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Epistemology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
"Defined narrowly, epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief. As the study of knowledge, epistemology is concerned with the following questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? What are its sources? What is its structure, and what are its limits? As the study of justified belief, epistemology aims to answer questions such as: How we are to understand the concept of justification? What makes justified beliefs justified? Is justification internal or external to one's own mind? Understood more broadly, epistemology is about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry. This article will provide a systematic overview of the problems that the questions above raise and focus in some depth on issues relating to the structure and the limits of knowledge and justification."
philosophy  epistemology  encyclopedia  reference  summary 
may 2016 by tsuomela
Encyclopedia of Archival Science, By Luciana Duranti and Patricia C. Franks, 9780810888104 | Rowman & Littlefield
"The Encyclopedia of Archival Science features 154 entries, which address every aspect of archival professional knowledge. These entries range from traditional ideas (like appraisal and provenance) to today’s challenges (digitization and digital preservation). They present the thoughts of leading luminaries like Ernst Posner, Margaret Cross-Norton, and Philip Brooks as well as those of contemporary authors and rising scholars. Historical and ethical components of practice are infused throughout the work. "
book  publisher  archives  encyclopedia  reference 
march 2015 by tsuomela
Dr. Gordon Pask on Cybernetics
Defined by Norbert Wiener in 1948 as the science of communication and control in the animal and the machine, cybernetics has been more or less broadly interpreted.
cybernetics  definition  encyclopedia  reference  control  systems  feedback  history 
november 2010 by tsuomela
The Digital Universe Directory
The Digital Universe Directory is a collaboration between the Digital Universe Foundation and TRUNITY (which provides the technology platforms the powers the Digital Universe Directory). This Directory comprises a network of subject-specific web sites organized by topic into "Portals" – such as the Earth Portal or the Cosmos Portal – with reliable information from trusted sources covering a wide range of subjects.
reference  encyclopedia  education  wikipedia  reputation  expertise  evaluation 
september 2010 by tsuomela
Encyclopedia of Earth
Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Earth, an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society. The Encyclopedia is a free, fully searchable collection of articles written by scholars, professionals, educators, and experts who collaborate and review each other's work. The articles are written in non-technical language and are useful to students, educators, scholars, professionals, as well as to the general public.
education  science  environment  reference  encyclopedia  earth  ecology  geography  expertise  reputation 
september 2010 by tsuomela
Supervenience (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
A set of properties A supervenes upon another set B just in case no two things can differ with respect to A-properties without also differing with respect to their B-properties. In slogan form, “there cannot be an A-difference without a B-difference”.
philosophy  vocabulary  terminology  supervenience  reference  encyclopedia 
september 2009 by tsuomela
The Definition of Art (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Contemporary definitions are of two main sorts. One distinctively modern, conventionalist, sort of definition focuses on art's institutional features, emphasizing the way art changes over time, modern works that appear to break radically with all traditional art, and the relational properties of artworks that depend on works' relations to art history, art genres, etc. The less conventionalist sort of contemporary definition makes use of a broader, more traditional concept of aesthetic properties that includes more than art-relational ones, and focuses on art's pan-cultural and trans-historical characteristics.
art  aesthetics  philosophy  definition  reference  encyclopedia 
february 2009 by tsuomela
The Republic of T. » Have You Ever Edited Wikipedia?
A number of different reports by people who have been unhappy with the politics of Wikipedia editing, especially the notability standards.
wikipedia  culture  norms  behavior  standards  encyclopedia 
february 2009 by tsuomela
Sorites Paradox (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
The sorites paradox is the name given to a class of paradoxical arguments, also known as little-by-little arguments, which arise as a result of the indeterminacy surrounding limits of application of the predicates involved. For example, the concept of a heap appears to lack sharp boundaries and, as a consequence of the subsequent indeterminacy surrounding the extension of the predicate ‘is a heap’, no one grain of wheat can be identified as making the difference between being a heap and not being a heap. Given then that one grain of wheat does not make a heap, it would seem to follow that two do not, thus three do not, and so on. In the end it would appear that no amount of wheat can make a heap. We are faced with paradox since from apparently true premises by seemingly uncontroversial reasoning we arrive at an apparently false conclusion.
philosophy  encyclopedia  paradox  sorites 
january 2009 by tsuomela
The Problem of Induction (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Until about the middle of the previous century induction was treated as a quite specific method of inference: inference of a universal affirmative proposition (All swans are white) from its instances (a is a white swan, b is a white swan, etc.) The method had also a probabilistic form, in which the conclusion stated a probabilistic connection between the properties in question. It is no longer possible to think of induction in such a restricted way
philosophy  logic  reasoning  encyclopedia  thinking 
january 2009 by tsuomela
Defeasible Reasoning (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Reasoning is defeasible when the corresponding argument is rationally compelling but not deductively valid. The truth of the premises of a good defeasible argument provide support for the conclusion, even though it is possible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false. In other words, the relationship of support between premises and conclusion is a tentative one, potentially defeated by additional information.
philosophy  logic  encyclopedia  reasoning  inference 
january 2009 by tsuomela
Aesthetic Judgment (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Beauty is an important part of our lives. Ugliness too. It is no surprise then that philosophers since antiquity have been interested in our experiences of and judgments about beauty and ugliness. They have tried to understand the nature of these experiences and judgments, and they have also wanted to know whether these experiences and judgments were legitimate.
philosophy  encyclopedia  reference  aesthetics  beauty  excellence 
december 2008 by tsuomela
Ancient Ethical Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Human excellence can be conceived in ways that do not include the moral virtues. For instance, someone thought of as excellent for benefiting friends and harming enemies can be cruel, arbitrary, rapacious, and ravenous of appetite. Most ancient philosophers, however, argue that human excellence must include the moral virtues and that the excellent human will be, above all, courageous, moderate, and just. This argument depends on making a link between the moral virtues and happiness.
philosophy  encyclopedia  reference  excellence  perfectionism  ancient  greek 
december 2008 by tsuomela
Perfectionism in Moral and Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Perfectionism has acquired a number of meanings in contemporary moral and political philosophy. The term is used to refer to an account of the good human life, an account of human well-being, a moral theory, and an approach to politics. Historically, perfectionism is associated with ethical theories that characterize the human good in terms of the development of human nature.
philosophy  encyclopedia  reference  perfectionism  excellence  elitism 
december 2008 by tsuomela
Symbols.com - Home
online encyclopedia of western designs and ideograms. Symbols.com contains more than 1,600 articles about 2,500 Western signs, arranged into 54 groups according to their graphic characteristics.
design  graphics  encyclopedia  directory  reference  language  visual  icons  symbols 
may 2008 by tsuomela

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