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tsuomela : fraud   73

www.hup.harvard.edu
"From a journalist and former lab researcher, a penetrating investigation of the explosion in cases of scientific fraud and the factors behind it. In the 1970s, a scientific scandal about painted mice hit the headlines. A cancer researcher was found to have deliberately falsified his experiments by coloring transplanted mouse skin with ink. This widely publicized case of scientific misconduct marked the beginning of an epidemic of fraud that plagues the scientific community today. From manipulated results and made-up data to retouched illustrations and plagiarism, cases of scientific fraud have skyrocketed in the past two decades, especially in the biomedical sciences. Fraud in the Lab examines cases of scientific misconduct around the world and asks why this behavior is so pervasive. Nicolas Chevassus-au-Louis points to large-scale trends that have led to an environment of heightened competition, extreme self-interest, and emphasis on short-term payoffs. Because of the move toward highly specialized research, fewer experts are qualified to verify experimental findings. And the pace of journal publishing has exacerbated the scientific rewards system—publish or perish holds sway more than ever. Even when instances of misconduct are discovered, researchers often face few consequences, and falsified data may continue to circulate after an article has been retracted. Sharp and damning, this exposé details the circumstances that have allowed scientific standards to decline. Fraud in the Lab reveals the intense social pressures that lead to fraud, documents the lasting impact it has had on the scientific community, and highlights recent initiatives and proposals to reduce the extent of misconduct in the futu"
science  methodology  fraud  competition 
10 days ago by tsuomela
Daniele Fanelli's webpages
"I graduated in Natural Sciences, giving exams in all fundamental disciplines, then obtained a PhD studying the behaviour and genetics of social wasps, and subsequently worked for two years as a science writer. Now I study the nature of science itself, and the mis-behaviours of scientists. Professional highlights I am one of the first natural scientists who specialized 24/7 in the study of scientific misconduct, bias and related issues, and have produced some of the largest studies assessing the prevalence of bias across disciplines and countries. Some of these publications have become quite influential, and my 2009 meta-analysis on surveys about misconduct is one of the most popular papers published in the entire Public Library of Science, currently counting over 185,000 views."
people  science  sts  reproducible  fraud  research  ethics 
may 2017 by tsuomela
Leviathan And You: A Blog About Big Things: Kind of a Big Fake
"This is why I am not so sure about Brookman's assertion that "you let the data inform your views."  Professions of faith that the data tell their own story ignore the culturally specific choices that inform what counts as a datum in the first place.  Part of why LaCour was successful was because he was able to take advantage of uncritical beliefs that ignored how disciplinary knowledge is produced and authorized. But then again, I'm just making this up."
fraud  data  social-science  methods  bias 
may 2015 by tsuomela
PLOS ONE: Linguistic Traces of a Scientific Fraud: The Case of Diederik Stapel
"When scientists report false data, does their writing style reflect their deception? In this study, we investigated the linguistic patterns of fraudulent (N = 24; 170,008 words) and genuine publications (N = 25; 189,705 words) first-authored by social psychologist Diederik Stapel. The analysis revealed that Stapel's fraudulent papers contained linguistic changes in science-related discourse dimensions, including more terms pertaining to methods, investigation, and certainty than his genuine papers. His writing style also matched patterns in other deceptive language, including fewer adjectives in fraudulent publications relative to genuine publications. Using differences in language dimensions we were able to classify Stapel's publications with above chance accuracy. Beyond these discourse dimensions, Stapel included fewer co-authors when reporting fake data than genuine data, although other evidentiary claims (e.g., number of references and experiments) did not differ across the two article types. This research supports recent findings that language cues vary systematically with deception, and that deception can be revealed in fraudulent scientific discourse."
science  fraud  text-analysis  linguistics  language  detection 
november 2014 by tsuomela
The Spreading Scourge of Corporate Corruption - NYTimes.com
"Just consider the scale of recent wrongdoing. Libor is one of the most important rates in the economy. It determines the return on the savings of millions of people, as well as the rate they pay on their mortgage and car loans. It is the benchmark for hundreds of trillions of dollars worth of financial contracts.

Bigger markets allow bigger frauds. Bigger companies, with more complex balance sheets, have more places to hide them. And banks, when they get big enough that no government will let them fail, have the biggest incentive of all. A 20-year-old study by the economists Paul Romer and George Akerlof pointed out that the most lucrative strategy for executives at too-big-to-fail banks would be to loot them to pay themselves vast rewards — knowing full well that the government would save them from bankruptcy. "
business  wall-street  finance  fraud  banking  corporate 
july 2012 by tsuomela
slacktivist: Don't you know that you can count me out
"The tea party and the loudest, most strident voices of anti-abortion politics love to flirt with the idea of armed revolution. This is, for the most part, just adolescent foolishness -- a kind of fantasy play-acting that can be summed up in a single word:

Wolveriiiiiines!

By pretending to believe that America is on the verge of collapse into a totalitarian tyranny, they can pretend to themselves that they are the vanguard of a courageous resistance. The Red Dawn fantasy isn't all that different from any other childhood fantasy about what if there were dragons? And what if I was brave and good and strong? And what if I slew the dragon and everybody cheered for me because I was brave and good and strong and I slew the dragon? Wouldn't that be cool?"
tea-party  politics  revolution  violence  reform  fantasy  psychology  ideology  right-wing  conservatism  just-war  cognition  dissonance  loyalty  con  fraud  media 
january 2011 by tsuomela
Retracted autism study an 'elaborate fraud,' British journal finds - CNN.com
A now-retracted British study that linked autism to childhood vaccines was an "elaborate fraud" that has done long-lasting damage to public health, a leading medical publication reported Wednesday.
medicine  vaccine  health  autism  fraud  science 
january 2011 by tsuomela
Harvard Case Against Marc Hauser Is Hard to Define - NYTimes.com
"Disagreements over the appropriate method are quite common in the animal cognition field, as is evident in the fact that some of the most spectacular experiments cannot be repeated. Disagreements over method also seem to have been involved in at least some of the five cases involving differences between Dr. Hauser and his students."
science  ethics  fraud  repetition  positivism  philosophy  methodology  experiments  expertise  animal-behavior  cognition  biology 
october 2010 by tsuomela
The role of biostatistics in the prevention, detection and treatment of fraud in clinical trials - Buyse - 1999 - Statistics in Medicine - Wiley Online Library
...Such types of fraud are partially preventable through a simplification of the eligibility criteria and through a reduction in the amount of data requested. These two measures are feasible and desirable in a surprisingly large number of clinical trials, and neither of them in any way jeopardizes the validity of the trial results. With regards to detection of fraud, a brute force approach has traditionally been used, whereby the participating centres undergo extensive monitoring involving up to 100 per cent verification of their case records. The cost-effectiveness of this approach seems highly debatable, since one could implement quality control through random sampling schemes, as is done in fields other than clinical medicine. Moreover, there are statistical techniques available (but insufficiently used) to detect ‘strange’ patterns in the data
science  research  misconduct  fraud  plagiarism  statistics  ethics  behavior  medicine  health 
august 2010 by tsuomela
SpringerLink -
The case of Dr. Hwang Woo Suk, the South Korean stem-cell researcher, is arguably the highest profile case in the history of research misconduct. The discovery of Dr. Hwang’s fraud led to fierce criticism of the peer review process (at Science). To find answers to the question of why the journal peer review system did not detect scientific misconduct (falsification or fabrication of data) not only in the Hwang case but also in many other cases, an overview is needed of the criteria that editors and referees normally consider when reviewing a manuscript. Do they at all look for signs of scientific misconduct when reviewing a manuscript?
science  research  misconduct  fraud  plagiarism  ethics  behavior  communication  peer-review  detection 
august 2010 by tsuomela
PLoS ONE: How Many Scientists Fabricate and Falsify Research? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Survey Data
The frequency with which scientists fabricate and falsify data, or commit other forms of scientific misconduct is a matter of controversy. Many surveys have asked scientists directly whether they have committed or know of a colleague who committed research misconduct, but their results appeared difficult to compare and synthesize. This is the first meta-analysis of these surveys.
science  research  misconduct  fraud  plagiarism  meta-analysis  statistics  ethics  behavior 
august 2010 by tsuomela
Tremble, Banks, Tremble | The New Republic
James K. Galbraith reviews the economic crisis "The cause, at the deepest level, was a breakdown in the rule of law. And it follows that the first step toward prosperity is to restore the rule of law in the financial sector."
banking  economics  fraud  money  policy  regulation  reform  government  law  financial-services 
july 2010 by tsuomela
BBC News - MMR doctor struck from register
The doctor who first suggested a link between MMR vaccinations and autism is to be struck off the medical register.
medicine  science  vaccination  sts  ethics  autism  research  denial  fraud 
may 2010 by tsuomela
AIG: Before CDS, There Was Reinsurance | The Big Picture
Some inflammatory suggestions about fraudulent use of "side letters" in the re-insurance industry. Where there's a will to bend the rules there is a way to make money.
accounting  aig  bailout  cds  fraud  business  insurance  banking  financial-engineering  gloom-and-doom  wheels-within-wheels  rotten-to-the-core 
april 2009 by tsuomela
Making Light: The underlying forms of fraud
One of the odd things about confidence games is that, structurally speaking, there are so few of them—only about as many as there are simple machines. What looks like their near-infinite multiplicity is just a lot of variations on a small number of forms.
fraud  confidence  deceit  taxonomy 
march 2009 by tsuomela
Santelli's "Tea Party" Illustrates Press Failure : CJR
Particular emphasis on the failure of media to cover or explain the outright fraud by mortgage brokers that contributed to the sub-prime crisis.
economics  recession  crisis  bailout  mortgage  media  failure  fraud  law 
february 2009 by tsuomela
Ahi quanto a dir qual era è cosa dura / esta selva selvaggia e aspra e forte / che nel pensier rinova la paura! | Economics | The American Scene
Given my eye-of-the-storm view of the matter, I thought it would be of interest to relate two stories from my long career in structured finance, one that may help explain why, if you asked me in 2004 or 2005, I would have staunchly defended structured finance technology as having real social benefit and why, by a couple of years later, it was clear to anyone looking honestly at the business that something had gone very wrong.
financial-engineering  finance  crisis  2008  banking  fraud 
december 2008 by tsuomela
Op-Ed Columnist - The Madoff Economy - NYTimes.com
Think of the way almost everyone important missed the warning signs of an impending crisis. How was that possible? How, for example, could Alan Greenspan have declared, just a few years ago, that “the financial system as a whole has become more resilient” — thanks to derivatives, no less? The answer, I believe, is that there’s an innate tendency on the part of even the elite to idolize men who are making a lot of money, and assume that they know what they’re doing.
crisis  2008  economics  elites  mistakes  bias  capitalism  gloom-and-doom  fraud  financial-services 
december 2008 by tsuomela
naked capitalism: New York Times Pulls Punches On Wall Street Bubble Era Pay
Re-read the key phrase: "pay themselves more than their firms are worth and then default on their debt obligations." This has happened en masse in what formerly were investment banks who have now become wards of the state.
finance  crisis  2008  capitalism  fraud  money  ceo 
december 2008 by tsuomela
How to Run a Con | Psychology Today Blogs
The key to a con is not that you trust the conman, but that he shows he trusts you. Conmen ply their trade by appearing fragile or needing help, by seeming vulnerable. Because of THOMAS, the human brain makes us feel good when we help others--this is the basis for attachment to family and friends and cooperation with strangers. "I need your help" is a potent stimulus for action.
con  psychology  brain  social  neuroscience  fraud 
november 2008 by tsuomela
CJR: Boiler Room
It seems to me that well into Year II of the Panic, the business press is in the process of making the same mistake it made in the run-up to the debacle: focusing on esoteric Wall Street concerns and ignoring the simplest, most basic, but most important one—the breathtaking corruption that overran the U.S. lending industry, including and especially the brand names, and the extent to which Wall Street drove that corruption. Let’s just call it a case of over-sophistication. Its persistence, however, will only impede journalists’ ability to cover this thing going forward.
economics  capitalism  crisis  criticism  media  news  corruption  fraud  2008 
september 2008 by tsuomela

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