aspects built-in. Java and Lisp modules already built.

Welcome toERights.org,home ofE,the secure distributed pure-object platformand p2p scripting languagefor writi
politics  security  programming  language  p2p  distributed  economics  contracts 
november 2006 by tsuomela

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