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tsuomela : groups   57

Group Works | A Pattern Language for Bringing Lifeto Meetings and Other Gatherings
"The Group Works deck of 100 full-colour cards (91 patterns + 9 category cards) names what skilled facilitators and other participants do to make things work. The content is more specific than values and less specific than tips and techniques, cutting across existing methodologies with a designer's eye to capture the patterns that repeat. The deck can be used to plan sesssions, reflect on and debrief them, provide guidance, and share responsibility for making the process go well. It has the potential to provide a common reference point for practitioners, and serve as a framework and learning tool for those studying the field. The cards were created by more than fifty volunteers (the Group Pattern Language Project) from diverse organizational backgrounds who collaborated over three years to express the core wisdom at the heart of successful group sessions. The cards are accompanied by a 5-panel explanatory legend card and a booklet describing the deck's purpose, story, and ideas for suggested activities."
groups  facilitation  leadership  discussion  dialog  tips 
march 2019 by tsuomela
Group discussion improves lie detection
"Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a “wisdom-of-crowds” effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the “truth bias”). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment."
groups  lying  psychology  philosophy  epistemology  knowledge  collective-intelligence 
september 2015 by tsuomela
Sociocracy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Sociocracy is a system of governance, using consent-based decision making among equivalent individuals and an organizational structure based on cybernetic principles.[1] The first modern implementation of sociocracy was developed by Gerard Endenburg as a new method of governing businesses,[2] but it has also been adopted in many different kinds of public, private, non-profit, and community organizations as well as in professional associations."
governance  democracy  decision-making  groups  consent 
january 2015 by tsuomela
Participation in Voluntary Organizations and Group Size
"Participation in collective action is hard to understand as rational behavior unless strong intrinsic benefits or selective social or economic incentives are assumed. This article describes the Status Competition Model for organizations in which members are motivated to participate for selective social rewards like the status attained from an annual “Medal of Honor.” Status is awarded on the basis of relative voluntary contributions. Using this model, the set of active members and its relation with the size of membership is studied. The number of volunteers is characterized in terms of the individual costs and benefits of participation. It is deduced that active members are necessarily very homogeneous with respect to a one-dimensional parameter of their costs and benefits. Hence the number of active members will be small if members differ nontrivially in their costs and benefits. Under some additional assumptions, it is argued that in similar kinds of organizations, the number of active members is proportional to the square root of the number of members."
volunteer  participation  data  groups  size  status  social-status  research 
february 2014 by tsuomela
Home - Climate CoLab
"The goal of the Climate CoLab is to harness the collective intelligence of thousands of people from all around the world to address global climate change. Inspired by systems like Wikipedia and Linux, the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence has developed this on-line forum where citizens create, analyze, and select detailed proposals for what to do about climate change."
climate  environment  climate-change  problem-solving  distributed  cognition  crowdsourcing  groups  competition 
may 2013 by tsuomela
PLOS ONE: You Can’t Put Old Wine in New Bottles: The Effect of Newcomers on Coordination in Groups
"A common finding in social sciences is that member change hinders group functioning and performance. However, questions remain as to why member change negatively affects group performance and what are some ways to alleviate the negative effects of member change on performance? To answer these questions we conduct an experiment in which we investigate the effect of newcomers on a group’s ability to coordinate efficiently. Participants play a coordination game in a four-person group for the first part of the experiment, and then two members of the group are replaced with new participants, and the newly formed group plays the game for the second part of the experiment. Our results show that the arrival of newcomers decreases trust among group members and this decrease in trust negatively affects group performance. Knowing the performance history of the arriving newcomers mitigates the negative effect of their arrival, but only when newcomers also know the oldtimers performance history. Surprisingly, in groups that performed poorly prior to the newcomers’ arrival, the distrust generated by newcomers is mainly between oldtimers about each other rather than about the newcomers."
groups  interaction  dynamics  communication  organizations  strangers  trust  coordination 
february 2013 by tsuomela
Locus Online Perspectives » David Brin: Our Favorite Cliché — A World Filled With Idiots…, or,Why Films and Novels Routinely Depict Society and its Citizens as Fools
"It can be hard to notice things you take for granted — assumptions that are never questioned, because everyone shares them. One of these nearly ubiquitous themes is a tendency for most authors and/or film-makers to disdain the intelligence and wisdom of society as a whole, portraying a majority of their fellow citizens as sheep or fools."
fiction  perception  groups  societies  authority  trust  literature  cliche  intelligence  groupthink  bureaucracy  infrastructure 
january 2013 by tsuomela
The Great American Novel and the search for group cohesion | Literally Psyched, Scientific American Blog Network
"Now, rewind to America’s post-Civil War landscape. Something was needed to bring the country back together—and that something had to be a something that was neutral enough to make for quick and fertile ground for in-group identification, a special nineteenth century Dot Estimation Task, if you will. And that minimal group paradigm of choice emerged soon enough, as none other than the idea of the Great American Novel, or the GAN. Is it a coincidence that the concept of the GAN was born in 1868, just a few years after the American Civil War—or is there something more to the timing?"
literature  history  american-studies  america  novel  groups  community 
september 2012 by tsuomela
The ‘Big Four’ markers of the evangelical tribe
"four tribal markers that characterize the boundaries of American evangelicalism: abortion, homosexuality, evolution and environmentalism. Opposition to all four of those constitutes evangelical tribal identity." Annotated link http://www.diigo.com/bookmark/http://www.patheos.com/blogs/slacktivist/2012/05/05/the-big-four-markers-of-the-evangelical-tribe
evangelical  religion  conservatism  politics  groups  signals 
may 2012 by tsuomela
Distrust for Atheists
"The take home point has to do with shifting social alliances. Now that most Americans have abandoned a strong dislike for members of other religions, it’s possible for The Religious to emerge as a socially-meaningful identity group. In other words, once members of different religions begin to see each other as the same instead of different, they can begin to align together. Suddenly atheists become an obvious foe. Instead of one of many types of people who had lost their way (along with people of different faiths), atheists could emerge as uniquely problematic. It is the building of cross-religious alliances, then, that undergirds the strong dislike for atheists specifically."
atheism  sociology  religion  belief  social-status  groups  prejudice  politics  history  american-studies 
march 2012 by tsuomela
When Do Groups Perform Better than Individuals? A Company Takeover Experiment by Marco Casari, Jingjing Zhang, Christine Jackson :: SSRN
"It is still an open question when groups will perform better than individuals in intellectual tasks. We report that in a company takeover experiment, groups placed better bids than individuals and substantially reduced the winner’s curse. This improvement was mostly due to peer pressure over the minority opinion and to group learning. Learning took place from interacting and negotiating consensus with others, not simply from observing their bids. When there was disagreement within a group, what prevailed was not the best proposal but the one of the majority. Groups underperformed with respect to a “truth wins” benchmark although they outperformed individuals deciding in isolation. "
groups  collective-intelligence  decision-making  performance  intelligence 
august 2011 by tsuomela
Harvard Holism - Brainstorm - The Chronicle of Higher Education
"The split between evolutionists who think that selection is for and only for the individual, and those who think that the group often comes first and foremost, goes back to the two men who discovered natural selection—Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. Darwin always thought in terms of individuals, even when it comes to humans (I have discovered a letter making this point very clear), and Wallace always thought that often selection favors the group."
history  evolution  kin-selection  objects  groups  species  holism  reductionism  school(Harvard)  intellectual 
april 2011 by tsuomela
Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research
Scholars who study groups and teams are scattered across many social scientific disciplines. INGRoup (a) promotes communication about group research across fields and nations, (b) advances understanding about group dynamics through research, (c) advances theory and methods for understanding groups, and (d) promotes interdisciplinary research.
professional-association  groups  organization  cognition  distributed  interdisciplinary 
november 2010 by tsuomela
Home - Pattern Language of Group Process
We hold a vision of bringing gatherings alive by sharing core wisdom of what makes deliberative group conversations more fulfilling and inspiring, more effective and more whole.
pattern-language  group  groups  collaboration  communication 
september 2010 by tsuomela
EconPapers: Teams Make You Smarter: Learning and Knowledge Transfer in Auctions and Markets by Teams and Individuals
Abstract: We study the impact of team decision making on market behavior and its consequences for subsequent individual performance in the Wason selection task, the single-most studied reasoning task. We reformulated the task in terms of “assets” in a market context. Teams of traders learn the task’s solution faster than individuals and achieve this with weaker, less specific, performance feedback. Some teams even perform better than the best individuals. The experience of team decision-making in the market also creates positive knowledge spillovers for post–market individual performance in solving new Wason tasks, implying that team experiences enhance individual problem-solving skills.
economics  teamwork  intelligence  groups  social-cognition  cognition 
august 2010 by tsuomela
The Rise of Crowd Science - Technology - The Chronicle of Higher Education
Alexander Szalay's career in astronomy took an unexpected turn when the Johns Hopkins U., where he is a professor, joined the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and he volunteered to help with data storage.
crowdsourcing  science  collaboration  data  astronomy  e-science  digital  discovery  global  groups  sts  history 
june 2010 by tsuomela
Minnesota Environmental Partnership: Home
The Minnesota Environmental Partnership is a coalition of more than 80 Minnesota environmental and conservation organizations working together to protect and preserve Minnesota's precious natural environment. Together, the Partnership's member organizations are supported by more than 450,000 Minnesotans. The Partnership provides a way for environmental organizations to collaborate in their efforts to make sure that Minnesota's natural resources are well cared for.
minnesota  environment  groups  organizations  conservation  networking 
march 2010 by tsuomela
Minnesota Rovers — Home
Minnesota Rovers Outdoors Club is a diverse group of people drawn together by a common appreciation for the outdoors. We enjoy hiking, biking, canoeing, climbing, skiing, snowshoeing, camping, sight-seeing, and we take an active role in the preservation of the wilderness with which Minnesota is so well endowed.
hiking  outdoors  camping  club  minnesota  groups 
march 2010 by tsuomela
Technology Review: Blogs: arXiv blog: How to Stage a Revolution
Social scientists have studied the nature of effective leadership for centuries with limited success. Physicists, on the other hand, are new to the party, which gives them a chance to nab some low-hanging fruit. Today, Hai-Tao Zhang at the University of Cambridge, in the U.K., and a few buddies say that they have grabbed a particularly juicy piece by revealing a key strategy of effective leadership.
econophysics  sociology  leadership  power  groups 
july 2009 by tsuomela
group threat bleg « orgtheory.net
Question for you soc psych folks: What are the modern articles addressing threat and group identity?
social-psychology  groups  identity  list  reference  recommendations  bibliography 
july 2009 by tsuomela
Creativity, Innovation, Collaboration - Group Genius by Keith Sawyer
In this authoritative and fascinating book, Keith Sawyer, a psychologist at Washington University, tears down some of the most popular myths about creativity and erects new principles in their place. The empowering message is that all of us have the potential to be more creative
book  creativity  groups  genius  innovation  collaboration 
july 2009 by tsuomela
PhilSci Archive - The importance of pairwork in educational and interdisciplinary initiatives
An early and prominent employee of Google, Georges Harik, recently made the assertion that pairs working together in startups are 20 times more productive than individuals working alone. The author has also personally experienced the boost of what is here termed pairwork in a university setting during the startup phase of several educational and interdisciplinary initiatives. The paper briefly explores pairwork in the history of technology and constructs both qualitative and little quantitative models of pairwork. The quantitative model under reasonable assumptions easily recovers Harik’s 20x boost. The paper also briefly examines the author’s recent experiences with pairwork in four interdisciplinary and educational initiatives.
groups  work  labor  productivity  startup  psychology  organization  efficiency  collaboration 
may 2009 by tsuomela
BPS RESEARCH DIGEST: How to improve group decision making
A new meta-analysis of 72 studies, involving 4,795 groups and over 17,000 individuals has shown that groups tend to spend most of their time discussing the information shared by members, which is therefore redundant, rather than discussing information known only to one or a minority of members. This is important because those groups that do share unique information tend to make better decisions.
groups  group  behavior  groupthink  decision-making  information  crowdsourcing  bias 
april 2009 by tsuomela
Cultural Theory of risk - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Cultural Theory of risk, often referred to simply as Cultural Theory, consists of a conceptual framework and an associated body of empirical studies that seek to explain societal conflict over risk. Whereas other theories of risk perception stress economic and cognitive influences, Cultural Theory asserts that structures of social organization endow individuals with perceptions that reinforce those structures in competition against alternative ones. Originating in the work of anthropologist Mary Douglas and political scientist Aaron Wildavsky,
cultural-theory  risk  perception  psychology  organization  groups  wikipedia 
february 2009 by tsuomela
Unboxed - For Innovators, There Is Brainpower in Numbers - NYTimes.com
DESPITE the enduring myth of the lone genius, innovation does not take place in isolation. Truly productive invention requires the meeting of minds from myriad perspectives, even if the innovators themselves don’t always realize it.
innovation  creativity  groups  collaboration  business  art  psychology 
december 2008 by tsuomela
Triple Nine Society
Society for high-iq 99.9 percent.
iq  intelligence  societies  groups 
june 2005 by tsuomela

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