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tsuomela : experiments   67

TESS: Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences
"Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences (TESS) offers researchers the opportunity to capture the internal validity of experiments while also realizing the benefits of working with a large, diverse population of research participants. Investigators submit proposals for experiments, and TESS fields successful proposals for free on a representative sample of adults in the United States using NORC's AmeriSpeak® Panel, a probability-based and highly-respected representative survey platform."
social-science  experiments  population  samples  american  panel 
october 2018 by tsuomela
Replication studies: Bad copy : Nature News & Comment
"In the wake of high-profile controversies, psychologists are facing up to problems with replication."
psychology  science  replication  experiments  social-psychology  research 
july 2013 by tsuomela
Identifying Influential and Susceptible Members of Social Networks
"Identifying social influence in networks is critical to understanding how behaviors spread. We present a method for identifying influence and susceptibility in networks that avoids biases in traditional estimates of social contagion by leveraging in vivo randomized experimentation. Estimation in a representative sample of 1.3 million Facebook users showed that younger users are more susceptible than older users, men are more influential than women, women influence men more than they influence other women, and married individuals are the least susceptible to influence in the decision to adopt the product we studied. Analysis of influence and susceptibility together with network structure reveals that influential individuals are less susceptible to influence than non-influential individuals and that they cluster in the network, which suggests that influential people with influential friends help spread this product."
social-networks  experiments  influence  random  statistics  models  network-analysis 
june 2012 by tsuomela
Arguments For Things I Don’t Believe, 1: Research on String Theory is Largely a Waste of Time | Cosmic Variance | Discover Magazine
A gedankenexperiment on "So here we go: the best argument I can think of for why research on string theory is a waste of time."
physics  research  justification  theory  experiments  philosophy 
april 2012 by tsuomela
Sleep on it | The Scientist
To determine what effects sleep had on the flies, the team designed experiments to test two reigning theories: synaptic homeostasis, the idea that neuronal connections increase during wakefulness but are downscaled during sleep, pruning synapses created during the day so only the strongest connections remain intact
sleep  biology  science  experiments 
june 2011 by tsuomela
Seeing the Mind Behind the Art - People can distinguish abstract expressionist paintings from highly similar paintings by children, chimps, monkeys, and elephants
Museumgoers often scoff that costly abstract expressionist paintings could have been made by a child and have mistaken paintings by chimpanzees for professional art. To test whether people really conflate paintings by professionals with paintings by children and animals, we showed art and nonart students paired images, one by an abstract expressionist and one by a child or animal, and asked which they liked more and which they judged as better. The first set of pairs was presented without labels
psychology  experiments  art  modern-art  abstract-art  aesthetics  judgment  value  visual  perception 
june 2011 by tsuomela
by Roger Schank - "Every aspect of life is an experiment that can be better understood if it is perceived in that way. But because we don't recognize this we fail to understand that we need to reason logically from evidence we gather, and that we need to carefully consider the conditions under which our experiments have been conducted, and that we need to decide when and how we might run the experiment again with better results."
attitude  experiments  psychology 
april 2011 by tsuomela
why we could use more experiments «
"One thing that organizational and economic sociology could use more of is experimental methods. While sociologists are not completely averse to experiments (see its prominent use in exchange theory), the method seems to occupy a small niche."
sociology  history  accomplishments  theory  discussion  experiments 
march 2011 by tsuomela
Effects of Unresolved Factual Disputes in the News on Epistemic Political Efficacy - Pingree - 2011 - Journal of Communication - Wiley Online Library
"This experiment tests effects of passive, neutral reporting of contradictory factual claims on audiences. Exposure to such reporting is found to affect a new self-efficacy construct developed in this study called epistemic political efficacy (EPE), which taps confidence in one's own ability to determine truth in politics. Measurement of EPE is found to be reliable and valid, and effects of neutral reporting on it are found to be conditional on prior interest in the issues under dispute. Implications of this effect and of EPE are discussed. Self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1982) suggests these short-term effects may accumulate over time. EPE may affect outcomes related to political understanding, opinion formation, and information seeking."
communication  experiments  self-efficacy  political-science  power  perception  control  confidence 
february 2011 by tsuomela
The Disclosure–Intimacy Link in Computer-Mediated Communication: An Attributional Extension of the Hyperpersonal Model - Jiang - 2010 - Human Communication Research - Wiley Online Library
"The present research investigated whether the attribution process through which people explain self-disclosures differs in text-based computer-mediated interactions versus face to face, and whether differences in causal attributions account for the increased intimacy frequently observed in mediated communication. In the experiment participants were randomly assigned to a face-to-face or computer-mediated interaction with a confederate who made either high- or low-intimacy self-disclosures. Results indicated that computer-mediated interactions intensified the association between disclosure and intimacy relative to face-to-face interactions, and this intensification effect was fully mediated by increased interpersonal (relationship) attributions observed in the computer-mediated condition."
communication  online  twitter  social-media  attribution  intimacy  self-disclosure  sharing  behavior  experiments 
february 2011 by tsuomela
Sexual Cues Emanating From the Anchorette Chair: Implications for Perceived Professionalism, Fitness for Beat, and Memory for News — Communication Research
"The experimental study reported here employed one of the most compelling visual cues of female sexual attractiveness (low waist-to-hip ratio) to test the influence of news anchor sexualization on audience evaluations of her as a professional and their memory for the news that she presents. "
gender  media  journalism  research  experiments 
january 2011 by tsuomela
The uncomfortable truth about mind control: Is free will simply a myth? - Features, Health
Interview with participant in Milgram obedience experiment and commentary on history of experiment.
psychology  history  experiments  behavior  obedience  authority 
january 2011 by tsuomela
Law lab - The Boston Globe
"advocate the systematic introduction of randomized trials throughout government — in legislatures and administrative agencies, at the state and federal level. They suggest that trials be “self-executing,” in that policies would be automatically enacted based on their results (though lawmakers would be able to overrule this default)."
law  policy  testing  randomness  experimental  experiments 
december 2010 by tsuomela
New York Study on Who May End Up Homeless Called Cruel -
It has long been the standard practice in medical testing: Give drug treatment to one group while another, the control group, goes without.

Now, New York City is applying the same methodology to assess one of its programs to prevent homelessness.
economics  welfare  poverty  experiments  city(NewYork)  methodology  social-science 
december 2010 by tsuomela
Harvard Case Against Marc Hauser Is Hard to Define -
"Disagreements over the appropriate method are quite common in the animal cognition field, as is evident in the fact that some of the most spectacular experiments cannot be repeated. Disagreements over method also seem to have been involved in at least some of the five cases involving differences between Dr. Hauser and his students."
science  ethics  fraud  repetition  positivism  philosophy  methodology  experiments  expertise  animal-behavior  cognition  biology 
october 2010 by tsuomela
SSRN-Overconfidence is a Social Signaling Bias by Stephen Burks, Jeffrey Carpenter, Lorenz Goette, Aldo Rustichini
Evidence from psychology and economics indicates that many individuals overestimate their ability, both absolutely and relatively. We test three different theories about observed relative overconfidence.
paper  overconfidence  psychology  dunning-kruger-effect  probability  test  experiments 
september 2010 by tsuomela
How the Mind Counteracts Offensive Ideas — PsyBlog
What this research underlines is that we push back against threats to our world-views by reasserting structures of meaning with which we are comfortable.

The researchers measured cultural identities, ideas of justice and a generalized yearning for meaning, but they probably would have found the same results in many other areas, such as politics, religion or any other strongly held set of beliefs.

When there’s a challenge to our established world-view, whether from the absurd, the unexpected, the unpalatable, the confusing or the unknown, we experience a psychological force pushing back, trying to re-assert the things we feel are safe, comfortable and familiar. That’s a shame because stories like Kafka’s contain truths we’d do well to heed.
psychology  bias  experiments  worldview 
september 2010 by tsuomela
SpringerLink - Synthese, Volume 176, Number 1 - The medium or the message? Communication relevance and richness in trust games
Subjects communicated prior to playing trust games; the richness of the communication media and the topics of conversation were manipulated. Communication richness failed to produce significant differences in first-mover investments. However, the topics of conversation made a significant difference: the amounts sent were considerably higher in the unrestricted communication conditions than in the restricted communication and no-communication conditions. Most importantly, we find that first-movers’ expectations of second-movers’ reciprocation are influenced by communication and strongly predict their levels of investment.
communication  trust  experiments  social-norms  computer  philosophy  behavior  project(Papers) 
august 2010 by tsuomela
Ionian Enchantment: Are most experimental subjects in behavioral science WEIRD?
"The weirdest people in the world?" (pdf) - in the most recent edition of Behavioral & Brain Sciences. The authors of the paper, Canadian psychologists Joseph Henrich, Steven Heine and Ara Norenzayan, argue that most experimental subjects in the behavioral sciences are WEIRD - Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic - and thus weird - not representative of most human beings. And this, if true, is a very serious problem indeed.
cognitive-science  culture  bias  research  psychology  experiments  subjects  behavior 
july 2010 by tsuomela
Testing Positive Psychology | The Greater Good Blog
For the past decade, researchers in the positive psychology movement have tried to identify effective, everyday strategies for making people happier. Recently, researchers Nancy L. Sin and Sonja Lyubomirsky reviewed 51 positive psychology interventions, or PPIs, scrutinizing dozens of studies on exercises like writing letters of gratitude, forgiving others, and practicing positive thinking. Their object was to tease apart which, if any, of these and other PPIs actually work, determine what kind of PPIs are most effective, and discover who most benefits from them.
psychology  positive  experiments  review  results  optimism 
august 2009 by tsuomela » Sharing the Work, Spreading the Wealth
essay by Janet Hively
To create a commons-based society, people need more than exposure to new ideas. They need tangible ways of practicing and living out these bright possibilities. Old habits about how we organize and pay for work maintain the sharp divisions between rich and poor and tie us to the consumer values of the market-based society. At this time when unemployment due to layoffs is growing, we should try out some new ways to share the work and spread the wealth.
commons  work  labor  sharing  experiments  alternative  wealth  jobs  economics 
may 2009 by tsuomela
Widespread withholding of data by academic researchers undermines policymaking process
The press release sketches three cases that have a conservative political bias. I'm more anxious to support access than to worry overmuch about policy.
academic  open-data  sharing  data  experiments  methodology 
february 2009 by tsuomela
If It's Difficult to Pronounce, It Must Be Risky. [Psychol Sci. 2009] - PubMed Result
"Low processing fluency fosters the impression that a stimulus is unfamiliar, which in turn results in perceptions of higher risk, independent of whether the risk is desirable or undesirable. In Studies 1 and 2, ostensible food additives were rated as more harmful when their names were difficult to pronounce than when their names were easy to pronounce
rationality  risk  language  assessment  psychology  experiments  rational-markets 
february 2009 by tsuomela
Mind Hacks: Leadership can be based on quantity not quality
"They found that those who spoke more were rated as more competent and influential." This spells doom for me.
psychology  research  social-psychology  social  leadership  experiments 
february 2009 by tsuomela
Mind Hacks: Love and immortality
"One of the most reliable effects, is that being reminded of death makes us more socially minded - more likely to want to be physically close to others, more likely to want to have children, but also more likely to support the norms and stereotypes of your own social group."
psychology  death  memory  memento-mori  pro-social  behavior  experiments  existentialism 
february 2009 by tsuomela
PsycNET - Replicating Milgram: Would people still obey today?
The author conducted a partial replication of Stanley Milgram's (1963, 1965, 1974) obedience studies that allowed for useful comparisons with the original investigations while protecting the well-being of participants. (Abstract only for non-subscribers)
psychology  obedience  authority  culture  about(StanleyMilgram)  experiments 
february 2009 by tsuomela
Public Reason · The Fight for Science (and Justice)
So my central point so far is this- if philosophers really “love wisdom”, then we ought to recognize the unprecedented bounty of knowledge that science now provides us with. Rather than viewing moral and political philosophy as a dialogue that occurred among the greats of the past, we should strive to connect the new empirical insights to these debates. While we may not have intellectual giants like Aristotle, Mill or Marx living among us today, what we do have is a wealth of empirical knowledge that ought to be an integral part of moral and political philosophy.
science  philosophy  boundaries  academic  interdisciplinary  ethics  biology  experiments 
december 2008 by tsuomela
The Evolutionary Origin of Cooperators and Defectors -- Doebeli et al. 306 (5697): 859 -- Science
Coexistence of cooperators and defectors is common in nature, yet the evolutionary origin of such social diversification is unclear. Many models have been studied on the basis of the assumption that benefits of cooperative acts only accrue to others. Here, we analyze the continuous snowdrift game, in which cooperative investments are costly but yield benefits to others as well as to the cooperator. Adaptive dynamics of investment levels often result in evolutionary diversification from initially uniform populations to a stable state in which cooperators making large investments coexist with defectors who invest very little. Thus, when individuals benefit from their own actions, large asymmetries in cooperative investments can evolve.
evolution  cooperation  collaboration  competition  psychology  social  behavior  experiments 
july 2008 by tsuomela
OffTheBus.Net | Off the Bus
Come fall, campaign junkies will have yet another way to get their political news, one that will rely largely on ordinary citizens, not political reporters or media pundits.
politics  media  journalism  citizen-journalism  collaboration  collective  experiments 
june 2007 by tsuomela

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